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THE 

COLLECTED WORKS OF WILLIAM HAZLITT 

IN TWELVE VOLUMES 



VOLUME NINE 



All ritti, rvtrTTd 



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•*m^. 



* 9 37 69 



■" fc'JIibtti ; T. aad A. Coaarauji. PriaMnla Hb MajetT 



CONTENTS 



THE PRINCIPAL PICTDRE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 

NOTES OF A JOORNEV THRODGH FRANCE AND 
ITALY 

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

NOTES 

APPENDIX 



PACK 
I 

419 

4S9 



n. 



SKETCHES OF THE PRINCIPAL 
PICTURE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 

WITH A 
CRITiaSM ON * MARRIAGE A-LA-MODE* 



rou IX. : A 



ADVERTISEMENT 



It ii the object of the fbUowiog tittle work to gire ao account of 
the pTtiici|)al Pictare-Galleriea id this coimtry, aod to detcribe the 
feetiDgi which they namrally excite in the mind of a Iotct of art. 
Almost all thove of any importance have been regularly gone through. 
One or two, that itill remain nanoticed, may be added to oni cat^ogat 
riatomtee at a fnturc opporttmity. It may not be improper to mention 
here that Mr. Angenteto's [nctnrea have been lately purchaeed for the 
commencemeDt of a National Gallery, but are still to be teen in their 
old placet oo the walls of his boose. 



CONTENTS 



f»m 
Mr. AngenteiD't Colltction ..... 7 

Duhricb GdkiT ....... 17 

The Muquii of StaiFord'i Galleiy .... 17 

Pictum at Windaor Cutk ..... 36 

Picturet at Hampton Court ..... 4s 

Lord GRNvenor'i Collectioii . . .49 

Pictum at Wilton and Stourfaead ■■■-.$$ 
Pictum at Burleigh Houte .6a 

PicturCB at Oxford and Btenheiin . .... 6$ 

Appendix 
Critidsin oa Marriage a-la-Mode . . -75 



PICTURE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 



MR. ANGERSTEIN'S COLLECTION 

Oh ! An, loTcty Art .' ' Bjlm of hurt minds, chief nourishrt in lifr"* 
feait, great Natuic'fi trcoDil courK 1 ' Tinir'a trcaiurer, the ua«ullted 
mirror of the niiod of man I Thee we iavolce, and not in rain, for 
we find thee here retired in thy jilentiiiuie and ihy power ! The 
wall* arc <Urk with beauty ; they fiown tevercii grace. The eye 
ia not caught by glitter and vamiih i we tec the picture* by their own 
internat light. Thii in not » bazaar, a raree-thow of art, a Nooh'a 
ark of all the Schools, marching out in <ndle«s proccision ; but a 
aanctuary, a holy of holiei, coliccled by taste, lacted to famei 
enriched by the rarest products of geaiu*. For the number of 
pictures, Mr. AngernieiD's ii the linest ^^allery, perhaps, tn the world. 
We feel no »en«e of littlcncm : the attention i» never distracted for 
a moment, but concentrated on 4 few pictures of firit-ratc excellence. 
Many of these chrf-d'amirtt might occupy the spectator for a whole 
morning \ yet they do not interfere with the pleasure derived from e-ich 
other — so much consistency of style it there in the midst of variety 1 

We koow of DO greater treat than to be admitted freely to a 
Collection of this sort, where the mind reposes with full contidence 
i(t its feelings of admiration, and findi thxt idea ind love of conccir- 
aUe beauty, which it has cherished perhaps for a whole life, reflected 
from every object around it. It i> a cure (for the time at least) for 
low-thoughted eirc« and uneasy pasnions. We arc abstracted to 
another sphere: we breatbe empyrean air ; we enter into the minds 
of Raphael, of Titian, of Poussin, of the Caracci, and look at nature 
with their eye« ; we Utc in lime past, and wem identilied with the 
permaoenc forms of things. The twiiness of the world at large, and 
even its pleasures, appear like a vanity and an impertineDCc. What 
signify the hubbub, the shifting Bcenery, the fantoccini figures, the 
folly, the idle fashions without, when compared with the solitude, 
tbe silence, the speaking looks, the unfadin;; forms wiihinf — Here s) 
the miad't true home. The contemplation of truth and beaoty is the 

7 



PICTURE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 

proper object for which we were aeatod, which calU forth the moit 
iotcnac dctirci of the loul, aod of which it never lire*. A capital 
print-thop (Molteno't or Coloaghi't) i* a point to aim at m a 
Biorniog's walk — a relief and laiiifaction in the motley confi»ion, 
the littlcnesi, the Tulgnril; of common life: but a print-shop ha« 
but a mean, coldt mcagrci petty apprsraace after comiof; out of a 
fine Collection of Pictures. We want tlie size of life, the mafble 
flcth, the rich looen of nature, ibe divber cxpandeU exprenion. 
Good priou arc nt> doubc^ better than bad pcturet ; vr print*, 
generally tpraking, .ire better than picture* ; for wc hate more 
prints of good pictures than ol bad one* : yel Ulcy arc for the niott 
purl but hints, loose memoraodums, outlines in litllc of what the 
painter baa done. How often, in turning OTer a number o( chmce 
CDgraTingi, do wc iiiutaiisc ourselves by thinking * what a head liat 
rnnst be,' — in wondering what colour a piece of drapery is of, great 
or black,— in wishing, in tain, to know tlie exact tone of the sky 
in a particular corner of the picture ! Throw open the folding- 
doors of a line Collection, and you sec all you have dcsirtd realised 
at ■ blow — the bright ori^oaU starting up in thdr own proper shape, 
clad with flesh and blood, sod teeming with ihc first conceptions of 
the painter's mind ! The diiadvantagc of pictures ia, that (hey cannot 
be multiplied to any extent, like books or prints : but ibis, in aoothei 
point of view, operates probably as an udvantage, by nuking the sight 
of a fine original picture an event so much the more merooiable, and 
the impreision so much the deeper. A vint to a genube CoUcctioQ 
is like going » pilgrimage — ii 1» an act of devotion performed at ihe 
•hrinc of Art ! It is as if there were but one copy of a book b the 
world, lucked up in some curious casket, which, by special favour, 
we had bten permitted to open, and peruse (as wc must) with 
un.iccustomed relith. The words would in iliac cane leave stings 
b the mind of the reader, and every letter appear of gold. The 
sncieoti, before the invention of printing, were nearly in the same 
niuaiion with respect to books, that wc arc with regard to picluics ; 
and at the revival of letlets, wc find the same unmingled sousfaction, or 
fervid ODthusiasm, nianife«ied in the pursuit or the discovery of 3D old 
manuscript, that connoisseuts stiJI feci b the purchase and possciuon 
of jut antique cameo, or a fine specimen of the Italian school of paint- 
ing. Literature was nut then cheap and vulgar, nor was there what is 
culed a rradiag fuhSr ; and the pride of intellect, like the pride of ait, 
or the pride of birth, was confined to the privileged few 1 

Wc sometimes, in viewing a celcbrnicd Collection, meet with an 
old faTOurilc, a ^ii lovr in ^ucii matiem, that wc have oot seen for 
many yean, whkh ^catly eohanccs tlie delight. We have, perhaps, 

8 



MR. ANGERSTEIN'S COLLECTION 



pampered our imagiixdon* with it all that time; hi charnM bsTC 
wall deep into our mind* ; wc with to >cc it once mon, that we 
nuy conlinn oar judgmrnt, »nd tenew our tows. The Sutaiiaai and 
ibt Eidtrt XI Ml. An^,crsieio'« waa one of those that camic opoo ni 
tindet these circumatanecii. Wt bad icen il formerly, mong other 
vitiont of our youth, b the OrliMn* Collecttun, — where we twcd to 
go axii look at it by the hour together, till our hearts thrilled with 
its beauty, at)d our eye* were tilled with trari. How oftco had we 
thought of it since, how often spoken of it ! — There it wa« siill, the 
same lovely phantom ns eitt — not as when Kous»rau met Madame 
dc Warefls, after a taptc of twenty years, who was grown old aod 
wriokled^but as if the young Jewish Beauty h^ been just surpriied 
in thai unguarded spot — crouching down in one corner of the picture, 
the face turned back with a mingled cxprctsion of terror, shame, and 
unconquerable swcelncst, and the whole ligurc (with the arms crosaed) 
shrinking into itself with bewitching gmcc and modcsiy ! It is by 
Ludovico Caracci, and is worthy of his name, from its truth and 
purity of deftign, its expression and its mellow depth of tone. Of 
tjie Eliirri, one is rc|)re)cnied in tlie attitude of advancing towards 
her, while the other beckons hei to rise. We know of no painter 
who could ha»e improved upon the Susannah, except Corrcggio, who, 
with ^11 hit capricious bland inhmcnti, and wreathed angelic smiles, 
would hardly have given the same natural unaffected grace, the same 
perfect womanhood. 

1*here is but one other piciutc in the Collection, that strikes uSi M 
a matter of taste or fancy, like this i and tliat is the Silinuj leaclmg a 
Toimg Apolh la flay on tht pipe — a small oblong picture, executed in 
distemper, hy Annibal Caracd. The old preceptor is very fine, with 
a jolly, leering, pampered look of approbation, half inclining lo the 
brute, half-conicious nf the God ; but it Ik the Apollo thai constitute* 
the charm of the picture, aad is indeed divine. The whole figure is 
iy) of simple careless grace, laughing in youth and beauty ; he holds 
the PanVpipC Ul both hands, looking up with linijd wonder ; and 
the exptewioo of delight and surprise at the sounds he pcoducci is 
not to be surpassed. The only image we would venture to compare 
with ti for innocent artiest roluptuoumeu, is that of the ihenhcid-boy 
in Sir Philip Sidney's Aicadia, ' piping as though he shnuld never be 
old ! ' A comparison of this sort, wc believe, may be made, in spite 
of the proverb^ without injustice to the painter or the poet. liiith 
' gain by it. The idea conveyed by die one, pefhaps, receives an 
additional grace and lustre, while a more beautiful moral sentiment 
fauTen round die other, from thinking of them in this casual connec- 
tion- If again it be asked, Whith u the nieti aJmiraUt ? — wc should 

9 



PICTURE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 

The ruddyt ironzci/ colouring of Raphael aencmlly ukn off" from 
anf appearance of nocnirmi walching and Unguid hectic patcion ! 
The poiuait of Julius ii. i» tiniRhed to a great nicety. Thp hairs 
of the beard, the fringe on the cap, arc done by minute and careful 
touchct of the pencil. In seeing the labour, ihc coDscientious and 
modest paioB, which this ^jrcai paiatcr bcstow«i upon hia imallevt 
works, we cannot help bring struck with the number and magnitude 
of thote he l«lt behind him. When wc have a tingle portrait t>taced 
before an, that raighl scrm to have taken half a year to complete it, 
wc wonder bow the »amc painter coulil find tjmc to execute hi« 
Caiiooos, the compartments of the Vatican, and a thousand other 
matchlesa woika. The same account terves for both. The more 
wc do, the miwe we can do. Our leisure (thuugh ii may seem 
a paradox) it in proportion to our industry. The same habit of 
intcnae application, which led our arti«t to be«Iow aa much pain* 
and attention on the study of a tingle head, as if hit whole rcpsUtion 
had depended on it, enabled him to set about the grcatci^t works 
with alacrity, and to finish them with case. If be had done any 
tiling he undertook to do, in a slovenly disreputable manner, tie 
would (upon the same principle) hate lain idle half his time. Zeal 
and diligence, in thin view, make life, abort aa it is, long. — Neither 
did Raphael, it ahould teem, ibund hi* hittortca) pretcniions on bit 
mcapacity to paint a good portrait. On the contrary, the latter here 
looks very much like the comet^tooc of the hifioticfll odifice. Nature 
did notour hm oui. He was not too great a genius to copy what he 
saw. rie probably ilioughi that a deference to nature is the 
beginning of art, and that the highest eminence it acaled by single 
ttept! 

On the tame stand at the portrait of Julius n. is the much rannied 
Correggio — the Ciriil in lit Garden. Wc would not gire a farthing 
for it. The drapery of the Christ is highly finished in a silver and 
azure tone — but high finishing is not all wc ask from Corregf^io. 
It it more worthy of Carlo l>olcc. — Lest we should forget it, we 
may mention here, that die admired portrait of GoTartiui was gone 
to be copied at Somertct-houte. The Academy have then, at lengih, 
fallen into the method pursued at the British Gallery, of rccammend- 
ing the sttidcnu to copy from the Old Masters. Well — ieiur lait 
/Aon Httttr ! Thit tame portrait it not, we think, the truest spccimrn 
of Vandyke. It liat not his mild, penfave, aomcwhat effeminate caat 
of colour and expression. Hit best nortiaiia have an :ur of faded 
gentility about tliem. The Goiarcitit nat too many streaks of blood- 
colour, too many marks of the pencil, to convey an exact idea of 
Vandyke's characteristic cxcelleixe ; though it is a line imitation of 

l» 



MR. ANGERSTEIN'S COLLECTION 

Rnbf^i;'* florid manner. Vandyke'! mott linking pormit* nrr ihoM 
which look just like a gendenun or bdy cren in .1 lookiog-gUsa, and 
neither more nor less. 

Of the Claudes, we prefer the St. llmula — the Embarims of tbt 
Five ihouiaaJ firgiiu—^O the others. The water i* exiguiiite | and 
the tniU of the vetaels glhwriog in the morainj{ tun, :ind the blue 
lUg* pUccd against the tiecc, which seem like an upeninK into the 
sky behind — so sfarkling it the effect of this ambiguity in colouring 
— arc m Claude's most perfect manner. The Alticri Claude is one 
of his noblest and most elauicAl compositions, with towers, and itces, 
and streams, and flocks, and herds, and distant sunny vales, 

' Whrrr iinivtnal Pan, 

Knit irllh the Gracci anil the Hours in dance, 
Leadi on the eternal spring : — ' 

fall the elfeci of the execution has been deadened And rendered flat 
'&V linie or ill-usa^e. There in a dull, formal appcaraoce, a> if the 
diflerent itiaawcs of sky, of water, &c., were laid on with platen of tin 
or lead. Thin in not a }>,encral defect in Claude : his landscapei have 
the gieatcsi quantity of intlection, the most delicate brilliancy, of nil 
others. A lady h.id been making a good copy of the Seaport, which 
is a companion to the one wc haic dcsctilicd. Wc do nor ibink 
these Claudes, lamous as they arc, equal to Lord Kgrcmont'n Ja{0& 
nnJ LaUtit; to the EnchanM Cailk \ to a green vernal Landscape, 
which was in Walth Poncr's CoUeciion, and which was the very 
lioeH we ever saw ; nor to sonic others that haire appeared from time 
to time in the British Institution. We arc sorry to make this, which 
may be tliought an ill-naiuTed, remark : bui, though we have a great 
respect for Mr. Angetitein's taste, we have a greater for Claode 
Lorrune's reputation. Let any persons admire (bese spccimeos of 
his an as much as they will (and the more they admire them, the 
more wc shall be gratified), and then wc will tell them, he could do 
far finer things than these I 

There is one Rembruodt, and one N. Poussio. The Rembrandt 
(the IVaman lalm in /fJullery) is prodigious in colouring, in light and 
•hade, in pencilling, in sulcnm eCect ; but that is nearly all — 

* Of outward show 
Elaborate, of inwartl less enact. ' 

Nevertlieless, it is worth any money. The Christ has considerable 
scriouioeiis and dignity of aspect. The marble pavement, of which 
the light is even daubng; the figures of the two Rabbis to the right, 
radiant with crimson, green, and azure ; the back-ground, which teeni* 

'3 




PICTURE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 



like lomc rich ail-colour (iimr«d nivr i j^'ound of gM, and where 
ihr rye auggcti on from ntic nbyu of nbECurity to another, — {ilacc 
(his picture in the tir«t nnk of Rembraniit'ii wonderfut perfoiniancea. 
If tliis extraordin&ry gcQiuR was the moti Mtcr.vl and vulgar of 
dtiiuKhtinien, he wait the most iJnt/ of colouritii. When Annbil 
Caracci rowed to God, that TitiaD and CvrreKfiiu were the oolf 
true jiainteni, be had not leen Rembrandt ; — if he had, he wonld 
have added him to ibc Imi. The Pouann i* a Dance e/" Batebanati : 
ihciTR are not * jriou* orgies.* li i», however, one of ihii maatcr's 
linctt jiicture*, both io tbe spirit of the execution, and the ingenuity 
and equi'voqwe of tbe tnvcniion. If the purity of the drawing will 
inakc ameiiidi for tlie impurity of the design, it may {his» : astmredly 
the >amc robjcci, badlf executed, wouM not bt endured; boi the 
lilc of mind, the dexterity of combinutiun diiplayed io it, supply 
the want of decorum. The uld adage, thit ' Vice, by lo«tng all )U 
grownesi, Iokts half ii« eril,' lecnu chiefly applicaUc to picturci. 
Thui * naked figure, that ba« nothing but it« nakedncM to recommend 
it, it not lit to be hung up in decent apartments. If it ii a Nymph 
by Titian, Correggio's lit, we no longer think of ita being naked ; 
but merely of its iweetneM, 'm beauty, ita naturalneis. So far an, 
ai it it intellectual, hai a rctinenient and extreme unction of itt own. 
Indifferent pictures, like dull people, m«*t absolutely be moral ! We 
(uggcft thi* an a him to tbo»e pcrtoni of more gallani/y than dbcretion, 
who think that lo have an inuecent daub hanging up in one comer of 
the room, i« proof of a liberality of fftna, and a considerable progreM 
in w(». Tout aa ttmlrairt. 

Wc hare a clear, brown, woody Landit^ by Caspar Pouasio, ia 
his fine determined tiyle of pencilling, which giyes to earth it« 
solidity, and to the air its proper attributes. There are perfiapi, 
DO landoca])ct that excel his b this fresh, healthy look of lutuie. 
One might say, that wherever his pencil lorct to haunt, 'the air 
i* delicslc.' We tbrgot to notice a Si. John in the Wiidtfuii, by 
A. Ctracd, which has much of the autumnal tone, the ' scar and 
yeUow leaf,' of Titian's landscape-compositions. A Rape ef tht 
SaKtui, 10 the inner room, by Rubens, is, wc think, the most 
tasteleii picture in the Collection ; to see plump, ilorid riragot 
struggling with bearded ruffians, and tricked out in the flounces, 
furbelows, and finery of the court of Louis iiv. is preposterous. 
But there it another Rubens in the outer room, which, though 
rutatticil and quaint, has qualities to redeem all faults. It is an 
tUegory of himtelf and his three wires, as a St. George and Holy 
Family, with his children as Christ and St. John, playing with a 
lamb ; in which he hat contrived to bring together all that is rich 

»4 



MR. ANGERSTEIN'S COLLECTION 

in antique dresHs, (black » jet, and HhiDlng like diamonds,) iraot- 
pafeni io Stak-colouTi agreeable in Uitd»cii[>c, unfettered in conipoti- 
tion. The ii^bl stream* from rosy clouds ; the btccze curis tlie 
branches of the tree* in the back-;*rouad, and plays on the clear 
complexions of the various scattered f>it>up. It is one of this puDtet's 
most Hplendid, ind, at the nmc time, most lolid and sJiarply finished 
ptoducttoQS. 

Mr- Wilkie's ^Irbouii Door it here, nd deserve* to be liete. 
Still it is not his best ; though there src some very pleasing rnsdc 
Bgurea, and some touching passages in it. As in his Bimd- Mim^ i^^, 
the groups are too sLraj^gliuc,, and spread over too large a surface ^ 
bare foreground, wliith Mr. Wjlkii- does not paint well. It looks 
more like putty than earth or clay. The artist haa n better eye 
Tor the individual details, than for the general tone of objects. 
Mr. Ltston's face in this 'Hock of drunkards' i* a smiting failure. 

A poruait of Hogarth, by him«!f, and Sir Joshua's half-length of 
Lord Heathficid, hang in the same room. The last of these is 
certainly a fine picture, well composed, richly coloured, with 
considerable characteTt and a look of nature. Nevertheless, our 
artist's pictures, seen among standard works, liave (to speak it 
plainly) something otd-womanish about them. By their ob»olete 
and stfectcd air, they remind one of antiquated ladies of quality, and 
are a kind of Duchc«s-I>o wagers io the art— somewhere bietwcen the 
living and the dead. 

Hogarth's series E>f the Marriagt <hia-MaJe^ {the most delicately 
piioted of all hit pictures, and admirably they certainly are painted) 
CODclwles the Catat^ae Raitonnrt of this Collcctioa.— A study of 
Heads, bv Correggio, and some of Mr. Fuaeli's stupendous figure* 
horn hi* Miltoo Gallery, are on the staiicaac. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE 
[PICTURES IN THE ANGERSTEIN GALLERY 



1. The Marriage a la Mode, No. i. 

a. The Marriage a la Mode, No. t. 

J. The Marriage a la Mode, No. J. 

4. The Marriage a la Mode, No. 4. 

5. The Marriage a la Mode, No. 5. 

6. The Marmge a U Mode, No. 6. 



Ncgarlb. 

Ditto. 
Ditto. 
IXtto. 

Ditto. 



> The Kfta, a k 



msy lata 10 m Issij os iks aabjiel in lbs 

•5 



PICTURE-GALLERIES IN ENGLAND 



7. Ponrai or Lord Hcathlwld, the Defender of Gibraltar. 

Sir Jiuhua {irjmldt. 

8. Hit owQ Portmit, with h>a Dog> Jf^arii. 

9. The Vaiajc F«i»(d. mjtii. 
la The Portrait of Ruben*. (Porrncrly in the Collection of 

Sir Jothua Rrpoktt.) Vaitfyei. 

11. The Wooun taken in Attnltcfy. Painted for the Burgo- 
inaaef Six. RnairanJi. 

I a. A Landicape; Evening i with Hone*, Cattle, and Figuin. 
(rrom the CoOecikxi of Sir Laaraxx Dnndai.) C'fP- 

13. Chriit imying in the Ganlea. Ctrrrggto. 

1 4. The A4oratiaQ of the SbephenU Rrmtrandt. 
I J. A Land Starm. (From the Laatdowo Colkcttoo.) 

Gatpar Pomian. 

16. Pannit of Pope Julint the Second. (From the Laocilloctt 
Pabcc.) R^fhad. 

17. The Entperor Theododiu refuted admittance into the Cfanrch 
by St. Arabrow. Famdftk. 

18. A Laodicipe, with Fif.uret; tepre«entin« Abnbam ixeparing 
to cacrifice hi* m» Inac. (From the Colonna Palace.) 

Ga^ar Peatiia, 

19. Portrait of Gorartiu*. Vattdjth. 

20. Pan leaching Apotio the ate of the Pipe. Aimiiiai Cataici. 
SI. A Sea-Fort at Suntct, to wliich 'a tcptcKntcd the Legend 

of the Embarkatim of St. Uttula. (Formerly in the Barhertni 
Palace.) Cla^t. 

12. Erminia diacovcriog the Sbcpherdt : Prom Taato'a ' Jerntalem 
Delivered.* i>MBMio(«Mu 

15. Philip the Ponnh and his Qoeen. Fda^fm, 

34. Vcnoa and Adonii. (Prom the Coloaoa Palace.) '/Mm. 

35. Sl John in the Wildcnxw. (From the Orleans Collection.^ 

^Biiital Caratei' 

16. A Landacape, with Figom. Clmit, 
27. ChriK raiaing Lazarus. (Prom the Orleans Collection.) 

SAuAaidd PumU. 

38. A Concert. Titim. 

39. An Italian Sca-Pon at Sunset, with Figure*. Chadt. 
50. The Rape of Ganymede. (FtonitheColonnaPabcc.) Tumt. 
3 1. A Sea-Port, b which is repruented the EinbarkatioB of the 

Qneeo of Shcha 00 her visit to Sotomon. (Prom the G^lectkm of 
the Duke dr Bouillon.) Clamd*. 

33. A Stody of Head*. (From the Orleans Collection.) 

16 



THE DULWICH GALLERY 

33. A Study of H«adf. (From the timr CoUcciiod.) Cem^gio. 

34. The Rape oFthe Sabine Women. Ruhtm, 

35. The Holy PanDily, with St. George, a Fenule S»tm, and 
^ Angel*. RuUtn. 

36. A Landscspe, with Figureai representiQ;^ the Marriaee of 
Rebecca. (From the CdIIfcuoh of the Duke de Bouillon.) Claude. 

37. SuMDoa and ihe EMerii. (Fram the OilcatM Collection.) 

Lttdov. Caratti. 

36. A Bacchanalian Scene. tliei, Paiuik, 



THE DULWICH GALLERY 

It wa« on the 5th of November that we went to Bee thii Gitlery. 
The morning wai mild, calm, pteiUBt : it was a day to ruminate on 
the object we had in view. It was the time of year 

' Whtn yellow Iwvei, or few or none, do hang 
Upon the bianthtsj" 

their acattcred gold wu ttroegly cootraned with the dark green 
niral (hoots of the cedar tree* that tktn the road i the tun ihone 
faint and watery, at if irailing hU bti ; Winter gently let go the 
hand of Summer, and the green {ields, wet with the min, aniiciiNiicd 
(he return of Spring. At the end of a beautiful little village, Uulwich 
College appeared in view, with modeit (tjite, yet mindhil of the olden 
lime 1 and the name of Allen and hie compeers luahcd full upon the 
memory I How many races of «hoo|.boyf ha»e played within ita 
wails, or itammeted out a Ickod, or saumered away their tacant 
hours in ita thade: yet, not one Shak»peare la there to be found 
among them all ! The boy ti clothed and kA and gel* through 
hi* accidence : but no uacc of his youthful teaming, any more than 
of hia aaffron livery, is to be met with in the man. Gcniu* is not to 
be 'conslraioed by mattery.' — Nothiog come* of iheae cndowmeDta 
and foundation* for learning, — you might a« well make dirt-pies, or 
build houses with cards. Yet something ttaei come of tliem too — a 
retreat for age, a dream in youth — a feeling in the air around them, 
the memory of the past, the hope of what will nerer be. Sweet are 
the studies of the school-boy, delicious his idle hour* ! Fresh and 
gladsome is hii waking, balmy arc his siumbcra, book-pillowed I He 
wear) ■ green and yellow liTery perhaps 1 but 'green and yellow 
melancholy ' comes not near him, or if it does, is tempered with 
youth and innocence ! To thumb his L'utropus, or to knuckle down 
at law, arc to him equaJly delightful i for whatever surt the blood, 
TOU IX. : a ly 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



or ioipire* thought in him, quickens the |]>d1m of life ind joy. He 
hu only to feel, to order to be happy ( pain turns uniling from him, 
and >onow i* only z softer kind ot pJeaiure. tiacb •enotioo u but 
an unfolding of hi* new being | care, a]{e, idckaew, are idle words i 
the musty rccordi of antiquity look gloaiiy in his (parkling eye, and 
he cin»]>« immortality m hi* future bride! The coming year* hurt 
bim not — he heAr« their lound afnr off, and U glad. Sec him there, 
the urchiot imtcd in the tun, with » hook in his hxoA, and the trail 
■t hit bock, lie hat a thicker wall before him — the wjJl iti^ paru 
him from the fviure. lie Mw« not the arciict« taking aim at hia 
peace ; he knowi nut the handii thai are to mangle his boaom. He 
•tir* Dot, he fuU poce« upon his book, and, oa he reads, a alight 
hectic ffiuh pxMie* over hit cheek, for he teet the letters that compose 
the wold Fame glitter on the pngt, and bii cyci. iwim, and he chinlu 
that he will one day write a book, and hare his name repeated by 
tliouMnda of readers, and astume n cetiain sigruturc, and write l^suys 
and Ciiticisma in a London Macazihe, m a cctuuiumalioD of felicity 
■caicely to be believed. Come hither, thou poor liwle fellow, aod 
let us change jilaees with thee if thou wilt i here, take the pea and 
fimsb this article, and sign what name you plea»c to it ; so that we 
■lay but change our drcsn for your*, and tit shivering in the sun, 
sod ceo Ofet our little taik, and feed poor, and lie hard, and be 
coniesied and happy, and think what a line thing it is to be an 
author, and dream of immoitaliiy, and sleep o'nightsl 

There is something affecting and monasiic in the sight of this little 
nursery of learnin]^ simple and retired an it stands, just on the verge 
of the nietropoltSf and b the midst of modern improvements. There 
is a chapel, containing a copy of Rt^aeFi TrinufyuraJim, by Julio 
Romano : but the great attraction to curioiity at present is the 
Collection of picture* left to the College by the late Sir Francis 
Bourgeois, who i> buried io a mausoleum close by. He once (it is 
•aid) spent an agreeat^e day here in company with the Masters of 
the College and some other fricadt ; and he determined, in eonae- 
quence, upon this singular mode of testifying his gratitude and hU 
respect. Perhaps, also, some such idle thoughts as we hare here 
recorded might have mingled with this retolutiofi. The contcmplat- 
tion and the approach of death might have been softened to his mind 
by being auociatcd with the hopes of childhood ; and he might wish 
that his remains should rcpocc, in monument^ state, amidst 'the 
innocence and simplicity of poor Ciariiy Bajt I ' Mi^ it not have 
been toi 

The piciorts are 3;(i in number, and arc hung on the wall* of 
> l^&e gatleTr, built for the purpose, and diridcd into five compart- 

18 



* 




incnt«. They certainly lookrd bcuet in ihcir old placM, U the 
house of Mr. DoMifiina (the origtniil collector), where ibev were 
diitributed into u number of (mall room*, and bccd Kpratcly nod 
c]o«e to the eye. Thvy ace mostly cabioct-piciuret ; and not only 
do» the height, at which many of them are neceturily hunj; lo cotct 
a large «pacc, Icuen the elTect, but the numhcr dUttacis and dcadeoa 
the attention. BMidea, the tkylightt are to coatrivcd at to ' thed a 
dim,' though not a ' rcligioua li^ht ' upon them. At our cntiaocc, 
we were firu struck by our old triends the Cuypa; and juai beyond, 
caught a glimpse of that line female head by Carlo Maratti, giving u« 
a wdcone with cordial gl^uccs. May wt not exclaim— 

* What a (tclicioui bnaih faintiag icndi forth I 
The violet -bed 't not iweeter.' 

A fine gallery of pictures ia a sort of illuatration of Berkeley's 
Theory of Matter and Sjiitit. It i« like a nalace of thought — 
anotbar imiverie, built of air, of shadow), of coloura. Every thing 
tccmt 'palpable to feeling as to night.' Subitancet turn to ihadowa 
by the painter'* arch-chcmic touch ; nhadona harden into aubstancca. 
'The eye h made the foot of the other xcnsca, or elae worth all tlie 
tttu' The material it in tome «entc embodied in the immaterial, 
or, at least, we see all things in a sort of intellectual mirror. The 
world of art ia an enchanting deception. We discover distance in 
a glazed nirface i a province is contained io a foot of canvaas ; a thia 
evanescent tint gives the form and pressure of rocka and treea i an 
inert shape has lite aitd motion in it. Time startdi nilt, and the 
dead rc*apprar, by means of this ' so potent art ! ' Look at the 
Cuyp next (he door (No. j). It in woven of cthcrial hoct. A toft 
mint is on it, a veil of subtle air. The tender green of the vatliet 
beyond tlie gleaming lake, the purple light of the hills, have an effect 
like the down on an unripe occiarine. You may lay your finger on 
the canvaat ; but milca of dewy vapour and tunslunc are between you 
and the objects you turvey. It is almait nccdlci* to point out that 
the cattle and figarci in the fore-ground, like dark, transparent spota, 
give an iromenac relief lo the pctoprciivc. This is, we thiokt ibc 
fioeM Cuyp, perhaps, in the world. The landscape opposite to it 
(in Tlic MRU room) by Albert Cuyp, haa a richct colouring and 
a stronger conirast of light and shade, but it has not that tender Uoom 
of a spring morning (so delicate, yet to powerful in its effect) which 
the other poucmet. Two Harus, by Cuyp (No. 74), is another 
admirable specimen of this excellent painter. Il i« hard to say, 
which is most true to nature — the sleek, welt-fed look of the bay 
horse, or the bone and spirit of the dappled iroa-givy one, or the 

»9 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OP ENGLAND 



high ovcrhinging loirct, moving nmjciiically on, with Fcm brfore 
her, liciih behind hef, and Mirijrriiom cfowalng hct : — and h«re is 
in cloquml landicape by the lamc maiter-bind, the nbject of which 
19, a ihcphcrd piping hi* Dock bomcwnrdt through a nanotr delile, 
wilh a graceful gTOop of unumnB] trccc waring on the edge of the 
declivity above, aoa ihe ron crcmng light nreaniing through the 
doudi oa the green moi« IiBOKape In the Mill lenglhening dinaoce. 
Here (to pan from one kind of excellence to aaother vith kindly 
inicrc hinge) it * dear luotkling WaterfaU, by Roytdael, asd 
Hobbima « Water-MtU^ with the wheel* in motioD, sod the duck* 
paddtiDg in ibc rcMlets umro. I* oot thi* a tad anti'-cliniax from 
Jaeob't Dmm to > picture of a Wuct-Mill \ We do not know ; 
and «« thoidd care u little, coukl we but {oiM cHber of the 
piciuret. 

< Eadre afftctjon Morattk nicer hamW,* 

If ■ nctuTc ii admirtblc m iu kind, we do not g^re oundn* much 
trauUe ifaovt the nibjcct. Could we pdint a* well at Hobbtnu, we 
•honhl not eirry Rco^raodt : nay, cTcn u it ii, while vc can rclinh 
both, we envy neither I 

The CxnTu Room coomence* with a Gwi al a ffW^, by 
Ranfamidu The pcnnr i* known by the pcimt of it, and i* one of 
ifcr BOM KOMitable and pleaaing in the CoUcctioo. For clearocM, 
fer bnadth, kx a liiely. nddy Mok of bealthy aKure, it caoaot be 
mrnaed. TV cxecutioa of ibe dnpcry ii anaMcrly. Tbetc i* a 
ttory wld of ita being U* KmuM-nnid kmlUBg o« of a window, bat 
it i» eviden t^ the porttait of a anete ch3d.— <f /iarria- «Aw^f 4W An, 
by Bercbo^ !a ia hia BMal aanan. Tbere i* tmlt of duactet and 
dcficMefiwaUi^I bMtbe&nkof all fierchea** pktaiea ts. tbu be 
caMMM* U fintA aAcr he baa dooe lookia^ at aocnre, asd his laat 
twadkM an dttmt inni bera. Hence cooae* that watmHaocr to 
•■Joarrf fiiaiin^ wUck c^«n ha* beat work* an ci m pabfe wixh. 
We fiad bm oae cr two im^ Qaadea of no great tiI«c ; and twv 
vetit detct wteiMi of ^ aion-iiaiBttf. Watteau, the Giinahofwigb 
of France. Tbey ate narked as No*. 184 and 194, Frtt ftii^i'ft 1, 
and Lt BdCitmfStrt. Tbete ta aootethaigexccc^vly Gtbta^ieo 
aUe, and eharacteriffic in tU* artitt't [aulniiiMi He Bight alnnR 
be laid w btcadKhia figamaad bia ioweta on the ca n w a a an ft^fc 
ia dkcir lextai^ ao coMaceni it bia toncb. He nniiea tbe cobr aod 
^ conatrr aa a aoR of Mfica* point — ran b^ iaaqr yan cattf widi 
; GnaMOM aad the bcaatiea of dkirka n. in thck m 
Wdk. Hianeaa faae n diaw^ wom ait ^ ' 
r wf gcotwtf awt dvpcOv^ iBtt SOB ^nccBwy ' 



11 




THE DULWICH GALLERY 

while the iigucct below, thm a* m, and vigtliAtf dad, in the midit 
of all their affectation and grimace, wem to have juat tpniog out of 
the ground, or to be the fairy inhabitinti of the scene in mMqueradc. 
They arc the Orcadg and Dfyadi of the Luxembourg! (Quaint 
aesociatioD, happily effected by ihc pencil of Wacteaa I In the B^ 
Champiirt we sec Louis xvi. himnclf dancing, looking m> like an old 
beau, hi* face flushed am) puckered up witli gay anxiety; but then 
the Kttin of bit ilashcd doublet la made of the softest Icdvci uf the 
water-lily ; Zephyr plays wanton with the curls of his wig ! We 
h.ivc nobody who could produce a companion to thia picture now : 
nor do we »cry devoutly wish ii. The Louin the Fourteenths .ire 
cxiinci, and wc jiuapcct their revival would hardly be compensated 
even by the re-appe»rancc of a Wattcau. — No. 1H7, //«■ Dralb rf 
Coronal Biaufort, by Sir Jo«hua Reynolds, is a *cry indifferent and 
railier uopleaEsnt sketch of a T«ry Itnc picture. One of the most 
delightful things in this delightful collection is iht Partrail (lyj) of 
the rrinet ef the jfaituriat, by Velaiqucx. The easy ligbtncM of the 
childish Prince contraxti delightfully with the unwieldy liguic of 
the home, which has evidently been brought all the way from the 
Low Countries for the amuwment of his rider. Velasquez was 
(with only two exceptions, Titian and Vandyke) as fine a portrait- 
painter as eve* lived! In the centre room also is the Mttiu^ «/" 
JiKab and Ratkel, by Murillo — a sweet picture with a fresh green 
landscape, and the heart of Love in the midit of it.~There arc 
ncTcral heads by Holbein ncattcrcd up and down the dilfercnt com- 
])arimcntii. Wc need hardly observe that they all have character in 
the extreme, so that we may be said to be acquainted with the people 
they represent ; but then tJiey give nothing but character, and onlv one 
part of lhat« inz. the dry, the literal, the concrete, and lixed. They 
want the addition of passion and beauty ; but they are the finest eoptil 
marluums of expression th.tt ever were made. Hans Holbein had 
none of the rolatile essence of genius in his composition. If 
portrait-painting is the profic of the art, his pictures arc the proM 
of portrait -painting. Yet he is " a reverend name ' in art, and one of 
the benefactors of the human mind. He has left faces behind him 
that we would give the world to lave seen, and there they are — 
stamped 00 his canvass for ever ! Who, in reading over the names 
of certain Individuals, does not leel a yearning in his breast to know 
their features and their lincamcnu? Wc look through a small frame, 
and lo! at the diitance of three ccnturirs, we have before us the 
ligaie« of Annp Boleyn, of the virtuous Cranmer, the bigotled Queen 
Msry, the noble Surrey — as if we had seen them in their life-time, 
iwt perhaps in tfaeii best moods or happiest attiiudM, but as they 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



•ometiinM appeared, oo doubt. Wc tiiww at kut wlut tort of loolciag 
people they were : our mind* ftre made cuy on that tcore ; the ' body 
ud limbc Arc there, and we nuy 'idd whit flotirufan' of grace or 
onumrDt we picuc. Holbrin'* h«d* ue to the fioctt pottrBiti what 
ttate-papetB ate to hmutry. 

The first pkture io the Fo««th Room is the Pr*phtl Samuel, by 
Sir Joshiu. It ii not the Prophet Samuel, but a very charming 
pctvre of a little child ayh% it* pnrn*. The leeand it| TAt 
Edmainti sf Bacrhat, hj Nicbolai Pouhid. Thti picture nuke* one 
thiniy 10 look at it — the colouring c*eD it dry and aduct. It it true 
Aii/cu^ in ilie technics phruc.that i* lo tij,ave p«aiy in the ralgau. 
The figure of the infant Bacchtm tccmi a> if h« would drink up • 
Tiotafe — he drinks with his mouth, his hands, his bclljr, i-ad his 
whole body. Gargantua was nothing lo him. In the EJatatioa tf 
Japcer, in like maooer, «v are thrown back into the iofincy « 
mytholoeic lore. The little Jumter, suckled by a she-goM* if 
bctudfiilTy conceived xnd expccaicd ; and the dtgnkv xnd aacendaaey 
gireo to thcie aoimiili in the picture is WDodcnulf^ '■^PP]'- They 
have a very impo«ng air of grariiy indeed, and seem to be by pre- 
scription 'grand caterers and wct-nunes of the state' of Heaven! 
ApilU gh^ng a p9tl a Cvp ^ Water Id liritii is elcgaot and cUsucal ; 
and Thf FBgii iniv E^ypi insuntly takes the lonc of Sciiiicure-history. 
1'hit U strange, but su it ii. All things ate posutue to a high 
tina^atioD. All things, about which we hare u feeling, may be 
expressed by true genius. A dark landscape [by the tame hand) io 
a comer of the room ia a proof of this. There arc tree* io the fore- 
ground, with a pa*cd road and buiMinga io the dittaoce. The 
Genius of antiijuity might wander here, siui feel itself at borne- — 
The large leaves aic wet and heavy with dew, and the eye dwells 
< under the shade of melancholy bouglis.' In the old collection fin 
Mt. lictenfant' time) the Fousstns occupied a separated room by 
ihcmtelres, and it was (we confctin) 4 very favourite room with us. 
^No. az6, in a handicape, by Salvator Rota. It is one of his very 
licst — tough, groiexjue, wild^ — Pan has struck it with hi* hoof — the 
ircrt, the rocks, the fore-gronnd, arc of a piece, and the figures are 
subordinate to the landsca|!e. The same dull sky lowers upon the 
scene, and the bleak air chills the crisp surface sA the water. It is 
a consolation to us to meet with a fine Salvaior. Hit ts one of the 
great names in art, and it is aniung our sources of regret that we 
cannot always admire hii works as we would do, from our respect to 
his reputation and our love of the man. Poor Satvator ! he was 
mhappy in hit )ife-time; and it vexes ui to think that we cannot 
make him amends by fancying him so great a painter as tome others. 



THE DULWICH GALLERY 



whose fame wm not ibeir only inheriTance ! — 317, Vtmmi and Ciifid, 
IE a delightful copy aftcf Cotrcggio. We have no mcb regrcta or 



almi oft 



: with I 



ct to him. ' He ha* had bU tenatd. 



conKience 1 

The weight of hit t«aown btiaoccs thr weight of bsubarous cwn that 
•mk him (o tli« earth. Could he live now, and know what other* 
tUnk of him, hi> nusfartuaes would iccni as droM compared wStb hi* 
lastmg glory, and hii lieon would melt witlito bin) at the thouglit, 
with a EwectncM thai only hii own pencil could cxjires*. I33, Tht 
f^irpn. Infant Chr'ut, and Si, John, by Andrea del Sarlo, i* exceed- 
ingly good.— 390, Another Holy Family, by the tame, i> an admirable 
picture, and only inferior to Raphael. It h.i« delicacy, fotce, 
thought, a&d feeling. ' Wliat lacks it theo,' to be equd to Raphael I 
We hardly know, uaW« il be a certain firmness and freedom, and 
glowing animation. The execution it more timid and laboured. It 
looki like a picture (an cxqutnte one, indeed), but Raphael'* look 
like the divine reality ittelf! — No. 134, Coela drfrmUnsihe Bridxt, 
it by Le Brun. Wc do not like this picture, doc 371, T*^ Matsaert 
of ibt Iiuuutnit, by the wmc arti*t. One rcaxon i« that they are 
Frflich, and another that they are not good. They have great 
merit, it \t true, but tlieir merits are only spleiidid nna. Ilicy 
ore mcchacical, mannered, colourless, and uafeelbg.—No. 137, ia 
Murillo's Sfxaiiih Girl tvii/t Fh^eri. The sun limed the yooM 
gipsey's complcxiott, and not the painter. — No. I40, it The C/ualiaa 
anJ Villa of M4i!mai, mar Ttvoli, by Wilson, with hit own portrait 
in ihc fore-ground. It it an imperfect tkcich ; but there is n curiona 
anecdote relatiog to H, that he was to delighted with the waterfall 
ittelf, that he cried out, while painting it : < Well done, water, bjr 
G — dl ' — No. i+j, Saini Cen6a, by Guerdno, ig a »<ry pleaaag 
mctuie, io hit leMt gaudy manner. — No. iji, Vtms anJ jfoanht by 
Titian. We tee to many of tbeae Venuaei and Adooites, that we 
tbould like to know which it the true one. Thu it one of the be«t 
we hare accn. Wc have two Prancetco Molat in thii room, the 
Ra^ of Pr^trrplnf, and a Ltrndttafe viUh a Holy Famlj. Thit 
artist dipped hit pencil k) thoroughly in Titian's palette, that his 
works caanot fail to have that rich, mellow look, which is always 
delightful. — No. 303. PerIrM of Pinli^ ihe Fnurlh t^ Sfain, by 
Velasauci, is purity and truth ittelf. We uted to bke the Sitting 
Nyn^h, by Titian, when wc law it formerly in the little etttrance- 
room at Deaenfant', but wc cannot lay much in itt ptaitc here. 

The Ftrnt Room it the smallest, bat the mott precious in ita 
contents. — No. 531, Spamh Btggar Boy*, by Muriilo, is the 
triumph of this Collectiooi and almost of painting. Io the inutatioo 
of common life, oothing ever went beyond it, or m far m we can 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



jod^, came on to it. A Datth pictaic i* nechnical. Kid Ben 
r^a^fi u it. am ihii H IU« itacUi. The boy at jUmj <m the grooad 
it ninctiom. Ii u done with ■ few dragiuig MiMe* oT the peocil, 
aad with a little tm^ of colow ; boi the mootti, the oose, tbc eyes, 
the cfam, are m brinful as they on hold of eKpfmnaa, of arch 
rogacty , of animal ^riti^ of rigorooa. elactic hcjth. The vitid, 
Rowing, chcerfvl look ii tnch a* conU only be fonnd beoeadi a 
fonthern lun. The fent and d jk«« of Holbtid ( with all oar mpcct 
for them) coold nercr pcodixc nch an entomc of the vital princi^. 
The othet boy, ttandinx up with the pidaer in hii hasd, and a cnut 
of bread in hi* montb, ii Karceljr let* exoellent. Hit uilhy, 
phlegmatic indi&reocc cpcaki for itaetf. The companioo to thi* 
pjciarv, 3141 i* alio very fine. Compared with these imitatioaa of 
BJOare, h fiulitcM » they afr iptriced. Mnrillo'i Virg^ aad Angela 
howem good in tht mtd r ea, look vapid, aad erco Tvlgar. A CiHJ 
Slafaj, by the Kune paiatct, ■« a beautiful aod cuasterty ttudy,^ 
No. 3t9ia Jlfnn:«//*«rty,byGiorg^onc,t* well worthy of the notice 
of the oooDoiueBr. No. 33 1, St. J<Jm Preatlm^ in ih U^Utrwa, 
by Gvido, ii an extraordnury picture, and vety unlike thit painter'a 
■iual rainncT. The colour it ai if th« Bedi bad been (taiBtd all otct 
with brick-duaL There is, bowercr, a wildnca* about it which 
accofdf well with the wb}cct, and the figare of St. John n fiill of 
grace and guito. — No. 344, Tte MarfyrJim ^ Si. Stlastiam, by the 
Maae, ia Buacb fioer, both a> to exectiiioa and cxptecnoo. The face 
ia inlMKd with deep panion. — No. 34;, Ptrtrvit tfa Mm, by L. da 
Vinci, ii tnily tHnpte and grand, and at oocc carrica yoo back to that 
age— Amt/ Merry Maia^, by Ofiade, i« &uc ; b«n haa no butinesa 
where it it. Yet it take* 19 very little room. — No. 547, Porirmt tf 
Mri. SidJuu, m tit riararUr if thr Tr^ Mnn, by Sir Joahna, 
■ffwara to oa to rcacmbie nrither Mi*. Siddona, nor the Tragic Mom. 
It i* ia a baataid aqrle ef art. Sir Joaboa had an iinportutiate theory 
«f inpnmBg n|ioa naCnre. He might iniprotv upon miiilfcreot 
■ature, bat when he had got the finest, he thoi^ht to imnrore npoo 
that too, and only spoikS it. — No. 341J, Ttt f^m amJ CUU, by 
Correggio, can oaly be a c(^. — No. 351, Thr Ja^gmau »f Parit, 
by Vaaderwerf, it a pictiwe, and by a maacer, thai we bate. He 
alwayi chooae* for hi* tubitcts naked fig<nn of women, and lantaliac* 
na by making them of cotowed iniry. Tbeyare like hard- ware to^a. 
—Mi). 3 $4. 1 Canbtai Bituing a Prim, by P. Vero>ne*e, it dtgnified 
and pictureaoue in the highcn dcgrcc.-^No. i;j. Tie AJoraiiem s^ 
the Shtfitrdi, by Anaibid Caracci. ia aa eufaotaic, bu not rery 
tacceaifid pcr&muftce. — No. J $6, Chriti ibving Hi Cr^ti, 1^ 
Morale*, cooclade* tlw lift, »eA i* worthy to conclude K. 
36 



THE MAKQUIS OF STAFFORD'S GALLERY 




THE MARQUIS OF STAFFORD'S GALLERY 

tOvK intcTcounc with the deul is better than uur rnteicoutK with 

Fthe living. There arc only three pleasuret in life, yaic mil lutingi 

{and all derived rrom inaaim^ite ihinga — bookt, picturet, and the lace 

i of nature. What is the world but a heap of luiocd Fricndihipa, but 

[die grave of \o*t! All other pleasuri-H are a« Talac and hallow, 

r-vaoitliiog from our mib(ac« Ukc imuke, or like a feverish drcnm. 

, Scarcely can we recollect that tliey were, or iccal without an dFon 

; the anxioiu and momentary interest we took in them. — tint thou, 

oh! divine Balf/ ef Diatui, with deep a^urc eye«, with rowrale hues, 

Bpread by the hand of Tinan, art still there upon the wait, another, 

yet the same that thou wert ttve-and- twenty years ago, nor wantcst 

' Fofkcil moimtain or blue promontory 

With Tree* upon '% thai nod unto the world. 
And mock our eyei with air ! ' 

And lo ! over the clear lone brow of Tuderley and Norman Court, 
knit into the web and fibres of our heart, the sighing grove wave* in 
the autumnal air, denerted by Love, by Hope, but forever haunted by 
Memory! And there that fine passage stands in Antony and 
Cleoiiatia as we read it long ago with exaultinK eyes in Paria, after 
puzzliag over a ttagedy of Racine'n, and cried aloud: ' Our Shak- 
speare was aUo a poet ! These feelings arc dear to uk at the time i 
amd they come back unimpaired, heightened, mellowed, whenever we 
choose to go back to them. We tuio over the leaf and ' volunie of 
the brain,' and there see thcra face to face. — Marina in Peiicle* 
complain* that 

'Lift is u > storm hurrying her from her friends I ' 

Not no from the friends abovemcnticoed. If we bring but an eye, 
an understanding, and a heart to them, we find them always with u», 
always the same. The change, if there is one, is in us, nut in them. 
Oh ! tliou then, whoever thou art, thai dost seek happtnemi in thytelf, 
independent on others, not subject to caprice, not mocked by insult, 
not matched away by ruthless hands, over which Time has no power, 
and that Death »lone cancels, wek it (if thou art wise) in book*, in 
pictures, and the face of nature, for liese alone we may court upon 
as friends for life ! While we mc true to ourselves, they will not be 
fattliless to us. While we remember any thing, we cannot forget 
tbem. As long as we have a nish for pleasure, we may find tt here ; 
for it depend* only on our lo^'c for thciD, and not on their* for us. 

»7 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



The enjoyment is purely uW, and is tcfined, uncnibiurrcd, onfadiog, 
for that fcaaon. 

A compbiat has been made of the shon-livcd duration cf work* 
of art, and pvttculurly of uictam ; add |K>«tii inure cipecullj arc apt 
to lament and to indulge m an elegiac strain otet the iragile ''■»"''■? 
of the nttcr -art. The complaint is incontidcrtic, if not iaridious. 
Thiy v/UI tail our lime. Nay, ihcy have Uitcd wmuriw before tu, 
and will last centuries after us; and cren when they are no more, 
will leave a shadow and a cloud of glory behind ttina, tliroogh all 
time. Lord Bacon cxdntnu triumphantly, ' Have not ibc poems of 
Homer lasted five and -twenty handrcd years, and Dot a syllaUe of 
them is lost I ' Qui it mi;^t be asked in return, ' Have not snraj 
of the Greek ttatues now litited almost as hag, without lomg ■ 
particle of their splendour or their meaning, while the Iliad (except 
to a very few) h.is become almost a dead letter?' Has not the 
Venus of Mcdicis had almost as many panis^ns and admirers as the 
Helen of the old btiod bard i Besides, wliat hab Phidias gained in 
reputation even by the disccirry of the L'lgin MatWi-s ? Or b not 
Michael Ani^elu's the greatest name in modern art, whose works we 
only know from description and by report '. Surely, there is totoe- 
thing in a name, in widc-iprcad rcpuiaiioo, in endless renown, to 
satisfy the ambition of the mind of man. Who in his works woold 
vie immortality with nature? An epitaph, an everlasting monunseiit 
in the dim remembrance of ages ** enough below the slues. Mor» 
over, the tense of fioal toeviuble decay hamaiutei, and gives an 
affecting diaracter to the trivmphs of exalted art. Imperishable 
works executed l)y perishable hands are a sort of insult to our oature, 
and almost a contradiction in terms. They arc ongr.iiclul children, 
and mock the makers. Neither in the noble idea of antiquity legibly 
made out without the marks of the progress and lapse of time. That 
which is as good now as ever it was, seems a tiling of yestccday. 
Nothing is old to the imagination that docs not appear to grow M. 
Ruias are grander and more venerable than any modern structure can 
be, or than the oldest could be if kept in the most entire pretcrralion- 
They convey the pctipective of time. So ihc Elgin Maibles arc 
more impressive from their mouldering, imperfect state. They trans- 
port us to the Parthenon, and old Greece. The Theseus is of the 
age of Theseus : wlulc the Apollo IJelvidere is a modem fine gc^tlo- 
man t ^nd we think of this last li^ure only as an ornament to the 
room where it happens to be placed. — We conceive that those are 
person* oS narrow minds who cannot relish an author's stj^e that 
■macks of time, that has a crust of antiquity over it, like that which 
gathcn apon old wine. These sprinkliot* of arthiaim4 and obsolete 

as 



THE MARQUIS OF STAFFORD'S GALLERY 

turn* q( cxprcitiun (to abhorreol to the iiuhionAblc reader) ue 
intrllvctiuil links that connect the gencruiionii togetlicr, Rod edurge 
our ItBOwtrdge of language and of oiiiurc. Of the two, ire prefer 
UaeiJttirr to hot-pie«*cd paper. Doc* not erery language change 
and wear out i Do not the mo«( po;iular writer* become quaint and 
old-f;i»hion«) erery fifty or ciery hundred years? It there not > 
coniiani convict of taste and opinion between thoie who adhere to 
the ciitabli*hcd and triter moden of expresuoa, and tboic who aJfeCl 
glouy innoTatiotik, in advance of the age i It i* pride enoogh for the 
best author* lo bavt bun rtad. Thi* applies to their own country ; 
and to all others, they are < a book tealed.' But Kubrn* U aa good 
in Holiand as he i* in Flanders, where he was botn, ia Italy or in 
Spab, in England, or in Scotland^no, there alone he ia no/ under- 
stood. The Scotch underBiand nothing but what t* Scotch. What 
has the dry, liuiky, econoinic eye of Scotland to do with the florid 
hues and luxuriant extravagance of Rubens? Nothing. They fike 
Wilkie's /iflirtrt' style bcttir. It may be aaid that translations remedy 
the v/ant of universnlity of language: but prints give (at lextt) >■ 
good an idea of pictures as translations do of pocmti, or of any pro- 
duaioiis of the press that employ iho coloutinii of ilyle and imagina- 
tion. Gil Bias IS translut cable ; Racine and Rousseau are not. The 
mere English student knows more of the character and ipirit of 
Raphael's pictures in the Vatican, than be does of AHonlo or Tasso 
from Hoole's Venion- There ia, however, one exception to the 
catholic language of painting, which is in French picturn. They 
are national fixtures, and ought never to be removed from the toil in 
which they grow. They will sot answer any where else, nor are 
they worth Custom-House Duties. Flemish, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, 
are all good and intelligible in their several ways — we know whM 
they mean< — they require no intctpreicr : but the French painter* ••• 
nature with organs and with minds peculiarly their own. One miwt 
be bom in France to cndcrsiand their painting, or their poetry. 
Their productions in an are either literal, or cxtratagant^-dryt frigid 
fat-iimkei, in which they scrm to take up nature by pin-pobts, or else 
vapid distorted caricatures, out of all rule and compass. They arc, 
in fact, at home only in thi- light and elegant ; and whenever ihcy 
attempt to add force or solidity (as they must do in tbc severer pro- 
ductions of the pencil] they arc compelled to fubsiitutc ao excess of 
minute industry for a comprehension of the whole, or make a desperate 
mechanical enort at extreme expression, instead of giving the true, 
nattiral, and powerful workings of pauiun. Their repteseolatioiM of 
nature are meagre tkeletona, that bear the nmc relation to the ori- 
^nols that botanical specimens, enclosed in a portfolio, llat, dry, hard, 

'9 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



and pithless, do lu llourithin^ plaoii Hntl thcubt. Their binorical 
figurcn are painful outlines, or gruduattd elevations of the common 
tUUcB, spiritJeit, colourlesi, niotionlesi, which have the form, but 
Qonc of the power of the aaliqur. What an abortive uttcmpt it the 
Corvitiuion af Napoleon, hy the cclchrated DaTid, lately exhibited in 
this coantiy I It lookt like a 6nishod «ign'posi painting — a m& of 
frozen outlines. — Could the utint make Dathiog of * the foiemott man 
in all thit world,' but a itilT, upright figured The fixture and attitude 
of the EtnpreM are, however, pretty juid gracciiil : and we recollect 
one face in profile, of an ecdetiaitic, to the tij^ht, with a ungutnc 
took of health in the complexion, and a large bencvolenoe of (oul. 
It is not Monsieur Talleyrand, whom the late Lord Cutlercagb 
duiactcritcd «« a worthy man and his friend. Hia Lordship was 
not a phytiogDomist ! The whole of tlie sliadowrd part of the 
picture seems to be eDvelo[>ed in a sliowcr of blue powder. — But to 
make amends fot all that ihcie is or that there is noi in the work, 
Darid has introduced his wife and hia two daughter) ; and in the 
Catalogue ban given us the placet of abode, and the namet of the 
hnntwndii of the latter. Thi« is a little out of place : yet thew arc 
the people who laugh at our blunders. We do not mean to extend 
tlic above sweeping censure to Claude, or Poutsin : of course they 
are excepted : but even in them the national character lurked amidK 
ucrivallcd excellence. If Claude lias a fault, it is that he is Unical; 
and Pouuin's liiturcs niight be said by a ntiritt to be aati^iuc puppets. 
To proceed to our taik. — 

The fird picture that nmck uk on entering the MAr()uis of 
Stafford's Gallery (a little brwildctcd as we were with old recollcc- 
uons, and present objects) was the Mftlinj; 9/ Chriti ami Si. Jo/ntf 
one of Raphael's master -pieces. The eager * child-worship ' of the 
jroonE St. John, the modest retirement and diguified sweetness of 
the Chritt, and the jtraceful, matron-like air of the Virgin bending 
over them, full and noUe, yet tcminlne and elegant, cannot be »ur- 
pamcd. No words can describe them to thotc who have not seen 
the picture j — the attempt is still vaine: to those who hare. There 
ia, howrfer, a Tcry 6ne engraving of this picture, which may be- had 
fiw a trifling ram. — No glory is around the head of the Mother, nor 
i* it needed : but the soul of the painter sheds its influence over it 
like a do*e, and the spirit of love, sanctity, Ix-auiy, breathes from the 
divine group. There ore four KaphacU (Holy Fnmilict) in this 
collection, two others by the ude of this in bin early more precise and 
afl'eclcd manocr, somewhat faded, and a small one of the Virgin, 
Sitting Jrtiu, anJ St. J^n, in his finest manner. There is, or there 
was, a, duplicate of this picture (of wliicb the engraving U also 

JO 



THE MARQUIS OF STAFFORD'S GALLERY 

common] in the l.ouviw, which wai certainly tupcrior to the one at 
the Marquis of Sialford't. The colouring of (he drapery io that too 
wu cold, utd the face of ihe Virgin thin and poor ; but tkcvei wat 
infancy bid UKleep more calmly, more swcctty, mon^ Mmndly, than in 
the figure of Our Saviour — the little pouting mouth »e«med to drink 
balmy, innocent ileep — and the rode expresaiun of wonder and delight 
in the more robust, cun-bumt, fur-clad figure of St. John wu an 
■piritrd in ittclf at it was striking, when concnuted with the meeker 
beautie* of the figure oppoHcd to it. — From these we turn lo ih« 
Foua AcEt, by Titian, or Ctorgione, m lomc »ay. Strange tliat 
there abould have lived two men in the tame age, on the tanic tpot of 
earth, with retpcct to whom it should bear a cfuesti on— which of 
them painted such a picture ! Barry, we reniemlier, and C(j!lin<, the 
miniature-painter, thought it a Giorgionc, and they were considered 
two of the best judges going, at the lime thin picture was exhibited, 
among othern, in the Orleans Gallery. We cannot prcicnd lo decide 
on such nice nialtera rx ciUht<lrii ; but no painter need be ashamed to 
own it. The gmdationu of human life are marked with characteristic 
licliciEy, and tlie landscape, which ia thrown in, adds a paptoral cbarm 
and ndi^tii lo the whole. To live or to die in such a choacn, utill 
retreat must be happy ! — Certainly, this compohition suggests n hcDUti- 
fid moral lesson ; and as to the painting of the group of children in 
the comer, we suppose, for careless freedom of pencil, and a certais 
milky toflDcsa of the tlesh, it can scarcely be paralleled. Over tlie 
three RaphaeU it a Dmat, by Annibal Caracci, which wc used to 
adore where it was hung oo high in the Orleans Gallery. The (ace 
it fine, up-turned, expectant ; and the figure no leu fine, deaitable, 
ample, worthy of a God. — The golden shower is just seen descend- 
ing! the landscipe at a distance has (so lincy might iotrrpret) a 
cold, shuddering aspect. There is another Tcry fine dcture of the 
same hand close by. Si. Grt^ry 'jtiih /instil. It is difficult to know 
which lo admire most, the resigned and yet eainesi excrewion of the 
Saint, or the elegant forma, the gi%oeful atlitudet, and bland, cordial, 
benignant faces of the attendant angels. The artist in these last has 
evidently had an eye to Corrcggio, both in the w.iving outline, and in 
the charm of ihe expression ; and he has succeeded !idinir;^Iy, but 
not entirely. Something of the extreme unction of Correggio is 
wanting. The drawing of Anntixti's Angels is, perhaps, too firm, 
too sinewy, too masculine. In Correggio, the Angel's spirit seenicd 
to be united to a human body, to imbue, mould, penetrate every part 
with it* sweetneM and softness : tn Catacci, you would say that a 
heavenly spirit inhabited, looked out of, moved a goodly human frsme, 
' And q'cr-informcil ihr tenement of clay.' 

3' 




THE FlCTtTBE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 

tkemt mmit M trJer bt the matka) toi ibe eeioa u tamemhMt 
amaUe t hat it ka^ Mraidttndn^ oa iW wbok. a Rrikiag md 
nhirtl; fcaiii oaJB !■ dfctt. Thw* i> mH ma^tf fkmn by Caneo 
(tha m old & »a ari »i widi «,!<)'■( w *" ^ Ocinot (m) iMaM 
^dNjmfii Jatjpy, widi dw ftnry af CAlo. It a one of hit my 
Ilia, aiili ■[■■iifciii l, iri"!!!! iliiiiin iif ilii iiMiniii. iwl llii l iiiliii|ii 
c alBaf i a g of TitMo. The Spm ve all bcraic, luadMsie, neb m 
Bigbi bekag to bna tri.»ti , or Godd c w c* : iwl tbc conlnw iad 
HdaMa ef ibr ictar, nadcr gny rurr hiagilg cfiA, Md bfowa 
aiuAiJuiiin tnn. vab all ds oebaMiMd traib of aanav, have 
Aa ciaa of aa tacbiatiag nAj. — ^Tlie MOfj aarf ijpna are aocc 
cfaaaalaad better manfad tbaa tbow of tbe iN^ Md CA* fay 
Tldiat bat tbete k a cbnn ■ thx [actHic lad ibe Mw to k, tba 
/>■■■■ aad jIftMm , (tbcR it no otbct fattov to k ia ibe worid I ) 
vUdi aa wntda caa toaiay. It k ibe cbani dvowa o*cr acb bj 
die ycata it gcaiBa fiw eoloariig dvc dw warid tm tav. Ii b 
dftnfc, aay, iap oaa bh to ny wUcb k tbc iMat ia ddt twycct : 
BiAaMitf ooc ot cba ocbcf {vtucberet ve tsn ta^ aad va caa aevci 
he ntiifad witb ftwkiag at citbera— aa ticb » aceae do tbev aaftiHt ao 
aatcae a beiany do tbey Uaae htn tba nal) k Eke a airiae piece 
of nwMc, or ikea*ltkeaae]AdKMaaf rkbAttiUed pcrfone*.' la 
•be fignrea, ia tbe ktirl t capc, ia ihit water, im Aa aky , tbcre arc toaes, 
cofeDTv, tcattmd wnb a prafin* aad iniiiiag baad. awftoaa, bat 
■oat trac^ dazxlkg with tbek fem, bia Uodad, Mtteaod. avtea 
aocnber iato a woof Kxc tbai of Iri t ria t i ot 6nh txtioas, aa if job 
taw tbr blood cirdtag bcaeaib the feaifj ibtat doada iiiniiiniliil 
vinfa Mttinf on* t bffla W e eped ta axare tkiea; tree* '■"'■^ m a 
■clio* bmm; tbe etld pey racka, aad the wMcr ao 
dw vea tee dw ibtdova aad ibe atevy ftci of dK Mked 1 
it. Widi al ibk frafa^ of gcoiaa. ib«K k te mwat < 
aad dadffiae af an. Tbc ^ara aami groifed Ma (be tdao of 
ealdar — dte aaia m^a^ caanaan are mdt oat, aad Aen a tbitd 
ab^ctf a paBCa of dcapcty, tfi afUtod atatt a bov aad taioaa, a 
Mafpk^ wed, tt latToducad ta aMke aa uiteiiaednte tiat, oc uiiy 
oa tbe biiaaaij Ewtr caloor k "'J"^, imfmttm/ iaia eacty other, 
«b Sme kenia( aad boU di aat wy . Look m thai iadi0mt, ^mch- 
ibc 4gua of Doaa {man pcrbi^ like la odcaded netal pria caaa, 
tba* ^ isMonal Goddna, ibo^^ tbe '■■■"■ 'r'* caaU froan aad 
p«c tbaaacbta naage ain), vd «r tbc aieary. ermiac-Ke tkia t 
tbc pak cks ihadoa* of tbe delkatdj fbnacd lack t tbea tbe bcuva 
calaaraf tbe dado- trees bebind to wtotf tbe ibaded fltabt aad ha, 
tba dafb apta s tbe tthioptaa gin b c hiad, c aw w cua^ tbcj 
3» 



I 



>F STAl 



fALLERY 



Then ihc bright scarf mspcndw! io the air cODOCCta iwcif with the 
glowing clouds, and d<«pcne the loleinn szufe of the sky : Actarun'i 
bow and arrawi fjllen on ihe ftrouad are aliu red ; znd there it > 
little Hower on the brink of the Bath which catchei and pleuct the 
eye, «ii[ur'ated with thin colour. The ycllowinh grey of the cnrth 
purifies the low tone of the figures wlicre they arc m hnlf-sh^ow; 
and ihit again it cnlivenrtl by the leaden^olourtd fountain of the 
Dath, which is set off (or kept down in its proper place) hy the blue 
vestmentu Mrown near ii. The fiflure of Actaeon 'u ipiriced and 
natural ; it ia that of a bold rouf-h Imntcr in the early ages, struck 
urith surprite, abashed with beauty. The form* of some of the 
fEtnale figures are elegant enough, p;u'ticularly that of Diana in the 
•tory of Calisto ; and there it a very pretty-faced girl minchieTOoaly 
dragging the culprit forward ; but it is the texture of the flesh that ii 
throughout delicious, unrivalled, nurpssingly fair. The landscape 
canopies the living scene with a son of proud, disdainful conscious- 
new. The trees nod to it, and tlie hills roll at a disUnce in a sea of 
colour. Ercry where tone, not form, predominates— there is not a 
distinct line in the picture — but a gusto, a rich tantc of colour is left 
upon the eye as if it were the palate, and the diapaaon of picturesque 
harmony i» full to overflowing. ' Oh Tiiun and Naiutc ! which of 
you copied the other i ' 

We are ashamed of this descripuon, dov that we have made it, 
and heartily wish somebody would make a better. There is another 
Titian here (which was also in lli* Orleans Gallery),' t'enui riling 
from ihe tea. The figure and face are gracefully designed and sweetly 
cxpteised : — whether it is the picture of the Goddess of Lotc, mxj 
admit of a question ; that it is the picture of a lovely woin»n in > 
lovely attitude, admiti of none. The hftlf-shadow in which most of 
h is painted, is a kind of veil through which the delicate skin shows 
more transparent and aerial. There is nothing in the picture but ihia 
single exquijiitely turned ligurc, and if it were continued downward 
to a wholelength, it would secni like a copy of a statue of the Godde«« 
carved in ivory or marble ; but being only a half length, it ha* not 
this elFect at all, but looks like an enchanting study, or a part of a 
larger componcion, selected a I'aivie. The hair, and the arm holding 
it up, arc nearly the same as in the well-known picture of 7«tua*i 
Miilrat, and at delicious. The back-ground is beauufully painted. 
We said before, that there was no object in the picture detached 

^ Two thirda of the principal piclurti in the OrEeiBi Collection srr it prttrnt st 
CltvtUn-J'HaoN, one ihiril parthsKd by (he Mirauii of StaHord, inil iDothn 
third left by the Dakt of Brjri(e*>ler, snotbcr of uic parchusrs Mr. Btiin had 
Ihe renuiniag third. 

voL> II. : c 33 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 

A. Cnyp, is miraculou* for tntfa, briUnocy, and deanxaa, almott 
beyond acnul water. Tbew GUnot be MMcd orer ; b«it then is a 
Ikue picture which we beg td oonmend to ibe gentle reader, the 
ViBgoycn, at the end of the roam, No. 1 56, which ba» ihn ycUow- 
uwny coJour tn the ibcmI*, aoA that grnr chtU took in Uw old 
coDTtntt that grrc one the prrciee feeling of s mild day towardi the 
etid of winter, is a humid, marihy couMTy. We many yean ago 
copied a Vugoyen, a riew of a Caoal ■ with yellow tnitcd haok* aod 
gliding nil,' modenly pencilled, truly telt — and bare had an affection 
ror lum ercr aoce. There is a anal) inner room with tome moK 
rctpcctable naodero picurH. Wtlkic'i Srtai//ut iuM ia Rinoof 
them. .^m 

Tht Saeramtnii, by N. PouMin, occitty a tcparate room by theiiK^| 
*elve>, and bare a graad and wtcmn effect ; but we could hardly aee 
them where they are ; aod in {jeoeral, we prefer hia treatment of 
l^t and danical subjcctn to thuse of lacced hittory. He wanted 
B U Mig f * for the lut ; or, if that word i* objected to, we will change 
it, and %a.jfrrtt. 

On the whole, the StaAord Gallery ii probably the mo«t inagni- 
ficeat Collection thia country can bout. The ipecinten* of the 
different tchooli ate at ntimeroua a> they arc aelect ; tod they are 
evjually calculated to delight the Hudent by the dejtree, or to ii^onn 
(be uninitiated by the variety of exceUence. Yet eTen this Collection 
it not complete. It it deficient in Rembrandt*, Vuylykcs, and 
Robenact ; except one tplendid allegory and fraivpieoc by die Un. 



THE PICTURES AT WINDSOR CASTLE 



J 



Tmi palace* of Windior and Hampton<ourt contain pici 
wwtiiy of the ftelingn we aiuch to the name* of iboae pJace«. The 
fim boiM» a number of indiTidiMl pictnrei of great excellence and 
tMemt, aadtbe b« the CartwHU. 

Wiodaer Caitk it remarkable io many retpecta. Its tail, grey, 
Mjuate towen, aeated on a atriking eminence, orerloelt far many milei 
the nibjaceni conotry, and, eyed in the dioance, lead ibe mind of the 
aoliiaiy traTeller to romantic moaiog ; or, aDproached nearer, gire the 
heart a quicker and aironger pakation. Windior, bnide* iu piciu- 
rca^e, commanding aitaitioa, and ita being the only palace in the 
kingdom £t for the receptacle of * a line of kingi,' b the iccoe of 
manv claancal aModations. Who can paaa through Datchet, and the 
oeignbooring greeniward puba, and not think oif Falttaff, of Ana 
Page, and the oak of Herne the hunter i Or if he doc* oot, ttOI he 

36 




PICTURES AT WINDSOR CASTLE 



is sfTcctcd by them m if he did. The tall dim deer glance atinled 
byt in ioaK oeglecicd track of memory, and fairies trip it in the 
UDConBoious bauntt of the imagination I Pope'* lioes od Wlodior 
Foictt alw niggnt themielvea to Uie miod in the tame way, and 
malic the air about it delicate, day has cooBecrated the tame apot 
by hi* OJe an a Diitanl PrMftct of Eton College t and the £oett 
pusagc io Burke'* wtitiDE* i« hii comparison of the Bricith Monarchy 
to ' ihc proud Keep of Windsor.' The wall* and massy lowcn of 
Windsor Castle are indeed built of solid stone, weather- beaten, time- 
proof; but the iniuge answering to theni io the mind's eye is woven of 
pure thoojjhl and the uiry films of the iinaginaiion— Arachoe's web 
not finer ! 

The rooms are chil! and comfortless at this lime of the year,' and 
gilded ceilings look down on smoky fire-places. The liew from the 
windows, too, which is so rich and glowing in the summcr.timc, is 
desolnte and deformed with the raios overflowing the marshy grounds. 
As to phyiiicai comfort, one seems to have Do more of it in these 
tapeatried halU and on macble lloors, than the poor biid diiren before 
the pelting icorm, or the ploughboy seeking shelter from the drUding 
sky, in his sheepskin jacket and clouted shoes, beneath the dripping, 
leafleM spray. The palace does not (more than the borch always 
defend us against the winter's cold. The apartments are also filled 
with loo many rubbishly pictures of kings and queens — there are too 
many of Vcrrio's paintings, and a whole roomful of Weni's ; but 
there are ten or twenty pictures which the eye, basing once teen, 
never loses night of, and that make Windsor one of the retreats and 
treaauriet of art in this country. These, however, are chielly pictures 
which have a personal and individoal interest attached to them, as we 
hare aJready hinted : there are very few historical compotitioo* of 
any *atue, and the subjects of the others are so desultory that the 
young person who shows ihem, and goee through tlie names of the 
painters and portraits >ecy correctly, said the rery nc-jriy went out of 
her mind in the three weeks she was 'studying her part.' It ia a 
matter of nomenclature : wc hope we shati make as few blunders in 
our report as she did. 

In the first room the stranger is thown into, there are two large 
landscapes by Zuccarcllt. ThCT are deeer, well-painted pictures j 
but they are worth nothing. The fault of this artist is, tbat there is 
itothing abeolutely good or bad in bis pictures. They are mete 
handicraft. The whole is done with a certain mechanical case and 
indiifcrcnce ; but it is evident no part of the picture gave him any 
feature, and it is impossible it should gire the spectator say. His 

> Wiiltn ia Fcbiuar)', iSij. 




THE PICTURE OALT.KRIES OF ENGLAND 

only ambitiaa waa to execute hi* Utk w u to nre hi* credit ; and 
jovt fsT%t impulie u, to tura away from the ptcnire, RDd mtc jwa 



In ibe next room, there are fbor Vandyke*— two of them nocUent. ' 
One it the Ducheis of Richmood, a wfaole-ltngth, in a white BMtn 
draperjr. with a ^ lamb. The exprenion of her lice i* a litde 
mlleo and capnaotw. The othet, the Counteu of CarlUle, ha* • 
(hrewd, derer, Kniible countenance | and, tn a certain archnc** of 
look, and the coHonr of the lower pan of iIm face, rrtemblc* the late 
Mn. Jordan. — Between thcte two ponrut* J* a copy after Rembrandt, 
by Gainabonnigh, r fine »mir*, mellow head, with the hat tapped 
ofer the fiice. 

Among the inoct dritf>htful and imcreMiDit of the picturet in tlti* 
Collection, i» the portrait by Vandyke, of Lady Venetia Digby. It 
i> an altegortcai comporitiuo : but what truth, what purity, what 
dclic»:y in the execution 1 You arc introduced into the ptcfencc of 
a bcacnifil woman of <)iulity of a former age, Hnd it would be next to 
hnpouihle to perform an unbecoming action with that portrait hanging 
in the room> It hat an air of nobility about it, a spirit of humanity 
within it. There i* a doTe-likc inaocencc and softoet* about the 
eye* ) b the clear, delicate complexion, health and lorrow cootend 
for the maMcry; the mouth U tweetnew itaelf, the oo*e highly 
intelligent, and the (brehead i* one of * clear- ipirited thought.* fi« 
micfonune hat touchrd all thit gncc and beauty, and left it* canlia 
there. Thia ia •hown do Icm by the air that pervade* it, than by the 
accompanying emblems. The children in particaltr are exouiaitdy 
painted, and hare an erideni reference to thoM we lardy noticed ia 
the Four jfgti, by Tttiao. Thia portrait, both froa the ityle mad 
nibject, remind* one ibrcibly of Mr*. Hutdunton'i admirable 
Memoir* of her own I. tie. Both are equally hiatory, and the hUtory 
of the female he^rt (depicted, in the one caic, by the pencil, in the 
other, by the pen) in the finest age of female accoonpliihment and 
{riou* dei'otion. Look at thii portrait, breathing the b«^ty ofTirtoe, 
and compare it with the ' Beautica ' of Charle* ii.'i court, by Lely. 
THct look juat like what they were — a »et of keiit-miitre*»c«, painted, 
tawdry, thowiog off their theatrical or meretriaou* air* and graces 
without one trace of real cteeance or refinement, or one tparli of 
KWiment to touch the heart. Lady Gratnmont in the baodaonteat of 
them; and, though the moK voluptuous in her aiiirc and attitlKle, 
th< moat decent. 1'he Duchess of Pottsmouth, in her helmet and 

enmea, look* qotte like a hermee of romance or modem Amazon ; 
It for an air of eaiy aniurance, iinriting admiration, and alirmcd at 

nothing but being thought coy, commend u* to iny lady above, 

38 





THE PICTURES AT WINDSOR CASTLE 

in the iky-btne draiwrjr, thrown cxreleulir ncrota her diouldcre ! Ai 
paiotiogK, thr«e cclebnttcd potirjit* cannoi rank nery high. Tbty 
bare an affMted tiK, but ■ real liirdncM of iDBium aad cxecutioo ; 
and they hare thst coiuottion of attitude and Mtneu of ftatum which 
wc aiiMwuda lind cariied to «o ditgtunicx and iotipid an excen in 
Kncllcr'i portrait*. Sir Peter Leiy wa*, howcTcr, a better punter 
than Sir Godfrey RncUcr — that is the highnc prai«e that can be 
accorded to him. He had mote ipirit, more originality, and \nu the 
livelier coxcomb of the two ! Both these paintMB potnented connder- 
able mechaoicai dexterity, biit ii ta not of a refined kind. Neither of 
them could be ranked iimonK Rrcat painters, yet they were thought by 
their contemporaries and thciimelvcB superior to every one. At the 
diitance of a hundred years we aee the thine plainly enough. 

In the aamc room with the portrait of Lady Digby, there i* one 
of Killigrew and Cnrew, by the same montcrly hand. There i> tpirtt 
and character in the profile of Carcw, while the head of Killigrcw i« 
surprising from its composure and sedstenets of aspect. He w»a one 
of the grave wits of the day, who made nonsense a profound study, 
and turned trifies into philosophy, and philosophy into a jcsi. The 
pale, aaltow complexion of this head is thcoughoui in wonderful keep- 
ing. The beard and face »eem nearly of the lamc colour. We often 
lee this clear uniform colour of the nkiri in Titian's portraits. But 
then the dark eye*, beard, and cye-brow>, giic relief and distinctness. 
The lair hair and complexions, that Vandyke usually painted, wiih 
the almost total absence of shade from his pictures, made the task 

<ie diHicult i and, indeed, the prominence and elTect he produces in 
this respect, without any of tlie usual means, are almost miraculous. 

There are sevcr^ of his portraits, etjuesttian and others, of Charles 
|. in this Collection, some of them good, none of them first-rate. 
TboM of Henrietta (his Queen) are always delightful. The painter 
|ia« made her the most ladj-likc of Queens, and of women. 

The family picture of the Children of Charles i. is certainly 
admirably fainted and managed. The large niastilT-dog is ioimitably 
line and true to nature, and seems as if he was made to be pulled 
■bout by a parcel of loyal infants from gcneiutioo to generation. In 
general, it may be objected to Vandyke's dreiiid children, that they 
look like little old men and women. His grown-up people had too 
much GiifTncRs and t'omiality ; and the same thing must <]uitc OTcrlay 
the playfulness of iniancy. Yet what a ditfiTence between these 
young princes of the House of Stuart, and two of the princes of the 
reigning faniily with their mother, by Ramsay, which are eiideot 
likenesses to this hour ! 

We have loat our rcckooing at to the order of the |uctures and 

59 



THE PICTURE GALLEUIES OF ENGLAN 



rooms tn wKich they arc placed, and mun proceed pronutcooiuly 
throvgh the remaiDdcr of oot Catdogoc. 

One of the moat ooctd pktiuvt « Wudaor ii that of ibc Mherj, 
by Qsinttn MaUy*. lu ume U greater duo (U OMriti, Uc muoy 
othci pictute* wbkb have a lucky of i&wlligible nibject, boldly 
executed. Tbe concepboo ia good^ the colourbg bad ; ibc dnwing 
firm, and tbe exprcMioa cmtk and ofavioui. V/t are wrry to spcalc 
an sll disparsgiagly of QuiMto Matty* ; for the lUxy goe* that he waa 
originally httd t bl«cktfnith, and turned paiolcr lO gain hia maiter'a 
dai^bter, who would giie her hand to no one but on tliat condition. 
Happv be who dnu guoed tbe object of bit love. thouf;h posterity 
may diiTer about bin meritB ai an arthi ! Yet it ia ceftain, tbat any 
romintic incident of thii kind, connected with a wdl^koown work, 
inclincK lu to rcgiird it with a favourable inttcad of a critical eye, by 
enhancing our plcaauie in it ; u the eccentric character, the wild 
subjects, and the •ounding n.tme of KjlTator Rou have tended to lili 
him into the liighcti rank of fame among paintett. 

In the lame room with the M'utri, hf the BUcksmith of Antwerp, 
is a very different picture by Titian, consisting of two figures also, 
VM. Himself and a Venetian Senator. It is one of the finest (peci- 
iDciM of this maxter. His own portrait it not mnch : it has spirit, but 
is hard, with somewhat of a vulgar, knowing took. Bni the head of 
the SensloT ii a* line as anything that ever proceeded from the hand 
of man. The cxpreaiion is a lambent flame, a soul of Gre dimmed, 
not quenched by age. The desh ■/ Hesh. IfRubent'i pencil fed 
npOD roiea, Titian's was atntivirimi. The tone it betwixt a gold and 
ulver buc. The texture and pencilling arc marrowy. The dress is 
a rich ctinuon, which seemx to have been growing deeper ever since 
it was piunied. It is a front view. As far as attitude or action is 
conceriied, it is mere iiUi-lift ; but the look is of that kind that goes 
through you at a tingle glance. Let any one look well at this 
portrait, and if he then sees nothing in :t, or in the portraita of this 
painter in general, let him give up virtu and criticism in dcspdr. 

Thit room is rich in valuable gems, which might serie at a lest of 
a real tattc for the art, depending for their value on intrinsic qnalitie«( 
and not on imposing subjects, or mechanical arraagemcnt or quantity. 
As where ' the tcil), small voice of reason ' it wanting, we judge oS 
aciioDt by noisy tucccsa and ponularily t so where there is oa tnie 
mora] sense in art, nothing goes down but nomp, and buttle, and pre- 
tension. Tbe eye of taste looks to sec it a work has nature's finest 
image and lupcrtcription upon ii, and for no other title and pasipcet to 
fame. There it a Ttmng M.m'i HtciJ, (we believe in one comer of 
thu room) by Holbein, in which we can read high and heroic 
40 



4 



4 

4 



THE PICTURES AT WINDSOR CASTLE 

(houf^htt and r«*olution>, better than in ttay Cont'uieuct tf Seifia wc 

rrer uw, or than in all the Battla of AUxandtr thrown into a lump. 

Thete i> ;i Portrait of F.numm, by the >ame, and in the tame or an 

f«iljiMning room, in which wc nee into the mind of a tcholar and i>f an 

' smijibtc man, »» through a winrlow. There it a Htaiihy Pirmegiuo, 

loliy, triuai&hant, showing the spirit of another ngc and clirae — one 

'by Raphael, Uudioua and aelf-invoivcd — anothei, Katd to be by 

Leonardo da Vinci (but more like Holbein) grown crabbed with a^t 

l.vid thought — and a f;irt reading, by Corri-ggio, intent on her nibjed, 

1 and not forgetting hecicir. These arc the materials nf history ; and 

' if it i« not RUidc of them, it i« a nickname or a mockery. All tbu 

docH not Uy open the line nel-wotk of the heart and brain of man, 

that doca not make us see deeper into the soul, it but the apparatus 

and machinery of history- paiDting, and no more to it than the frame i» 

to the picture. 

We noticed a litde Mater Dolaroia in one of the rnoms, by Carlo 
Doici, which if a pale, pleasing, exprcttive head. There arc two 
large 6gurea of his, a magdaltn and .mother, which are in (he very 
lalscst ttyle of colouring and expreuion ; and Touih and Agt, by 
I Deoner, which arc in aa pcrfecily bad a taste and style of execution 
U anything we ever aaw of thii artut, who was an adept in that way. 
We are afraid we hare forgoiien one or two meritorious picture* 
' which we meant to notice. There i« one we ju»t recollect, a Portrait 
of a Toulh in black, by Parmegiano. It is in a ungular ttylc, but 
very bold, cxpteaiive, and natural. There i( (in the same apartment 
of the palace) a line piciorc of the BailU of Norfmsm, by Kubena. 
The tize and spirit of the horses in the fore-ground, and the obriotu 
aoimation of the riders, are finely cootraned with the airy petapectiTe 
and mechanical grouping of the armies at a dinance ; and >o ai to 
prevent that confusion and want of poiitive relief, which tuually 
pervade Battle- piccct. In the tame room (oppoiitc} in KncIlcT ■ 
Chiaeit conwrttJ to Chriithmiiy — a portrait of which he wa* justly 
proud. It i* a fine oil-picture, clear, tawny, without trick or alTecta. 
tion, and full of character. One of KdcIIct's line ladies or gentlemen, 
with their wigs and toupin, would haie bevn mortally o^ended to 
have been »o painted. The Chinese retains the same oily sly look, 
after his convercieo a« befoie, and seems just ai incapable of a 
change of religion at a piece of terra (Otia. On each tide of this 
performance are two Giiido>, the Ptrieut attd jiadromida, and Vtnut 
attired iy lie Graiet. We give the preference to (he former. The 
Andromeda i* a fine, noble figure, in a striking and even daring posa- 
tion, tntb an impasMooed and highly-wrought expreisioa of featixrea t 
and the whole sceiK is in harmony with the subject. The Fami 



THE P 




RE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



vanuiJi to thetr — we arc Mopped uxl *tmcud hj the colooriag, 
the prncitltnf;, the Btiahiag, or tbe want of li, that ii, by thr innru- 
oinitalitim of the *rt — but here th« ptiioler icenu to hxTC Snag bis 
amJ upon the cantru j hi* thought*, hit great idea* alone preriil ; 
there it nothing between u> and the tnbjcct; we look through 
» frame, and tec »cri{>nirc-hiuorict, and arc mKle actaal tpeciaiors 
of miraculous cTentt. Not lo cpcak it profanely, they arc a ion 
of rrveialkm of the eubjects, of which they trot ; there it an ca«e 
and freedoRi of nuiuwr about them, which bringi preternatural 
characters and tituations home to at, with the familiitity of coramoo 
evcry-day occurrence*; and while the figurct All, riiic, uxl uiiafy 
the mind, ihcy teem lo hoTc cott the pintcr nothing. The Carcooaa 
ore uu'fw/ produciioDii in the an. They are mere intcileciuAl, or 
rather vUmt a&tiraitioiu of truth and nature, lirtry where elae 
we »ee the means j here we artire at the end appareiiily wjtliuut 
any meaoi. There a » Spirit at work in tlie ditiae creation before 
lit. We are unconsciout of any derails, of any tiepi taken, of any 
progrett made ; wc are aware only of compicheati*e retulu, of 
whole mHHct and ligurct. The kwk of power tupcnodes the 
tppcatxncc of crTon. It it like a waking dreant, Tivtd, but uDdislio- 
guishablc in member, joint, or limb; or it it as if we had oturseliiv* 
seen the persons and tniogt at some former period of oiox being, and 
that the drawing certain dotted linet upon coarse paper, by rame 
nnkoown spell, l^ught back the entire and living linage*, and made 
diem pau before ut, palpable to thought, to feeling, and lo sight. 
Pcrhapt not all it owing to genius : something of this clfect may be 
atcrtbcd lo the simplicity of the Tchicle employed in embodying ilie 
story, and something to the decayed and dilapidated state of th« 
pictures diembelTts. They are tbe more majestic for being in ruin ; 
we are ttruck chiefly with the truth of proportion, and the range 
of conception : all the petty, meretricious pan of the urt is dead in 
them : the carnal it made spiritual, the corruptible h<i> put on incor- 
ruption, and, unidtc the wreck of colour, jnd the mouldering of 
nuicrial beauty, nothing is left but a universe of thought, at the 
broad, inuniarnt shadows of ' calm contemplation and majeMic 
pains I ' 

The fitct in order ts the Dtatb s^ Ananiat t and it is one of the 
noblest of thcK noble dctignt. The clTect it striking; and the 
contratt between the ttedfast, commanding attitude of the Apoatle*, 
and the conrolscd and prostruc figure of Ananias on the noor, is 
linely imagined. It it much a« if a group of peraont on Uiore siuod 
W witaeu die wreck of life and hone on the rocks and <]uick*andi 
beoeith tlicm. The abcuptnets ana screrily of the tranntion are, 

44 



I 
I 



THE PICTURES AT HAMPTON COURT 



howover, broken and relieved by the other kamao iniCTCtts in the 
ptctutc. The Aoaoiaa n a mnstuly, x ntupradous 6g>vre. The 
attitude, the drawing, tbe expression, the wse, the force, are alike 
wonderful. He fallt to i»iur:illy. thuC it %fcms a if a penon could 
fall id no other way ; and yet of all the way* in which a human 
figure coulil fall, it is probably ibc moat exprntive of a pcrton 
Oicrwhelmed by and in the grasp of Divine vengeance. Thia i$ in 
»onie mcatiurci we apprehend, the secret of Ksphael'^ aaceesa. MoK 
painters, in studying an attitude, puzzle ihemvclves to fiad out what 
will be picturesque, and what will be fine, and never discover it ! 
Raphael only thought how a person would stand or lall naturally in 
such or «uch circumstances, and the piclartsqut and the fint fbllowcd 
M matters of course. Henoc the unaffected force and dignity of hit 
style, which are only another name for truth and nature under 
impressive and momentous circumstances. The disiraction of the 
face, the inclination of the bead on one fiide, are as fine as possible, 
and the agony ia just verging to that point, in which it is relieved by 
death. The expreaiion of ghastly wonder in the features of the man 
on the floor next him is also remarkable ; and the mingled beauty, 
grief, and horror in the female head behind can ncTcr be enough 
admired or extolled. The pain, the sudden and violent contraction 
of the muMilts, i* as intense as if a slurp instrument had been dtivco 
into the forehead, and yet the same sweetness triumphs there as ever, 
the nioet perfect seif-comirund and dignity of demeanour. We could 
ha/aid a conjecture that this ia what formj the great distinction 
between the lutural style of Raphael and the lutoral style of 
Hogarth. Both are et^ually inlmte ; but the one is intense little- 
ness, meanness, vtilgarity ; the other is intense grandeur, refinement, 
and sublimity. In the one we see common, or sometimes uncommon 
and painful, circumstances acting with all tbcir force on narrow mind* 
and deformed bodies, and bringing out distorted and violent efforts at 
expression i in the other we see noble forms and lofty chaiacieta 
contending with adverse, or co-operating with powerful impressions 
from without, and imparting their own unallerea grace, and habitual 
composure lo them. In Hogarth, generally, the face is excited and 
torn in pieces by tome paltry interest of its own ; in Raphael, on the 
contrary, it i« expanded and ennobled by the contemplation of tome 
eveoi or object highly interesting in itself; that is to siy, the pastioD 
in the one i« tntelleeiual and abstracted t the pauioD in the other it 
petty, seliish, and confined. We have not thought it beneath the 
dignity oif the subject to make this compaiiton between two of the 
most extraordinary and highly gifted persons that the world ever saw. 
If Raphael had seen Hogarth's pictures, be would not have despised 

45 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLANl 



ihetn. Tho<K only can do it (and they are u-ckomc ! ) who, wanting 
nil that he had, can do oothing that hr could not, or ihat they ihem- 
«elvc9 pretend to accompluh hy atTectation and bombast. 

EJymai iht Strrertr stand* ncst in order, aod is caual \a nxrit. 
Thcic U a Roman neroncss and severity in the general look of the 
tcene. The liKure of the Apoitle, who ii tDllictiog the punithment 
of blindness on the impoMor, is ftrand, coiimi.indinji, full of eate and 
dignity : and the figure of Elymas ii blind all ovct, and t> niulBcd up 
in its clothe* from head to foot. A xtory i« told of Mr. Oarrick < 
objecting to the natuml effect of tJie action, in the hearing of the late 
Mr. West, who, in vindication of the painter, requested the celebrated 
coinedian to close his cyca and walk across the room, wlieo he iniuotly 
stretched out his hands, and began to grope his way with the entct 
attitude and expression oftlus noble Study. It may he worth remark- 
ing hete, that this great puintet and line observer of human nature 
ha* repretented the magician with a hard iron *iiagc, and strong 
uncouth (Sgnre, made up of booes and muacirs, a* one not troubled 
with weak ncrrcs, nor to be diverted from hit purpose by idle 
scruples, as one who repelled all sympathy with others, who was 
not (o be morrd a jot by their censures or prejudices against hint, 
and who could break with ease througli the cobweb snares which he 
bid for the credulity of nianltind, without being once entanelcd in 
hit own delusions. Hit outward form betrays the hard, nnimagioative, 
self-willed understanding of the Sorcerer.— >There is a head (a profile) 
coming in on one side of the picture, which we would point out to 
onr readers as one of the most tinely rclicTcd, and best prcsctTed, 
in this scries. 1'he taoe of Elymas, and some others tn the picture, 
have bccD a good deal hurt by time and ill-trcstmeot. There it a 
i«vj^ iook under the noic, as tf tlie water colour had been washed 
awiiy in some damp lumber-room, or unsheltered aut-houK. The 
CartooDi hai-e felt ' the icnsons' difference,' being expoted to wind 
and rain, tossed about from place to place, and cut down by ptofftnc 
hands to fit them to one of their abodes ; so that it i* sltoeetber 
wonderful, that 'through their looped and tattered wretche^KU,* 
any traces arc Men of their original splendour and beauty. Th«t 
they are greatly changed from what they were e^-en a hundred years 
ago, is evidcet from the heada in the Rjulciiffe library U Oxford, 
which were cut out from one of then that was nearly destroyed by 
tome accident, and from the large French eneratings of single beads, 
done about the same time, which arc a* finished and correct a* 
powible. Even Sir James Thornhill's copies bnr tMtiinany to the 
same effect. Though without the spirit of the origjiials, they have 
fewer blots and blotches in them, from hanog been better ukca care 



■ 
I 



I 





I 



THE PICTURES AT HAMPTON COURT 

of. A skcltloa it barely Idt of ihr Canoons: but ihcir mighty 
relic*, Hkc the bonei of th« Mammoih, tell im whai ih« cotire and 
living fabric must imtt been • 

In the Gate Btaatifai there is .1 profunton of what i« ftae, atA of 
imponng coatrutt. The twitted pillar* h4ve been found ftutt with ; 
but there ihvj ttand, and will for ever tund to annwcr :ill cavtlleii 
vith ihrir wmtbcd beauty. The St. John in thit Cartoon it mt 
Icstancr of what we have above fainted as to the ravages of time on 
tfaece pictuiea. In the old I'rench enfi.raving (half the size of Irfc) 
the feature* arc exceedingly well marked and beautiful, whemi 
they »re here in a great mcaaufe defaced i and the hair, which it 
at preient a mere clotted mui, i* woteo into gtaceful and waving 
cur it, 

* Like to IhoiF hanging lockt 
Of young Apollo." 

Great inroads have been nude on the delicate outline of the other 
pant, and the surftce bat bern generally injured. The Beggar* are 
a« line at ever : they do not Intc by the tqualid condicioti of their 
garb or feature*, but remain patriarch* of poverty, and mighty in 
di«e**c and intinnity, a» if they crawled and grovelled on the 
pavement of Heaven. They ate lifted above tliis world I The 
child carrybg the doves at bis back it an exquisite example of 
grace, and innocence, and buoyant motion ; and the face and ligure 
of the young womnn seen directly over him give a glad welcome 
to tbc eye in their fre«h, unalloyed, and radiant twectncai and joy. 
This h^ teem* to have been spared frorn the unhallowed touch of 
injury, like a little isle or circlet of beauty. It wu guarded, we 
may cuppoar, by it« own heavenly, feminine look of smiling lovelineea. 
There ii another very line female bead on the opposite side of the 
picture, of a graver east, looking down, and nearly in profile. The 
I'Only pun of this Cartoon that we object to, or should be for lunaag 
iMtf, ii the lubberly naked ligure of a boy dote to one of the 
Fpiliari, who teemt to hare no tort of business there, and it an obvioui 
eye-tore. 

The JUiratutiuu Draugil of Flihii is admirable for the clearness 
and prominence of the figures, for the vi;'orous marking of the 
iBuaclet, for the fine expression of devout emolioa in the Si, Peter, 
and for the cahn dignity in the attitude, and divine benignity in the 
countenance of the Christ. Perhapt this head expresics, more than 
any other that ever wat attempted, the blended meekncic, benevolence, 
and tublimity in the character of our Saviour. The whole figure is 
•o tull, so easy, ii almost lloau in air, and seems to sustain the boat 

♦7 



THE PICTURE GALLEHIES OF ENGLAND 



hy the tectet teaw of powrr. Wc shall Dot att«iupt Kt make i rormal 
rqily to the old objeciioo to tlie diniicutiTe »Uc of the boat, btrt we 
coafea it appears to u« to enhance the ralue of the niiracle. lu 
load (wclU proportionably in comporiaon, and the wave* coospire to 
bear it up. The Stork* on the ihore are doi the tcau aniffiated or 
elevated part of the ptciurr ; they cxuU in (he display of diriDc power, 
and share in the prodigality of the occaaion. 

Tlie Sacrificr at Lytlra has the marks of Raphael's hand oo every 
|)art of it. You aee and almost hear what it pataiiiK. What a 
pleaiing relief to the cocfiued, buay sceoc, are the two children 
|>iping at the altar ! How finely, how unexpectedly, bat naturally, 
th^i innocent rustic head of a girl comes in over the grave counies- 
ance» and weighty, thougfaiKiI heads of the group of attcudaM 
pricHts ! The animals brought to be sacrificed are equally fine in 
tiie expression of terror, and ibc acdon of resistance to the rude ibrce 
by which they arc dragged along. 

A ereat deal has been laiil and written on the St. Paul frtaehag 
at Aihmt. The fcaiures of excellence in this corapoEition are iitdeed 
to bold and itrikio); ni hardly to be itiistaken. The abrupt figore 
of Sl Paul, his hands railed in that fervent appeal to Him who 
■dwellelh not in temples made with hands,' *ucb as are teen in 
gorgeous splendour all around, the circle of hii auditors, the noble 
and pMnud diversity of heads, the one wrapped in thought and in its 
cowl, another resting oo a crutch and earnestly scanning iltc face of 
the Apoillc rather than his doctrine, the careless attention of the 
Epicurean philoaopher, the fine young heads of tlie disciples of the 
Porch or the Academy, the clenched (in and eager curiority of 
(he man in Iront at if he wat drinking sounds, give this picture a 
•uperiority oTcr all the other* for popular and intelligible elTect. We 
do not think that it ii therefore the best ; but ii ja the easicat to 
describe and to remember. 

The Givtiig vf iht Krji is the li«t of ihem ; it is at present at 
Somerset Houac. There it no set purpofe here, oo <itudicd coetiata : 
it is an aggregation of grandeur and high feeling. The diKipte* 
gather round Christ, like a flock of sheep listening to come divine 
shepherd. The figure of their master is sublime : hit countenance 
laa attitude ' in act to ipcak.' The landscape is alto extremely fine 
ud of a soothing character. — Every thing fa!u into it* place in iheae 
piciurea. The figures seem to uop jutt where their budnew and 
fillings bring them : not a fold in the diaperies can bt diaposed of 
for the better or ocherwiac than it ts. 

It would be in vain to enumerate the particular liEurea, or lo 
explain the ctory of works ao well known : what we bare aimed at 



LORD GROSVENOR'S PICTURES 

iiM bem to shew the spirit that brcaihct tliroogh thcrn, snd vc >ba]l 
count oureclrt't fortuoaif, if wt hate not rallied tliem with our prkiw. 
We do Dot cue about lomc woi ks : but thetc were lacred to otir 
imaginicions, ind we thould be soriy indeed to hare pcofaacd them 
by de4C(tptiaa or criticinn. We have hurried through our unavoidable 
u*k with fear, and look back to it with doubt. 



LORD GROSVIiNOR'S COLLECTION OF PICTURES 

Wt Nldom quit a mantioa like that of which we have here lo 
give some account, and return horacwardn, but we think of Warton'i 
Sonitti, ivriltra afttr ttnng tVihon-hmiif. 

* From Pembroke 'i princely dome, where mimic art 
Decki AJtli a magic hand the dauling bowen, 
Itt liring hu» wlirrt ttic wami ptnciJ jioun, 
Anil brtathiiiK fotim from the rude marble ilart, 
How to life'* humbler uenr) tan I depart ? 
My brcail all flowing from thow gorgraiu tow'ri, 
In my low cellhovr cheat the nillcn hounF 
Viin the complaint '. For Fancy can impart 
(To Fate superior, and to Fortune'i doom) 
Whate'er aaomii the itaiely- storied hall : 
She, mid the dungeon'i tolitary gloom, 
Can dmi the Gracn in tlieir Attic pall i 
Bid the Krecii laiult-ca|ic'i> vemil licaiity bloom ; 
And in bright trophic* clothe the inilighi wall." 

Having repeated theae line* to ourielvea, we (it outetly down in 
our chair* to con over our tank, abiiract the idea of excluaive property, 
and think only of those imagcB of beamy and of grandeur, which we 
can carry away with us in our mind*, and have cicry where before 
ua. Let ua takt aonic of thete, and drtcribe them how wc can. 

There il one — we see it now — the Man tailh a HaTt/t, by 
Rembrandt. 'In our mind'e eye, Horatio!' What is the 
dilTcrcnce between thi& idea which we have brought away with ua, 
and the picture on the wall ? Ha* it lott any of it* tone, it* caae, 
its depth? The head turnh round in the »ame graceful moving 
attitude, the eye carelessly meets ours 'be tufted beard grow* to the 
chin, the hawk flutter* and balances himself on his favourite perch, 
hi* master'* hand ; and a shadow teems passing over the pictore, just 
leaving a light in one corner of it behind, to give a livelier dTcct to 
the whole. There ii no mark of the pencil, no jagged points or solid 
nutaes ; it is all air, and twilight might be supposed to hate drawn 

TOu II. : D 49 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OP ENGLAND 



hU rt'd acrou it. It U m much *a idea on tlic etaru, u it it ia 
tlie mind. There Ate no mcaoa empIo]r«d, u &r m you cui discover 
— you K« nothing but a limple, graiid, md mturiJ clTect. It it 
impalpHblr it » itiQught, iaanffbie at x nund — nay, the ihadows, 
haTT 3 brothiog hannony, ana fling tound an undulating echo 
thcmaclvcs, 

' Al every fill Mnoothing the rsvrn davm 
OfdirkncM (ill it imilc* ! ' 

lo the flppoaitc corner of the room it a Porimit «/ a Ftmale (by 
the tame), in which every thing i* m clear, and pointed, and brought 
out into the open day, a* in the former it it nriihdniwn from clo«c 
and minute inspection. The fice glitters with trnile* as the ear-riaga 
•parkle uith light. The whole ia itiff, itarchcd, and Formal, hai a 
pearly or metallic look, and you throughout mark the moiiE elaborate 
and careful iiniahiog. The two picture* make as antitheitt, where 
they are phced ; bat tbii was not probably at all intended : it 
prooeedi aimply from the dilTerence in the n.iture of the nibject, and 
the truth and appropriate power of the treatment of it. — Id the 
middle between these two pictures in a small history, by Rembrandt, 
of the SahilaliQii iij Einabtih, in which the figures come out Mramjling, 
dbjaintcd, quaint, ugly as in a dream, but partake of the mynteiioiu 
ngnilicaDce of pretcmatuial communicaiion, and arc aeen through the 
visible gloom, or through the dimmer night of antiijutty. Light and 
■hade, not form or feeTing, were the element* of which Rembiandt 
composed the fincat poetry, and hi* imaginaiion brooded only over the 
medium through which we ditccm objects, leaving the object* tbeni* 
selves uninspired, unhallowed, and untouched 1 

We must go through our account of these pictures u ihcy atari up 
in our memory, not according to the order of their atraogcinem, for 
want of a proper »ct of memorinduiui. Our friend, Mr, Gnmmow, 
of Clevcland-boute, had a nice little neatly-bound duodecimo Catalogue, 
of great use a« a fa^ Meeum lo occasional visitant* or absent critic* 
— but here we have no such advantage ; and to take notes before 
company is a thing (hat we abhor. It has a look of pilfering some- 
thing from the picture*. While we merely enjoy the sight of the 
objecta of art before us, or sympathiiie with the approving gaze of 
the greater beauty around u«, it is well ; there is a feeling of luxury 
and refinement in the empJoyment { but take out a pocket-book, ai>d 
begin to scribble note* in it, the date of the picture, the name, the 
room, tome paltry defect, some piitifu) discovery (not worth remember- 
ing], the D 00 -essentials, the mechanic cotBmoH-platft of the art, and 
the BentiroeQi is gone — you shew that you liave a further object in 

SO 



LORD GROSVBNOR'S PICTURES 



view, a job to execute, a feelinK foralgo to the place, and ditfemit 
from every one cUc — you become a butt and a mack for ridicule to 
tlie reet of the company — and you trtirc with your pocket* ftill ot 
witdum from a uloon of ait, with a* little right (t> you have to carry 
off the deeaert, (or what you hiTc not been able to consutiu,) from 
an ino, or a bonuuet. Such, at leaM, is our feeling; and we had 
rather maltc u mistake dow and then, as to a ninnrre, or the oarne of 
a room in which a picture ii placed, thaa ipoil our whole pleasure in 
looking at a line Collection, and contequently the plcanre of the 
leader in leainiog what wc thought of it. 

Among the pictures that haunt our eye in ihia way it the Aihratmt 
of ibe Aagtlt, by N. Poustin. It n one of his finest work* — elegant, 
graceful, full of feelioji, happy, enlivening. It ia treated rather as a 
claaiical than aa a lacred tuoject. The Angela ate more like Cupida 
than Angels. They are, bowcrcr, beautiJully grouped, with varioua 
and expreenvc atiiiudea, and reimiid one, b^ ihelr haJf aotic, half 
leiious homage, of the line — 

* Nod to him, cIt«i, anil do him councsiM.* 

They arc ladm with baskcta of flowers — the tone of the piciur* ii 
rosy, tlocid ; it seems to hare been painted at 

< The bnciy call of incense-bieathinK mom,* 

and the angels urerhead tport and gambol in the air with butterfly- 
wing*, like buttcrtlici. It it one of lho*e rare productions that sntiify 
the mind, and from which wc turn away, not from wcstrincu, but from 
a fulness of delight. — The Jtrat&Itt rttiriang Thanh in ihr IVtliitnuii 
is a fine picture, but inferior to this. Near it is a group of Angels, 
said to be by Corieggio. The exptctaiona are grotesque and £ue, 
but the colouring doca not leeni to ua to be his. The texture of the 
Be«b, an well at the but, too much reaemblea the skin of ripe fruit. 
We meet with several line Undicapet of the two Pousaint, (particularly 
one of a rocky eminence by Gaipar,) in the room before you come 
to the Rembrandt!, in which the mixture of grey rock snd green 
noes and shrubs is beautifully managed, with striking troth and 
dearncM. 

Among detacbed and woallcr pictuies, we would wish to pmnt out 
to the atleatioa of oui readera, an cxquiute bead of a CbUJ, by 
Andrea del Sano, and a fine Salrator in the inner room of all : in the 
room leading to it, a pleosine, glany Cuyp, an airy, earthy- looking 
TcnicTs, and 1 Mother and a Sitting ChilJ,\ij GmAo : in th' Saloon, 
a St. Caibtriitf, one of pAmegiaoo's most graceful pictuit-j a St. 
Jipiti, by Domcoichino, fiill of swectnctc, thought, and feeling ; and 

5» 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OP ENGLAND < 



two posfci by RapbacI, tliat hive a look u if painted oo |>ap< 
Ji^«*e w £sf^, and St. Lite fainti^ tin f^trgia, both ^ninblfrl 
Ibr dnwJBg aixl rxprewwat aai a rich, puplct erofm toot of 
nIowiDg. WhciCTCT Raphael it, there ii grace and digmtft aod 
m ia fi»r »in g leul. In the laH-inauiosai room, near the cotrance, b 
alio a CNTwryiM ^ Stmt PaJ, by Rnbent, of mGoke cpirit, 
bnlUaricy, aod delicacjr o^ execution. 

Bvt it i» in the ixrge room to thr right, that the ipleftdonr and 
power of RobciM reign trinmpbani and oBiinlled. and yet he bs« 
here 10 csotend with higbext work* a&d oame*. The four huge 
piciuie* of eccleaiatiical Mb)ectf> the MtHii^ ^ Ahram and MtLhittJt<, 
the Calitra^ vf Moama, the Etrangt^li, and the Falbert tfthe Cl>urJ>, 
have BO match is this coontry for tcemc potnp, and danling airy 
effect. The fij^m are colocut ; and it might be caid, without much 
exitaiagince, that the drawing and colouring arc to too.' He »ceint 
to hate ptinticd with a huge twecfing gigantic pencil, and with btoad 
OMMM of Hulloyed colonr. The (pcctaior ii (u it were) thrawn 
back by the picture*, and Furreyi them, a« if placed at a iUpendon 
liditht, a« well m duUBce from him. Thi«, indeed, i« thetr hictory : 
they were paiiued to be [ilaced in sonw Jenut'i church abroad, ai an 
elevation of forty or fifty feet, and Rabeni would hare ttarted to tec 
tbem in a drawing-room or on the ground. Had be foreaeeo aocb a 
reaolt) he would perhapt have add«d tontcthing to the correctnew of 
the feature*, and iai:en (omething froni the gorgeODa crvdcMsa of the 
CoJoor. But ihctc ii grandeur of contpocitioo, involution of form, 
motion, character b ti> nat, ivde outline, the impodag cootnut of 
iky and fieth, fine groietque head* of old age, florid vouih, and fawn- 
like bcanty ! You aee notlung but patriarch*, nrtnieva] men and 
women, walking ainoBg tetnplei, or truding the aky — or the earth, 
with an ' air and gntnrc proudly eminent,' as if they trod the iky — 
wfacB man firn roic from nothing to hii luiii'c sabliniity. We cxnnot 
dMCribc thcw pictnret in their details ; (hey are aae ftaggefhig blow 
after aBOthcr of tlic ntighiy hand that iiaced them. All is cast in 
the ntne mould, alt ii filled with the tame apint, all it clod in the 
nme gmidy robe of light. Rubens wu at home here; hii_^rt« wa* 
the nroce«iooil, the ibowy, and the impoting t he grew almoat 
drank and wanton with the fente of hit power oier nich »ub}ect»t 
tad he, in fact, Idt ihete piciurci nnliniahcd in Kimc rairicniart, that, 
Jbr the place aod object for which they were inicitded, they might be 
perfect. They were done (it it laid) for itpe«ir>ea from tmall 
deugot, and carried neaily to their pretest uate of finishing by hit 

' We htvi ic wcU hU the ctha dir, that < RobcM't elctnrci were the pihttc 
otTUUn.' 




LORD GHOSVENOR'S PICTURES 

•cholan. There is a imaller picture in tbe uime toom, Inimi 
emkrjtii^ tht faUt June, which ]>oioti oui and ddinei tbeic >tyle of 
xtt and adaputioQ fix remote clf«cc. Theic !« a delicacy in thu 
lait picture (which ii, however of the li/c of life) thii makt* it 
look like a mioiaturc in compariiOD. The Hcth of the wotnen ii like 
lilies, or tike milk strewed upon irory. It in soft and pearly ; but, 
ID the larger picturesi it ta heightened beyond naturct the veiJ of air 
bccweed the spectator and the lij^urcB, when placed in the proper 
position, being supposed to give the lait linishing. Near tbe /riwr U 
an hittoricai tcmale tigure, by Guido, which will not beat any com- 

SariEon for tranipatency and delicacy of tint with the two Juno*. — 
Lubcna was undoubtedly the greatest 4(aie-fainltr in the world, if wc 
except Paul Veronese, and the Fleming was to him flat and insipid. 

t' [t is place which lessens and acts off.' We once saw two pictures 
of Rubens' hung by tbe side of the Marriagr of Cmta in the Louvre; 
and they looked nothing. The Paul Veronese nearly occupied the 
tide of a large room (the modem French exhibition ■toom] and it was 
like looking through the aide of a wall, or at a •plcndid htnquct and 
gallery, full of people, and foil of interest. The texture of the two 
Rubenses was •niowly, or flowery, or talltny : it was all alike; but in 
the Venetian's gre^tt work the jallais were of stone, the floor was 
marble, the ubies were wood, the dresses were larious stuffs, the skjr 
was air, tbe flesh was flesh ; the groups were living men and women. 
Turks, emperours, ladies, pninters, musicians — all waa real, dazxlins, 
profuse, astonishing. It seemed a* if the very dogs under the taUe 
might get up and bark, or that at the sound of a trumpet the whole 
aswmbly might rise and disperse in diflereot directions, in an tnitanu 
Thia picture, however, was considered as the triumph of Paul 
Veronese, and the two by tbe Flemish artist tliat hung beside h 
were very inferior to some of his, and aisuredly to those now 
exhibited in the Gallery at Lord Gtosvenor'i. Neither do we wish 
by this allusion to disparage Rubcni ; for we think him on the whole 
a greater genim, and a greater painter, than the rival we have here 
opposed to him, as we may attempt to shew when wc come to speak 
of ihc ColleciioD at Blenheim. 

There are some divine Cbudea in the same room ( and they too 
are like looking through a window at a select and conscious lundacape. 
There are five or six, al! capital for the composition, and highly 
prescrrcd. There is a strange and somcwhac aanmaloui one of Chriil 
M iht Mount, aa if the artist had tried to contradict himself, and yet 
it is Claude all over. Nobody but he could paint one single atom of 
R. The Mount is stuck up in the very centre of tlie picture, against 
all rvle, like a huge dirt-pye : but tbea what an air breathes rouud it, 

S3 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



iriii 1 w qtdfdw kfWlut verdsre cloths it, wlm Hodu zad bcrda 
feed roood il( m w o m l aod uochntged ! CIcMe bj tl is the ^reh ff 
C*m i lwi i mtt fat tiu« i» to M ■ bincr rfiMfyw iiB gW . ApniKoftt 
hns ia a Inli raon ia dtr ceaaay, «4«r wc wei to ninffmnlte ii 
bjr dw faeur togtther, and day aftrr day, md * ^ aar jmu ' iMo 
tfac pictsn. It vu tbe moat graeefol, tbt noK pcmctflf lU Qmde'a 
conpoHtiaai* Toc i cmplc >mi]cd to oooK u3f vtfd IBV Inv im d d l g 
of tbe pktm, a* in a duKc, to afaow ita aomaled bcraty, tbe 
VmM of tlw acne ! Young tnea beat ibnr bnndica met K whfa 
|laylid teodeneaat aod, oo tbe offotkt aide of a aKaiii, at wbicb 
cMtle itoopcd to drink, there grew a Mauly groTe, erect, nnk aonfcr- 
iog looka of faeanty : tbe diataoce bt tween retired into air aad 
gteMWJBg abon*. Never was there tceoe *o btr. ' m ibKkNite, that 
10 itadf nmm'd all delif^' Hov did «e wiab to compare ii with 
tbe pictve E The tree*, we tbouriit, moat be of leroal giLLU the 
il»r recalled the mild dawn, or aonetwd ercnntg. No^ tbe brxocbea 
oitbe irect ara red, the Ay boTDtd up, the whole hard Mid oaoanfget- 
iUe. Thii ia Dot the picuKc, tbe pnat of which we med to am « 
ottBOond — there is anotbcr aomewbcre that we Kill afaoU aee I There 
affefaef i p c1 m « w iof ihcKwa i iy <w/jBa»awgq/'fAf Rmmaa E ^i n , 
M Lotd RadMr't, in WhAire. Thoae bete b»e i atore peGahed* 
dtannl look, bat we catuwt pccfe them on that account. In one 
ceroer of tbe room ia a St. Snm, by Andrea Sacchi a fine atody, 
with pair face and gi a ra i eata» a aaim dying (a* h ibonld aeen) — bn 
u he diet, cocHciow of ao mdying i(>irii. The old Catholic poaUsta 
piK the aod of rdigion into their pctvea— for thry fdi it wnfaio 
thenMelfea. 

There are two Titiaiw — lie IFoman taitn or /Uybaj, and a large 
nomuioous laodscape with the ctory of Jtfiitr aad jha«fe. The 
Um ia rkh and Krtktng, but oot c^tut to hit beti ; and the fiormer, 
we think, one of hit moai excepdooabk ptcivrea, both in chcncter, 
aod (we add) oolootisg. In the laM puticolar, it it tridcy, and 
diacovers ioMead of ooocctling iu an. The fleah is not traaqiweM, 
bu a tramifanmj I Let o« not forget a fine STDdetv, a Auw^imrt, 
«4uch ia hi^y ^iritcd and natural, at far ai the uinuli are con- 
eencd t b«t i* fittfyt mm) waott tbe tone and gencnl effect thai 
Rrtena wtndd bare thrown orer it. In the middle of the tighi-haod 
dde of the room, it the Mnti^ efJ^ot anJ Lukai, by Mcnllo. It 
» a lifcly, ooa-of-door nceoc, fiill of butde and expmtion; bot it 
rather bringa as to the tenu and facet of two baodt of^gypdes meetiitg 
00 a common heath, than catiie* us back to the remote timet, placet, 
and e*eota, trcMed of. Murillo was the painter of nature, not of 
the imagtoation. There is a Stafiag Ch^J by him, orcr the door of 

S4 



I 



I 

I 



4 




I 



PICTURES AT WILTON, STOURHEAD, ETC. 

the nloon (an admirabte cabiDrt-]Hct8re), ami aoother of a boy, a 
Uitlc ipiritnj tiuiic, brown, glowing, ■ of the earth, catihy,* the fleih 
thoroughly bskcd, u if hr had come out of u om ; uid who rcgatdt 
you with k look as if hr WM afraid you might bind htm apprentice to 
Mme trade or handicraft, or tend him to a Sunday -icliool ; and so 
put an end to hit ahort, luppy, carehM liie— lo hia lesiona from that 
great teacher, the Suo — to Wis phyiric, the air — to his bed, the euth — 
and to the tonl of hii very being. Liberty! 

The lirxt room you enter in 6llcd with lomc very good and loinc 
very bad English pictures. There i« Hogarth'* Dittruttii Pott — 
the Dtath of Wolff, by Wc«t, which is not va good at tlie print would 
lead u« to expca — an excellent whole-lengih portrait of a youth, by 
Gunsborough — A Man tuith a Hawk, by Noribcote, and Mrt, 
Siddont at lie Tragic Mate, by Sir Jothua. Thii portrait Lord 
Gta»*eoor bought the other day for ^1760. It hat riten in price 
every time it haa been jiold. Sir Jothun ttold it for two or three 
hundred pound* to a Mr. Cdonne. It wa« then purchastd by Mr. 
Desenfanit who parted with it to Mr. William Smith for a larger turn 
(we believe /fjoo) ; and at the tale of that gentleman's pictures, it 
was bought oy Mr. WatMn Taylor, the lait proprietor, for a ihouund 
guinens. While it vnu in the poeieBaion of Mr. DenenfanB, a copy of 
it wm taken by a pupil of Sir Jothua's, of the name of Score, which 
i« now in the Dulwich Gallery, and which we alwnyR took for an 
ori^nal. The tax of the original is larger than the copy. There 
vai a dead child painted at the bottom of it, which Sir Joshua 
Reynolds afterwards disliked, and he had the canvas doubled opon 
the Jrame to hide it. It has been let out again, but we did not observe 
irliethcr the child vnt there. We think tt had better not be aten. 

We do not wiah to draw invidiout comp^irisonn i yet we may ay, 
in reference to the picture* in Lord Grorrcnor'* Collection, and ibow 
at Cleveland -house, thai the former arc distinguithed mo>i by elegance, 
brilliancy, and high prcocrvation j while those belonging to the 
MuQuit of Stafford look more like old picturec, and have a corrc- 
•poitding tone of richness and niagni licence. Wc have endearourcd 
to do justice to both, but we cunfess we hare fallen very thort even 
of our own bopci and expectatiooi. 



PICTURES AT WILTON, STOURHEAD, to. 

Sau&bi'kv Plain, barren as it i«, is rich in collectiooi and mooumentv 
of art. There are, within the distance of a few milct, Wiltoo, 
Longford-Castle, Foothill- Abbey, Stoiirhcad, and lait though not 

ss 



PICTURES AT WILTON, STOURHEAD, ETC 

them ; but there are ■onie impRniaiu of thu von that arc proof 
f agaiait time. 

Lord Radnor has the two famou* CUudci, the Mimmis and 
£vf7iiag ^ At R^taoH Eittpirt. Though »k landscapet they are 
, neither ro brilliaot, aor ^luahed, not varied, at some of chit Atittt'i. 
' there it a weight and coDCcntration of hiitorii: feeling about them 
which nunv of hli allegoricai productions want. lu the lirtt, half- 
I finished buildingB and mauy columiiG t'tx amidst the dawning etFulgeoce 
■ that ii Ktrcakcd with rim« of incxiingnishahlc light; and a noble irec 
bi the foreground, ample, luxuriant, hang* and hroodd orcr tlie 
growing Atugn. There t» a dim miitinest spread over the accoe, at 
in the bcginniog of things. The Evening, the companion to tt, i> 
eren hoer. It has all the gorgeous pomp that atteoda the meetbg of 
Ni];ht and Day, and a flood of glory (till prevail* over the coming 
thadowD. In the cool of the evening, «omc cattle arc feeding on the 
brink of a glatsy stream, that reticcts a mouldering ruin on one ftidc 
of the picture ; and «o precise is the touch, so true, so firm is the 
ncilling, ao classical the outline, thai they give one the idea ot 
[■CulMured caule, biting the short, green turf, and w«i» an enchunied 
Ihetd ! They appear ttamped on the canvas to remain there for ever, 
'Of at if nothing could root them from the spot. Truth with beauty 
■uggesti the feeling of immortality. No Dutch picture ever (Uggesled 
thit i'eeling. The objects are reat, it ia true ; but not being bcauiifiil 
or impressive, the mind feels no wish to mould them into a permaocm 
realiiy, to bind them fondly on the heart, or lock them io the imagina- 
tion aa in a sacred recess, >afe from the envious canker of time. No 
one ever fell a lunging, a sickoew of the heart, to tee a Dutch land- 
scape twice ; but thouc of Claude, after an absence of years, have 
this effect, and produce a kind of calcniurc. The reason of the 
dilferencc it, that in mere literal copies from nature, where the objecu 
arc not iotetesting in tliemselves, the only attraction is to see the 
felicity of tlie execution ; and having once witnessed this, wc are 
Eatisflcd. But there ii nothing to stir the fancy, to keep aiii-e the 
yearnings of pawion. Wc remember one other picture (and but one) 
■n Lord Radnor'a Collection, that was of this iJtal character. It 
wa> a MqgJaltn by Guido, with «trraming hair, aod streaming eyes 
looking upwards—full of sentiment and beauty. 

There is but one fine picture at Wilton-house, the Fanify Vanilyiti 
with a noble Gallei-y of antique marbles, which we may pronounce to 
be invaluable to the lover of an or to the student of history or liuman 
nature. Roman Emperors or Proconsuln, the poets, orators, and 
almost all the great men of antiquity, arc here * ranged in a row,' and 
palpably embo^ed ckhei in genuine or traditional busts. Some of 

57 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES 



ENGLAND 



of look, porticnbrlf mmm of tbe cwlkr aget «od fabawH of Creeoe^ 
riudi «e apptvlMnd to br idrj rrpcaentatioos ; while other iDOfc 
■ m l w aad betUT unbentiutnl onn of cdcbcotcd Ronmw arc 
diltiopiHhcd by thr Mreogth and dmiiliciiy of common IvnetUt bead* 
of tbf bnt cIm. — The Urge pfctme of the PttairUt Famify, by 
VaodykC) u Bori*aUed in it* kind. Ii u a hiMory of tlie tune. It 
throwi 0* onrhr two ccotarica b»ck to owd aod aunBcrt tint do 
longer exiit. The m ember i of a Nobte Hoiiae ('(it a handml lad 
fixty yeart noce) arr brocq>bt togelhef m frtfria ferttma, xtA apfmr 
in aJl the nriede* of age, chanctet, and coanme. There are the old 
Lotd >od Lady Pcmhrokr, who * keep their «aie ' raited loroewhat 
abofV the other groapa; — the one a liirty old genilenan, who •eon* 
aa if be could once hare wiii^pered a flattering talc is a fair bdy** 
ear \ bit help-mate looking i little bn. aad talky by hi* tide, pr«b>hlj 
calcnlatiDg the eitpence of the piciure. and not weU ooderftaKling llie 
ercnl of it — there are the daiifrhteri, pretty, weU-dtcMcd, d^pat 
girtt, but mmewfaat iaapid, (entiinental, and racant — then there are 
the two cIdcK (OM, that nughl be *aid lo hare walked oni of Mr. 
"btAjJ* d ua ip ii OB rf the »gc of chitilry ; tbc one a perfect courtier. 
% cupnJcaiglii, tmooih-bced, haadwiBc, almoft cffcmiiute, thai 
•eona to hate laoved all hi* life to 'the mood of lata and *oft 
reeocden,' decked in mlk* aad erabttmlery like the tender ftnrer 
iMBBK frora ita glouy IbMa ; the other the p.alliiit aoldier, threwd, 
bold, urdy, with ipurrcd heel and tawny biukin*, ready to 'mouDt 
on barbed itccd*, and witch the world with noble horawnaMihip * — 
down to the untutored, carroty-headed boy, the GaoK-GiUif of the 
piece, who appear* to hare been just dragged from the fatm-yard to 
nt for bit picture, and ttaici about hini in aa great a heat and fTi|[trt 
a* if he h»d dropped from the cloud* : — all in ihi* admirable, linng 
oo ro po ai tion a in its pbce, in keeping, and bean the ttanp of the age 
and of tbe maiccr's hand. Even the oak-putneli ham tm elaborate, 
aotranted look, and the fomiturc hai an aipecc of cvmbrant, cootdout 
a^m. It ihould aot be ooiilied that it wai here (b tbe tiotwc or 
the MJoiniKg nugaifKeiK gra«nd*l that Sir Philip Sidiiey wrote hu 
Amuu I aad the Mory of Musidotw and Philoclea, of Mop** aod 
Dercai, i< ijuaiatly traced on oval pauela ia the principal dnwing- 
room. 

It ia on this account that we are compelled to find £iult with tbe 
Collection at t-oothill Abbey, bccaiue it exhibit! no picture of 
naaitabk cnuDeDce that can be ranked a« an bcir-laom of tlw 
ilMfbation— which cannot be fpokeo of but oaf thoughu take wiag 
md atrttch cbemtetie* toward* it— the very name of which ii munic 



4 




PICTUBES AT WILTON. STOURHEAD, ETC. 

to the initnictcd nr. Wc woulil not pre a tuib tg kc my Coltection 
that doc* not conuin some tiag\e picture at Icatt, th»t hauots ut with 
an uneasy tense of joy for twcotv miles of road, that may cIimt as at 
interiiiiB for twenty yt»t» of fife to come. Without lomc tuch 
thoughts 31 these riveted in tlie brain, the lonr and diiciple of art 
would truly be 'of nil men the moit miwrable:' but with them 
hoTcting round him, and ever and anon ihining with (heir glad hum 
into hi* «]re[)lci» kouI, he hai nothing to fear from fate, or fortone- 
Wc look, and lo! here i« ooc at our tide, facing ua, though far- 
diatant. It is the Young Man's Head, ib the Louvre, by Titian, 
that it not unlike Jeronynio della Poiretta in Sir Charles Craadiaon. 
What a look in there of calm, unalterable BelfpoasesaioD— 

' Above all pain, all pawion, and all pride ;" 

that draw* the evil out of human life, that while we look at it 
traotfera the aame aentiment to out own breaats, and makea ub fee! as 
if DOthing mean or little cuuld ever ditcurb u> again I This i* high 
art ; the rcat ii mechanical. But there ia nothing like thi* ut Fonthiil 
{oh ! no}, but ercry thing which ii the very reverac. Ax thia, how- 
ever, ia nn extreme opinioa of outs, and may be a prejudice, we ahall 
endeavour to support it by iacts. There ia not then a single Thiaa 
in all thia boaatcd md expensive Collection — there ia not a Raphael — 
there ia not a Rubena (except one tmall sketch) - there is not a 
Gnido, nor a Vandyke — there ia not a Rembrandt, there ia not a 
Kicolo Poulsin, nor a fine Claude. The two Alticri Claudes, which 
aight ba*e redeemed Ponthill, Mr. Beckford told. What ahall we 
ay to a Collection, which uniformly and deliberately rejects every 
KgrcBt work, and every great name in art, to make room for idle 
ttaiitie* and curiosities of mechanical ikill I li was hardly occeMary 
|lo buiid a cathedrai to set up a toy-abvp! Who would paint a 
r Biiniature-pictvre to hang it at the top of the Monument i Thia huge 
pile (capable of better things) is cut up into a parcel of little rouma, 
'and thow little roomn arc stuck full of little pictures, and ij/oattrif. 
' Mr. Beckford may ulk of his Diamond Brrthtm, and lO on : this ia 
but the language of a fnut-mailrr in art ; but the author of VaniBK 
(with his leave) is not a ftui-tnalire. His genius, as a writer, ' hath 
a deri! ; ' his ta«e in pictures is the quiiiteaseiice and recliiied spirit 
of iiillJife. He seems not to be luaccptiblc of the poetry of painting, 
or else to set his face against it. It is obviously a lirtt principle with 
him to exclude whatever has feeling or imagination — to polish the 
(urfacC) and suppreaa the soul of art — to |>totctibe, by a sweeping 
clause or at one fell swoop, every thing approaching to grace, or beauty, 
or grandeur — to cniafa the senae of pleuure or of powet in embryo 

59 




THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 

^^Bd to redocc all oatnrc and art, ai ftr ai poMible, to the texture 
aad lerf] of n China dtib — nDooth, glittering, cold, and unfeeling! 
We do Mt object K> much to ihc prcdilectkM for Tenier*, WoaTcr- 
nuoa, or Oiude — we hke to arc luniral obJKU amaMy painted 
— but we noajjuivociUf hxte the affi>ct«dly mean, the ekborarcly little, 
the oKHitatioily panne and diitettcd. PolembcrK't walla of amber, 
Hieiit't gniopt of tteel, VaBderwcfT* ivory finh i — yet tbe«c are the 
dtief delimit* of tbc late propnetor of Foctbill-abbey ! I* it that hi* 
mind u 'a volcano barm oat,' and that he likes hit tetwe* to repo«e 
aad be gratified with Pcrsias car|>eti and enamelled pictnreii ? Or 
arc ibcre not trace* of the Ante m&nmij o( feeling erco in the faigh- 
■ovled Vaifaek, who compliiseDU the coQiplexion of ihe two pages of 
Fikreddb u beinjt eqiul t« ' the porcdaiB of Fringuesian ? ' Alas I 
Who would have thousht that the Caliph Vathek would bare 
dwindkd down into an Emperor of China and King of Japan t But 
w it t*. — 

Siourhrad, the wtl of Sir Richird Colt Hoarc, did net aoirwcr 
ovr expeoaiiana. Bol SiODrtoo, tbc village where it wmdi, msde up 
for our ditappoimment. After pOMing the p«k-ga(r, which ia a 
beudfiil and veaenUc relic, you dncend into Surarton by a sharp 
windiDg declivity, aJmoit like gotog under-ground, between Ugh 
hedge* of laorel tttetytai «ritb anexpuiK of wood* and wielt iprcad 
beneath. It ia a tort of rural Hcrculaneum, a nibterraaeao retreat. 
The inn U like a modcrtiiMd gnard-bome ; the fjllage-charcb standa 
on a lawn witbowt any incloiure ; a row of cottages facing it, witb 
their wbiie-wasbed walls and flaunting boncy-tuckle*, arc ncaiiMwi 
■tadf. Every thing has an air of elegance, aad yet lelU a tale of 
other time*. It ia a place that tnight be held sacred to stillness and 
•obtary mnaing ! — The adjaniing mansion of Stouihe»d commands an 
exienaivc new of Saliibury Plain, whoM undulating swells shew the 
earth in it* primeval timplicity, bare, with naked breutt, and varied 
in it* appMrance only by the sbadowe of the clo»dt thu pats acrom 
it. The view without is pleaung and singular : there is little within, 
door* to bcgoile attention. There is one master-piece of colouring 
bf Pad Veronese, a naked child with a dog. Tlic tone of the flesh 
i* perfection itself. On prainng this picture (which we always do 
when wc like a thing) we were told it had been criticized by a great 
judge, Mr. Beckfotd of Fonthill, who had found fault with the 
execution as too coarse and muicttlflr. We do not wonder — it in not 
like his own turnery-ware ! We shoiJd alao mcncioo an ex<|uistte 
Holbein, the Htadefa Cfii/J, and a very pleasing little landscape by 
Wilson. Besides the*e, there are some capital pen-and-ink drawing* 
(views in Veoioe), by Caoaictti, and three targe copies after Guidg 

60 



I 
I 

I 




PICTURES AT WILTON, STOURHEAD, ETC. 

of iht Vfinu auirid iy iht Graeti, tht AnJtomida, and HtrtAat't 

Daughter. They breathe the >ou] of softocM and itr^cc, and remind 

one oF thoac fair, «ylph-like forntt that loraciimea dncend upon the 

earth with faiJ, fascioiiliDg looks, and that ' tenipt but to betfay.* 

Ai\ct the cabinet-pictures at Fonihill, eren ii good copy of a Guido i« 

■ luxury and a relief to the mind : it is tomethin^ to inhaie ihc dirinc 

air* that play atound his ligurct, and wc are tatiEficd if wc can but 

J ' trace hi» footstcpn, and hia skirts far-off behold.' The rest of this 

fCuliectioD is, for the moit ^i\,trit4h: eichet lulian pictures painted in 

I'tiie beginning of the last century, or Engliah one* in the beginning of 

I thii. It gave us patn to aee nome of the latter ; and we willingly 

draw a veil over the humiliation of the art, in the age and country 

that we live in. We ought, however, to mcniion a portrait of a 

1 youth (the present proprietor of Stourhcad) by .Sir Joshua Reynolds, 

^vhich IS elegant, brilliant, 'though in ruins;' and a spirited portrait 

by Northcoie, of a lady talking on her fingets, may, perhapt, chiJlenge 

an exception for itself to the above general cenaure. 

We wish our readers to go to Petworth, the seat of Lord 

Egremont, where they will find the coolest groctos and the finest 

Vandykes in the world. There arc eight or ten of the latter that are 

not to be turpas«ed by (he art of man, and that wc have no power 

bcr to admire or praise as they deserve. For aimpliciiy, for 

liness, for truth of nature, for airiness of execution, nothing ever 

[was or can be finer. We will only mention those of the Earl and 

I Counten of Northumberland, Lord Newport, and Lord Goring, 

[Lord StrafFord, and Lady Carr, and the Duche«* of DcTonshirc. 

[He who posac»c« these portraits in rich indeed, if he has an eye lo 

I Kc, and a heart to feel them. The one of LorJ NerthumtrrfanJ m 

I ttt Tewtr is not so good, though it is thought better by the multitude. 

That is, there is a subject — something to talk about i but in fact, the 

I expression is not tliat of grief, or thought, or of dignified resignation, 

[ but of a man in ill health. Vandyke was a mere port rail -painter, but 

< he was a perfect one. Hi> forte was not the romantic or pathetic ; 

I he was 'of the court, courtly." He had a patent from the hand of 

I nature to paint lords and i.idics in prosperity and rjuite at tlieir ease. 

' There arc some portraiia by Sir .'oshua Reynolds in this Collection; 

and there arc people who persist in naming liim and Vandyke in the 

urneday. The re« of the Collection consists (for the rao»t part) of 

ttinrciise and family pictures. But there are some admirable statues 

to be seen here, that it would ask a mofning'a leisure to study 

properly. 



6i 



THE PICTURE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 

(ecned, many rnonrcct. I coald in tome fon ■ plajr at bowb with 
tli« tuu lod (nooD ; ' or, at any n\e, there wai no qnetdoo io taeta- 
phyticn that I could not bandy to xod fro, aa od« migbt pUy at 
cup-aod-lnll, for twenty, thirty, forty mile* of the great North Road, 
and at it agiin, the next (lay, ai fresh as ever. I moa g,et tired of 
this now, and wonder how I managed formerly. I knew Totn Jones 
by heart, and was deep in Peregrine Pickle. I wu intimatdy 
■ConaiDted with all the hVrori and heroines of Richsrdaao'i romaocn, 
SM could turn fiom one to the other at I pleased. 1 could con over 
that tingle paaiage in Pamela about ■ her lumpish heart,' and never 
have done admiring the skill of the author and the tnitb of nature. 
1 had my tport* and recreation* too, tome such a* theae foUowiiig t — - 

' To sre the sun to bed, ami (o ariK, 
Like some hot amouriai, witli glowing eyes 
Buistine the laiy bands of iWji that wund him, 
Wiih all hii firci and tnitllinK glories round him. 
Somctiraei the moon on loft nighl cloudi to mt. 
Like beauty neMiing in a young man's brcait. 
And all the winkinit itan, h« tiandmaid*, keep 
Admiring silence while thotc lovers sleep. 
SometimM outilietchi, in TCry iillenrss. 
Nought doing, saying little, thinking leti. 
To y'ley ihe leaves, thin dancers upon air, 
(So eddying round and )>mall birds how they &re. 
When Monier Autumn lilli thetr beaks with corit, 
Pilch'd from the careless Amalthea's horn ! 
And how the woods berries and worms provide 
Without their paini, when earth has nought betide 
To answer their small wants. 
To riew the giaeriul dm come tripping by. 
Then stop and gair, then turn, they know not why, 
Like bathful younkers in society. 
To mark the str^urtuie of a plant or tree. 
And all fair things of earth, how fair they b«,' 

I have wandered far enough from Burlei;;h House : but I ha 
tome aasociationa about it which 1 could not well get rid of, withont 
troubling the reader with them. 

The RembraitJit disappointed me quite. I could hardly liod a 
trace of the impreastoo which had been inlaid io my inutgination. 1 
OJght as well 

'Hum half a day for a forgotten dream.* 

Iniicad of broken wrinkle* .ind indented Ile*h, I saw hard lines and 

nained cuma. I had *«» better Kentbrandu since, and had Icvntd 

6+ 



FICTUBES AT BURLEIGH HOUSE 

'"^ btt nature betuf. Waa it x dindnnugc, ihto, that for twenty 
years. I had carried this iiae idea in my brda, enricliing it from time 
CO time froni my obKrvatioos or nature or artt and raising it » they 
were raised; or did it much ■ii'mfy that ii wa» diniurbed U Uatt 
Neitber. The picture wtu nmhiog to me : it wu the idea it had 
toggealcd. Tl)c one hune <m the wall at Qurleigh ; the other was an 
heirloom in my mind. Was it dciiroycd, because the picture, after 
long absence, did not an«wer to it ^ No. There were other picture* 
in the world tliat did, and objccti in nature «till more perfect. This 
is the mdaacholy pttTitejte of an ; it exists chielly in idea, and is not 
liable to serioua reveries. If we arc diiappoiated iu the cliatacKr of 
one we lore, it brealta the illusion altogether ; for we drew certain 
consequences from a Tace. If an old friendship it broken up, we 
cannot tell how to replace it, without the aid of habit and a length of 
time. But a piaurc is nothing but a face : it interests us only io ides. 
Hence we need never be afraid of raising our standard of taste too 
high ; for the mind rises with it, exalted and tetined, and can never 
be much injured by linding out its casual mistakes. Like the pussesaor 
of a splendid collection, who ii indifferent to or turns away from 
common pictures, we have a lelecter gallery in our own minas. In 
this senae, the knowledge of art i* i// Mvn txttt£iig grtal reviarj. 
But is there not danger that we may become too tutidious, and have 
nothing left to admire? None: for the conceptions of the human 
soul cannot i\w superior to the power of art : or if they do, then we 
have surely every reason to be wiistied with them. The mind, tn 
what depends upon itself alone, * soon rises from defeat tmhurt,' 
though Its pride m.iy be for a moment ' humbled by sticti rebuke,* 

' Anil ill its liquid texture mortal nuund 
Receives no more tlian <an the fluid air.' 

As an illustration of die same thing, there arc two Ctaudee M 
Burleigh, which certainly do not come up to the celebrity of the 
artist's name. They did not ple;!»e me formerly ; thi- nky, the water, 
the trees icemcd all too blue, too much of the colour of indigo. But I 
beliercd, and wondered. I could no longer admire these specimens 
of the artist at present, but assuredly my admiration of the artist him- 
self was not less than before ; for uncc then, I had kco other works 
by the same hand, 

' inimitable on eatth 

Ry model or by shading pencil drawn,'— 

surpassing every idea that the mind could form of art, except by 

having seen them. I icmembcx one in particolar that Walsh Poner 

VOL. ix. : t 6$ 




THE PICTl'HE GALLERIES OP ENGLA! 

had (a bow-«i)oc beyi>ixl all otfaent — a rercal laodicape, an *Ha- 
jMnaa &ble true,' wiiit a blue BDcloodol iky, and ftreco trcn and 
pry nrrcu sod aa mrdBcd m bcjood. Bui ncicr wa* there iky 
M> toft or iTcn M clad wiili tftiag, wch air-<]rawD ioir«n or mch 
balcyofl seu : Zephyr tceiBcd to fan the air, and Nature looked no 
and imilcd. The ttuDC of CUode ba> alooe aomethiBg in it thai 
tofuat and hannoDttei the moid. It toucbei a au^ic chord. Oh ! 
malchlrMi KcMt, oh ! orient ikict, bright with puriplc ai>d gold ; yt 
opcoing gUdrt and distant Rmny vales, f;litirriaj with fleecy flodu, 
poor al) yomr eochaDtmcna into mf wwl, let it n&etx ymu cbutCDcd 
imajie, a&d forget all oieaacr thing*! Perhap* the mo« aftcttag 
iribote to the memocj of ilui great anix u the chatacter drawn « 
htm by an enuacnt maMcr, in hi* Dram of a PtitHtr. 

* On a nid(l<n I •»> mrrotinded bv a ittiek cloud or tnitc, and mj (nidc 
vraTtnl in« through the air, till we alichltd on a nxM deliciotiK ruia] cpoi. 
I pefreireil it k» the as\y hour of the mom, when the tun had not run 
above the boriioD. We were alone, except that ai a little dtitfance a 
jmai( (hqiherd plajred on bu flanokt n he waiked before ht* bcni. 
candoctiiig Ibnii froen the fold to lae paituie. Thr tleratcd paitonl ms 
fae pbftd cbanned mt bjriUiinplidty.and weoicd to animate bin obedinil 
6oat. The atmcwphciT niai dnr and ptrfnilj calm i and not* the 
Mia padually iUuoatned the line landscape, and becaa (o diicoreT 
view the diNani country of inunciiie extent. I mooo awbik in expei 
of what might next ptcKnt ittelf of danhog ipkndour, wben the 
objeet <(hich appeared to fill ihit natural, gnnd, asiA >in^k Mtne, * 
runic who entered, not far fitm the place wbere ne wood, who by hii 
habiliment! setn^d nothinz better than a ptaiant { be led a poor little so, 
which waa loaded niUi all the impbnienti rtquired by a painter In hi* wmt. 
After adrancing a few pant he (tood ttill, and niih an ait of nptun 
•ceined to cotttctnplatc ihc riaing aun i he next M\ on tiis knees, dirrrltd 
hit tyt* toward* neavm, ewtd hinuelf, and then wmt on with eagii 
look*, ai if to maJce choice of the mmt ajvsntageau* ipot from nhieli to 
naakc kia mdiei a* a painter. "ThU," aid mv cmidiKtor, "it thtf 
Cfaade Geloe of Lonahte, who, nobly diaiMoiof tne low empioymem id 
which he wai oti^nally brrd, Irit it with all it* adnmtagc* of oompetenct 
aad ease to rmbcace hit preirni Mate of poveity, in order to adorn ' 
world with wurki od'inost aeeomphihcd excellence."' 




H 



There i* a little Paul Brill at Bortcigfa, in the unie room with the 
Renibrandts, that dazzled me mBDy year* ago, and delighted me the 
other day. It looked a* iparkling a* if tbe «ky crame thrt»^ 
the frame. I founds or lancied I feuod, thoee picture* the bc« that 
I retBenbered before, though they might id the tnterral have faded a 
little to my eyci, or to*t tome of their origiDal brightoesf. I did itot 
•ee the tnull head of Queen Mary by Holbein, which formerly «tnck 

(A 



nCTUBES AT BURLEIGH HOUSE 



mc to Torcibly ; bul I bavr little dciubt respccunj; U, br Holbein wai 
3 sure hand ; he only winicd ctTcct, and thu picture lookc^l cbrough 
you. One of my old faiourim wa* the Htiul of oh ytagr/, by GuidOr 
nearly a proiilc, looking up> and with wiocf behind ihc back. It was 
bun)! lower thao it u*eil to bci and had, 1 thought, a look len scrixlt 
le» heatcnly ] but there wat ilill a pulpy tofioets in it, a tender grace^ 
an exprctaioci unutterable — which only the pencil, ih pencil, could 
convey ! And are we not ihrn beholden to the art for thcK glimpiu 
of Paradi*e ! Surely, ihcte is a «wccinc«i in Ouido'i heads, a> there 
i» aI»o a muitcin his name. It' Raphael did more, it wa* not with the 
tame cate. His heads have more meaning ; but Guido't have a look 
of youthful innocence, which bis are without. As to the boasted 
picture of Christ by Cailo Dolce, if a wcll-piintcd ta1>le<loth and 
eilTer-cuij are worth tbree ihouB.ind guineas, the picture i» so, but not 
cIk. Vet one touch of Pau! Veronese i« worth all thii enamelling 
twice atct. The head hat a wretched nwwki«h exprcnion, utlcdy 
unbecoming ihe character it profcisct to repre«cnt. liut I will ».iy no 
more about it. The Half/ of Smnti in one of I.uca .lordano's best 
performances, and has considerable interest and effect. Aniong other 
historical designs, there is one of JaeiA's Drtam, with the angcb 
a»cending and descending on a kind of stairs. The conception is 
very answerable to the tubject ; but the execution ii not In any high 
degree spirited or graceful. The mind goen awav no gainer from the 
picture. Rembrandt atone perhaps could add any thing to this 
subject. Of him it might be »aid, Uiat ' hiii light shone in daiknewi ! ' 
— 'Ilie wreaths of Howcrs and foliage caned in wood on the wiioscots 
and ceiling of many of the rooms, by the celebrated Grinlin;; Gibbons 
in Chailck the Second's time, shew a wondciliil lighiness and facility 
of hand, and jtire pleasure to the eye. The other ornament* and 
ctiriodlte* I need not mention, at they are carefully pointed out by 
the bouwkecper to the admiring rititor. There arc two heads, how- 
c*er, (one of them happrnn to have a screen placed before it) which I 
would by no means wish any one to pass over, who is an artist, or 
feels the slightest interest in the art. They are, I should suppose 
unquestionably, the original stiidic« by Raphael of the heads of the 
y'lrgin and Jaitfh in his famous picture of the Madonna afihe Crwm. 
The Virgin is particularly beautiful, and in the linest prescrratioo, aa 
indeed are all bit genuine pictures. The canvas is not i^uitc covered 
in some place* i the colours ate as fresh as if newly laid on, and the 
execution is as firm and vigorous as if his hand had just left it. It 
shews us bow this arust wrought. The head is, no doubt, a highly- 
finished study from nature, done for a particular purpoEC, and worked 
up according to the pdatcr's conception, but still retanung all the 

67 



THE PICXrRE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



force utd tniih of iDdrndaality. He got ail be couid from Natiuv^ 
ud gsTc all he coiUd to bcr in rctaro. If Raphael had merdy 
iketched thi« diTine face on the cuitm from (he Klca to hit mni 
mind, why nx ttaaip it on the hrger coinpontion at oace i He 
could work it up aod refioe Dpoii it Lbccc jytt u veil, md h would 
almoM neccMaritj uodergo >ome aJteratMo In bdng traadeiTed thiihcf 
afierwinU. But if it wa* done as a careftl copy from Nature in the 
iiru initancc, the prctent wa* the only way in which be could procwdi 
or indeed by which he could artivc at fuch coiuummxic cxceUence. 
The brad of ihc Jowph (leaaiag on the hand and looking down) ii 
fine, but neither to fine ai the companion to it, aor i» it by »ay meaw 
M ekboTMely worked up in the ikeich before m. 

I an DO teller of ttofieai but there is one be!oa){ing to Barlneii- 
Hou«e, of which I happen to know Mxae of the particular*. Tbr 
late Earl of Exeter had been divorced from his fird wife, a woman 
of fashion, and of lomcwfaat mote gaieiy of maitocn than 'lord* who 
lore their tadie* like.' He determined to seek out a second wife n 
an hunibtcr tpherc of \'\{c, and that it should be one who, bavii^ no 
knowledge of hh rank, should love him for himaelf alone. Par thn 
poipose, be went and settled iac^nite (under the name of Mr. Jones) 
at Hodoet, an obscure Tillage b Shropshire. He made overtom to 
one or two damtelt in the neighbourhood, but they were too knowing 
to he taken in by him. His manocn were ncx booriih, his mode <d 
life was retired, >t was odd how he got hii livelihood, and at last, he 
began to be taken for a highwayman. In this dilcmm* he turned M 
Mm Hog^os, the eldest daughter of a small ftrmcr, at whose house 
be lodged. Miss Hoggins, it might seem, hid not been osed m 
romp with the downs : there was (omethiog in the manoerK of their 
quiet, but eccentric guest that she liked. As be found that be h»i 
inspired bcr with that kind of regard which he wiriied for, he made 
boooorable proposal* to her, and at the end of tome months, tbcy 
were tnuried, without hit letting her know who he was. They set 
off in a posi-chaiie firom her father's house, and travelled bomcwacdi 
across XM oomitry. In this manner they arrived at Stamford, and 
passed through tlie town without atoppiog, till they ork to the 
enlrance of Uurldgh-Park, which is on the uwtaidc of it. The gates 
tew open, the chaise entered, and drove down the long avcnut ol 
trees ihit leads up to the iirotit of this line old maniioo. As they 
drew nearer to it, and she seemed a little mrnriied where ihey weir 
gtung, be said, * Well, my dear, this is Butlcigh-Houtc ; it b the 
home 1 have promttcd to bring yon to, and yon ate the Connteai of 
Exeter 1 ' It is said, the uhock of this ditcorety was too much for 
ihii young creature, uod that «fae never le c oTe ie d it. It was ■ ant»- 




I 



I 



AND BLENHEIM 



tioD worth dying for. The world we lite in wm worth making, had 
it been only for this. Te Tiewaml amJ One Tain ef ihe Mraiiaa 
Nighi'j F.Blrrlamnfiit ! hide your diminiihed head* ! I iKvef wiah 
to hire bccD 3 lord, but when I think of ihis tcory. 



PICTURES AT OXFORD AKD BLENHEIM 

RoMt faaa been called the ' Sacred City : ' — might not our Oxford 
be called to too I There ii An air about it, rcionant of joy and hope : 
it speaks with a thouund tonguea to ihc hrnt : it waves ii« mighty 
thadow over the imaginaiion : it uands in lowly tublimity, on the 
' hill of ages ; ' and poinu with prophetic fingeri to ihc sky : ii greets 
the eager gaze from afar, ' with glisteriog tpires and pinoacles adorned.' 
[hat ihine with an internal light as with the iuatre of letting auni ; and 
a drcani ;tnd a glory horer round its head, a« the spintt of former 
timet, a throng of inlcllcctua.1 ihapes, arc teen retreating or advancing 
to ihe eye of memory : its strecn arc paved with the names of learning 
that can never wear out : its green quadranglet breatlic the silence of 
tboughr, conscious of the weight of ycaitiiogs innumerable after the 
past, of loltiett aapirations for the future; lait babblea of the Mule, 
iti waters ate from the springs of Helicon, its Chmt'Church meadows, 
clataic, Hlynan field*! — Wc codd pass our lives in Oxfoid without 
having or wanting any other idea — that of the place is enough. Wc 
imbibe the air of thought; wc sund in the pretence of learning. Wc 
ate admitted ioto the Temple of Kamc, we feel that wc are in tbc 
ianctuary, on holy ground, and ■ hold high converse with the mighty 
dead.' The enlightened and the tgnorant arc on a level, if they hare 
but faith in the tutelary geoiuH of tlie place. W« may be wi«e by 
proxy, and studious by prescription. Time has taken upon himtelf 
the labour of thinking ; and accumulateil libraries leave ut Iciiurc to 
be dull. There in no occasion to examine the buildingE, thrchurchcs, 
the eollcgr-t, by the rules of archttcciurc, to reckon up the streets, to 
compare it with Cambridge (Cambridge lies out of tlie way, on one 
side of the world) — but woe to liim who does not leel in pauiog 
through Oxford that be is in ' do mean city,' thai he is surrounded 
with the moDumeot* and lordly mamaona of the mind of ituin, out* 
vying in pomn and tpletMloot the courts aiKl palaces of princes, rising 
like an exhalation m the night of ignorance, and triumphing over 
botbuic foes, saying, * All eyes shall sec me, and all knees »hall bow 
to me I ' — as the thiine where tuccestive ages came to pay their pious 
vowst and slake the aacred thirst of knowledge, where youtiiful hope* 
(an ntdfei* IlightJ soared to truth and good, and where the retired 



THE PICTITKE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



and loBcIy stadcnt brooded ovrr the hinoric or ot(r hacy*» 
iRi|Mting high task* for hinuelft filming high dcstinic* for the race ' 
of man^thc lamp, the mbc, the well lifcul from wlicnce the spark 
of learning wai kindled, tti tCrcim Bowed, tCi treatuici were •pread 
out through the remote*! corner* of the land and to dnunt nationft. 
Let him then who in fond of indulging in a dream-tike existence go 
to Oxford and a«y there ; let him ttudy this mngnificent lipectacie, 
tlic same under all Mpecta. with its menu) twilight tempering tbe 
glare of noon, or mellowing tlie silver mooDlight ; let him wander ta 
her aytran nutiurli), or liii^^er in her cloistered halls ; but lei hiin not 
catch the din of achuliin or teiichen, or dine ot sup villi itiem, or 
speak a word to .iny of the privileged inhabitints ; tor if he does, tbc 
tptil will be broken, the poetry and the religion gone, and the palace 
of tnchaatment will melt from his cnibtsce into thio air ! 

The only Collcciioo of Pictures at Oxford n thai at the Kadclitfe 
Library ; bequeathed by Sir WillLani Cuisc. It is so fax appropriate 
that it is dingy, solemn, old ; and we would gladly Icare it to ta 
repose ; but where criticiam comes, affection ' clappcih liis wingt, 
and ttriightway he is gone.' Most of the picturen are either copies, 
or spoiled, or never were good for any thing. There is, however, a 
Mmk I'itef hy Titian, which bears the stamp of bis haqd, and ti 
'majestic, though in ruins.' h repmcnis three jrooag ladiM 
practising ai a harpuchotd, with their ntunc-master looking on. Ooe 
of the girls ib toll, with ptoniinenc features seen in profile, but 
exquisitely fair, and with a grave cxpreBsion ; the other n a lively, 
good-humoured girl, in a front view ( and the third leant forward 
from behind, looking down with a demure, rcicncd, lentimental cast 
of countennnce, but very pretty, nnd much like an i'lnglish face. 
The teacher has a manly, intelligent countenance, with a certain 
blended air of courtesy and authority. It is a fasciniiing picture, 
to otir thiokiog) and has that marked characteristic look, bcJoagisg 
to each indiridual and to the subject, which is always to be found in 
Titian's groups. We alio noticed a dingy, melancholy 'looking Head 
over the window of the farthest room, said to be a /Wrnsil ^ 
f^autfyir, with something striking in the tone and exptession ; and a 
tmhtt jfdam an4 J-'xv drivm out of I'araditf, aitribvied to Giaimpe 
Kibera, which has considerable merit. The amateur will here nod 
coDticual copies (of an indiFerent tias*) of many of his old fevourite 
pictures of the Italian school, Titian, Domenichino. Correggio, and 
others. But the most valuable part of the Colleciioo coosisu of four 
undoubted Head* cut out of one of the Qirtae-i, which was destroyed 
by fire about a hundred years ago: they arc here preserved in iheii 
pristine integrity. They shew us what the Carioons were. TJ; 

70 



PICTURES AT OXFORD AND BLENHEIM 

hare all the iipint and freedom of Raptiael's hand, but without any 
of (he bintchca ud tmearing of thotc at Hampton Court ; with 
which th« damp of outhouses and th« <l«w» of heaven hare ciidently 
had nearly as much to do a^ t)ie jinintcr. Two are Headi of metii 
;ind two of waineo ; one of the last, Rachel axcpmxfor her CinUrai, 
iind another still liner (both ace pralilec) in which all the force and 
boldness of m^iacuiine undeot^ndtng i« combined with feminine toh- 
nc8s of expression. The large, OX-likc eye, a ' lucid mirror,' with 
the eyc-(id» drooping, and the long eye-lashet distinctly marked, the 
straight scintinizing nose, the full, but cloied )ip«, the mairouly chtn 
»nd high forehead, allg^;i-thi-r convi'y ^ (:liarHCtct of nutuitd l)iou^.ht 
and expansive feeling, such aa is oeWom to be met with. Ra^htl 
VMeping/ar hir Children has a sfcrner and more painful, but a rcry 
powerful expret^on. It is heroic, rather than pathetic. The HeaoR 
of the men are spirited and forcible, but they arc distinguished chiefly 
by the firmness of [he outline, and the sharpness and mastery of the 
execution. 

Blenheim i« a moTDing's walk from Oxford, and is not an unworthy 
appendage to it — 

< And fail by hanging in a golden chain 
This pcndrnt wotid, in bigness n a star 
Of nnallcit raagniturfc, cloie by the moon ! ' 

Blenheim ts not inftrior in wsTing woods and sloping lawn* and 
smooth water* to Pembroke's princely domain, or to the ground* of 
any other park we know of. The building itself is Gothic, capricioui, 
and not impoiicig — a conglomeration of pngean-housc« — 

* In form rrtrmbling a gooic pie.' 

But u a receptacle for works of art, (witit the exception of Clcvclarid 
Housci) it is imtivallcd in this country. There is not a bad picture 
in it : the intcrent i» sustained by rich and nobtt' performances from 
firiit to luit. It abounds in Rubens' works. The old Duchen of 
Marlborough wa« fond of the historical piece* of this great painter; 
ibc had, during her husband'* wars and ncgociationa in Flandert, t 
line opportunity of culling them, ' si one ptck« pears, saying, this I 
like, that I like still better : ' and from the selection she has made, 
it apjxaM aa if ahe tinderstood the niawer'a p.cciua well. She has 
chuM-n thoM of hi* works which were mo«t mellow, and at the lamc 
time gorgeous !n colouring, most luxuriant in composition, moit 
unctuou* in exprcMian. Rubens was the only artist that could have 
embodied some of onr countryman Spenser's splendid and voluptuous 

7« 




THK PICTUHK GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 

Jiubua KeytiDidt, who ut it high value on ibeni( and that they orei 
undoubted ly b)- Titian, havicj^ been unginaUy Ktit oxer xi a prccmt 
hy the King of Sardinia (fbr who»e unccitor they wctc punted) to 
the tint Duke of Marlborough. We should (without, lionrcTcr, 
pretending lo »et uji an opinioo) bclinc, from the imenisl evidcDce. 
to think them from the pencil of the great Vcneiiao, but for two 
cireuaiBuaceB : the lir«t is die lextiuc of the «kin ; and secoodly, 
ibejr do not compote well »» pictures, l^icy hav« ao back-groond 
to ttt them off) bin 3 mott ridiculous trellii-wcitk, repre*cnting nothii^ 
hun^ round them ; and the fifth loolu raunotoooui uod haru, like die 
riod of fruit. On the other h.ind, tbia laal objection ncxmn to be 
antwcred uticfxctorily rnougb, and without impmgntng die tkUl of 
ihe axtht i for rhc piciutci arc aciuall^ painted on akins of leatbu. 
In all other rc»pec<», (bey might Msur«]ly be by Ttiian, and we 
know of no other painter who wa» capible of achieving their rarKMt 
excellences. The drawing of the feraak fi]{uret i> correct and 
eiegant in a high degree, and might be nippoaed to be borrowed from 
clatdc Kulpture, but that it it more aofi, more feminine, more loTcly. 
The colouring, with the exception .ilrcady mated, in Hue, spirited, 
golden, harmoniout. The grouping and attitudes are heroic, the 
exprcMJon in some of the faces divine. We do not mean, of courte, 
that it postcues the elevation or purity that Raphael or Corregjio 
could girc, but it is warmer, more thrilliog and ee«atic. There ii 
the glow and ripenet* of a more genial clime, the purple light of lore, 
crinuoned blunhet, looki bathed in rapture, kinci with immortal 
(WeetneM in their laatc — Nay, then, let the reader go and »e« the 
ptctarea, and no longer I.iy the blame of tbia extravagance on us. 
We may at any rate repeat the subjects. They are eight in number. 
1. Mtwt and Vtnui. I'he \'eous is well worthy to be called the 
Queen of Love, for sliiwe, for ait, fat every thing. Her redonbud 
lover in a middle^ged, ill-looking gentlenun, cIjiI in a butT-jcrkin, aikd 
■omcwbat of a fornulint in his approachc^i and mode of addrcst; bwt 
there is a Cupid playing on the lloor, who might well turn the world 
uptidc down. 2. Cafid and Piyehf. 1*he Cupid is perhaps rather a 
^wky, awkward (tripling, with eager, opeoraouthed wonder: but 
did ever creature of mortal mould ace any thing com^orablt! to the 
hack aad limbs of the Psyche, or conceive or read any thing equal to 
it, but that nniijue description in the Troiluaand Creasidaof Chaucet^ 
t. jfy»B» aad Da^iiu. Not equal to the reu. 4. Htrcalti aad 
Otjaaira. The female figure in this picture is full of grace and 
animaiion, and the arms thai are twined round the great son of Jore 
are elaiuc a« a bended bow. $. Fid<aa and Ctrti. 6, Pbrn aad 
Profrrfia*. 7. Jtfiitr and /». Very fine. And fiocH of all, and 
7+ 



CRITICISM ON MARRIAGE A-LA-HODE 



I CR 

I lut, Nfpiatie anJ AmphiirUi, In thii Utt wort: it teein* 'a* if 
B incTCMc nf appetite did grow with what it fed on.' Wtuti a face u 
thai of AmphiiriW' for bcsnty and for svceuicM of cxpranion ! One 
thing VI remarkable in ihrw group* (with ihr cxceptioo of two) 
which ii thai the loven an ail of ihcm old nirn { but th«n they 
retain tbeir beardt (iccordin); to the on«om of ihe good old tmicc!) 
and this inaka not only a piftu[e«<|ue contrail, but gives a bcautifiil 
toftneM and youthful delicacy to the female facet oppoicd to ihcm. 
tfpoti the whole, ihix ceties of hintoric compOBitionn well deiurven ihc 

t attention of the artist and the connoiMcur, and perhaps nomc light 
might be thrown upon the tubjeci of their auibenticity by turning 
over «ome old porifotiot. Wc have hcnrd a hint thrown out that 
the de&ignb are of a date prior to Titian. But ' we are ignorance 
itaclf in this I ' 



APPENDIX 



CRITICISM 
ON HOGARTH'S MARRIAGR A-I.A-MODE 

'l%e Crilitiim an Hogarlh'i *fifarruigf aJti-flffidf,' r^trrrii to in t/tt 
ati«anl of Mr. Jingtrtttin' J piHvrti (ft'sf t$), ir ar/effowi : — 

Tki (upcriority of the picturrft of Hogarth, which we hsTc seen 
in the late rolleciion at the Btiiish InaiiiutioD, to the common print*, 
is coDlit)cd chicdy to the Marri^e a-la-MoiU. Wc shall attempt to 
illuMrate a few of their mo« striking cxceOenccs, more particularly 
with reference to the cxprenion of character. Their mcriu are 
indeed so prominent, and have been to often diticutsed, that it may 
be thought diflicult to point out any new bcaudc*; but they contain 
•o much truth cf nature, they prevent the objectt to the eye nndcr 
KO many aspects and beariDgs, admit of eo many conMnictions, and 
arc (o pregnant with RKauioiti that the subject is \a a manner 
inexhaottibte. 

Boccaccio^ the moit reRned and ventimeotal of atl the novel-writers, 
has been itigmatiied as a mere iarcnior of licmtioui tales, becauie 
rcaderi in fiencra) have only seized on Uiow tbia^ in hit works which 
were suited to their own taMC, and have reflected their own grossnCM 
back upon the writer, So it has h.ippenevl tlut the majority of critic* 
hatiag been roost struck with the itronR and decided expretsion to 
Hogarth, the extreme delicacy and nibtic gradatiuns of character 
in hi* picture* have almou entirely escaped them. In the litit 

7S 




THE PICTtTRE GALLERIES OF ENGLAND 



pictute of tbe Marn^* aAa-M«A^ ibe three Ggam of the yotiog 
Noblenua, hit inteodcd Brid*, aod her inriBinoraio the Lawyer, 
■bew how mucit Hojtarth excelled in the jiowct of giving lolt aod 
cffemtnatc cxpreai*oa. Tbev hare, buwerei, been kw ooiiced tbao 
Uie other figoret, which tell a platnet *tory, and cooTcy a more 
ptbable moral. Nothing cao be mote liiicly imnaged than the 
<lifWcDces of chancier in thcte delicate pcfwiugct. The Beau »xt. 
amUioft U the locdu^g-glau, with a rrlicctcd umpcr of eelf-admi ration, 
MmI a ItDguUhiDg iscUiuiioQ of the hod, while the reft of his bodj 
it periled tip on h» liigh heeb, w»b a cenau air of ii[i-toc elciatioo. 
He i« tbe Narciuut of tbe reijn of George ti., whote powdered 
perake, tntliei, gold lace, aod pMchci, dinde bii lelf-love et{ually 
with his own pcrran, the tne Sir Plume of hit day, — 

• ' Of amber tniifT-bm jiMly nin. 

And the nice cnnilnci of a rlouHcd cane.' 

I'hcre it the tame fcliciry in the figure and attitude of the Bride, 
couiud by tbe Lawyer. There it tbe utmon flexibility, sad 
yieldinj; witDna in her whole person, a tLnleu languor and tremiUaw 
•UBpeme b the exprektioQ of liet face. It ia the prccitc look and 
air which Pope has given to hit favourite Belinda, juit at the ntorocDt 
of the Rape of the Lock. Tbe heightened glow, the forward iatel- 
ligeBce, and looacned foul of love in tbe taiDe &ce, in the Asaigas- 
ttoo-fcene before the mstqurrade, form a fine and inanctive contra* 
to the delicacy, liniKtity, and coy relnctance cxpresaed in the firtt. 
The Lawyer, in both piciurea, ia much tbe aamc— perbapi too much 
•o>~thou);h eten lhi« onmored, unaltered appearance may be dctigntd 
aa charactciittic. In both caica, he hat 'a pcrton and a tinooth 
ditpoae, (ranted la make wonten faUe.* He ia full of that ea*y 
goM^miBOur, and caiy good oi»n>on of himtclf, with wbich the aex 
■R tkBghted. There it not a thaip an^lc in hia fiicc to obatruct hit 
wcoai, or give a hint of doubt or dithculty. Hit whole aspect ia 
KMod and ro«y, lively and ucntcaninii, happy without the Icaat cxpeoK 
of tbOB]^ cateleat, and invitbg : and oooveya a perfect idea of the 
■ti m er n y e d glide and pteaiing murmiir of the toK perioda that flow 
fiom hit tengue. 

The exprc«k»i of the Bride in the Mon>ing-toeoe ia the moat 
bi^T Koaoaed, and M the tame lime iIk iimmi vulgar ia the wiie*, 
Tht Bgnre, face, and attitude of tl>c H ntbaixl arc iainutablc. Hogarth 
ha* wnb gKM akill conuMMd the uate couotcnaace of the HotlMiKl 
with the yellow iriuMh colour of tlte marble chtmne)' -paece behiod 
him. io nch a manncT a* U pretervc tbe Sethy looc of the forntcv. 
The airy aplendonr of the view of ihe inner room in tbtt picture, 

76 



I 



CRITICISM ON MARRIAGE A-LA-MOOE 



\U probably not exceeded bj my of tbe producuon* of the Flemish 
kKkoot. 

The Younfi Girl, in the tliird ptctnrc, who u rcprcKnlcd u a 
f'.victtm of taiiiiuaable profti^cfr >■ untjucitionably one of the (itiic'i 
yeirf-ti'tavrfi. The cxquiulc delicacy ot' the painting h only Uti- 
r«u»cd by the felicity aiut nubileiy oi the cone cpiion. Nothing can 
DC more atriking thun tbr conirui bctwcro the cxtccmc BofiocM of 
her perton and the hardeocd inditferencc dT her clur:ici«r. The 
■ vacui stillness, the docility lo vice, the prcmnture lupprewion at 
yODtbfid sensibtiity, tbe doll-like mechnnitm of the whole dgvpe, 
which Kcma to bu*e no uther feeling but s tickly >cnKe of pain, 
— shew ihc deepeil insight into human nature, end into ihc effects 
of those retincments in depravity, by which it has been good- 
naturedly attertcd, that ' vice lout half its evil in loiinj; all its 
grossoeis.' Tlic story of this picture is in #onic parts tery obscure 
and cnigmaliciJ. tt is certain that the Nobleman is not looking 
ttraigbt forward to ibe Quack, whom he Mems to haTe been threaten- 
ing with bis cane ; but that hit eyei arc turned up with an ironical 
leer of triumph to the Procuress. The comm.mding attitude and 
size of thin woman, — the swelling circumference ol' her dress, spread 
out like a turkey-cock's fcathers,^ihe tierce, ungoremable, iiiictcratc 
rinaligflity of her countcnuoce, which hardly needs the comment of 
'the claap>knife to expl;tia her puipote, arc all Mlmirablc in theniKhret, 
and iiill more to, as they arc opposed lo the mute inncniibility, tbe 
decant negligence of dreia, and the childiih figure o!' the girl, who 
' I MppOfed to be her pntigit. As for the Quack, there can be no 
, entertained about him. His face teems as if it were composed 
«alre, and his features exhibit all tl)e chaos and confusion of the 
most gross, i);Dorant, and inipmleot efflpiridsm. 

The ^radauiMi* of ridiculinis iiifcct^tion in the Mutic-tcene, urc 
lioely imagined and ptescrTcd. The prcpoiieroui, overstrained 
admiratioD of the I.ady of Quality; tbe seniimenial, intipid, patieni, 
delight of the Mao with his hatr in papers, and sipping his tea ; 
the pert, tmirlung, conceited, half-distoitcd approbatioo <^ the figure 
next (o him ; the iransittoo to tbe total ioaensibiliiy of ibc round 
face in profite, and then lo the wonder of the Ne?,ro-hoy at the 
J rapture of bi« mistteis, — form a perfect whole. The saogoioe 
^-complexion and flamc-coloutcd bait of the female Virtuoso throw 
an additional light on the character, 'i'hii i* Ion in the print. 
The continuing the red colour of the hair into the hack of the 
chair, has been painted out as one of tliote instances of aJlttcraiion 
in colouring, of whidi these pictures arc everywhere full. Tbe 
gros*. Uoated appearance of the Italian Singer it well relieved hj 

77 



XU£ PICTURE GALLERIES OF KNGLANDJ 

ibc hsrd featuxM of the inttrnmeDul Pcrforowr beUod liim, whic 
mi;iht be cUT«d of wood. Tbe Ncgroboy, boldin^ tbr chocolatc^^ 
in expreHion, colour, and execuiioo, ii a niaMcr-piece. The gay, 
Bvely derisioa i>f th« other Hegta-hoy, playing with the Actxon, it 
an ingciMoac contrait to the profound inu/ement of the iir«i. Some 
sccxMint Ina altcad^ been giTrn of the two Iotcti in <hi> jnctuce. 
It is CUTKKM to obaerrc the iDfintic aciirity oi' mind which the artist 
diifilayt OB every occasion. An bttance occur* in ilie preaent picture. 
He haa w cootttved the pipen in the hair of the Diid«, a» to make 
tbcm iook almoci like a wreathe of haJf-^lown dowen i while thotr 
which he hai placed on the bead of the moMcal Amatear v«fy much 
rcMinble a t6evnx-iir/rii nf homt, which adorn and fonUy the lack- 
liwiTc exprcMion and mild retignnibD of the face beneath. 

'I'he Night-f.cenr h inferior to the rest of the tcrie*. The attioade 
of the Huaba&d, who is jutt killed, i« one io wbtcb it would be 
fanpOMtble for him to stand, or even to Eill It reBcmhln the loow 
naueboird ligure* they nuke for children. The character* iu the 
lait picture, in which the Wife dies, xtc all nuncity. We wooJd 
particularly refer lo the cantioui, pctuUnt lel^iumcicDCy of the 
Apoihecfiry, wboec face and hgnre ue conatrucccd on exact phjriio- 
gnoBiicRl ptincipleR, and to the line example of pauit« obcdicDce and 
Don-reii8Unce in the Servant, whom he it takbg to task, and whoie 
coat of itreen and yellow litery is aa long and netancholy lu his face. 
The ditcoDtol.tte look, the ha^jtard «ye«, the open mouth, the comb 
■ticktnc in the hair, the broken, gapped teeth, which, as it were,, 
hitcb ID an anxwcr-^^veTy thing about bini denotes the utnunll 
perplexity and dinmay. The harmony and gradations of colour in ' 
this picture arc uniiormly prcnrrtd with the greatest oicety, and 
are well worthy ilic attention of the artist. 

It haa been obwtTed, that Hogarth's pictore* are exceedingly ' 
tmltke any other rcpreivntations of the lamc kind of subjects — thax j 
they form a cLui, and have n chantaer, peculiar to thcnisclte*. 
It may he worth while to consider in what thit general distiaction ' 
consisK. 

In the fint place they are, in the strictest fcose, historical pictures; 
and tf what Fielding tays be true, tliat his novel of I'om Jones ought 
to be regarded as ac epic prone poem, because it contained a regular 
derelopetnent of fable, manners, character, and pauiun, tlte compou- 
doD* of Hoganh will, in like manner be found to hairc a higher claira 
to the title of Epic Ptcturw, than many which have of late arr(>galed 
that deDomoiuiioii to thcTn«d*e*. When we Kjy that Hogarth treated 
his subjects historicAlly, wc mean that his works represent the mamcfs 
and huniouri of mankind io action, and their characters by nrying 

78 




I 



CRITICISM ON MAKKIAti£ A-LAMODE 

cxprCMion. Erery thiog in h!s piciurea ha> life aad motioa in il. 
Not only doe* tbe bnancM of the icem; ncrcr »Und nill, bat erery 
feature and mntclc h put into ful! phy ; the exact feeling of the 
moment ts bcought out, and carried to ii» utmo« height, and then 
iosuntly Kizcd and suniped on ihc canru forcTcr. 1 he cxpicuaon 
is nlwuyB taken ii paiiaKt, in a >utc of progrcm or cliangc, and| is it 
wecCf at the Hlient poiiit. Bctiilet the excellence of r;ich iudiridml 
face, the reflection of the ex[iceB9ian from face to face, the conttMl 
Mid Kiuggle of [nilicdar motivei and feciiDf.s to the ditfcrcnt actoit 
in die 8Cen«, m of anger, contcmpi, laughter, comp.tMioD, arc conrcycd 
in the happictt nod moRt lively mnnncr. Hix Sgurea arc not like the 
background on which they are fr^inted : even the pictures on the wail 
hate a peculiar look of iheii own. — Again, with the rapidity, variety. 
and scope of history, Hogarth's head* have all the reality and correct- 
nets of portrait*. He ;:ivcii the extrenieu of character and cxprcMtoo, 
but he gire* them with perfect truth and accuracy. This it in &ct 
what distinguixhei his compositiotiK iiom all oihcr* of the name kind, 
rhat they are equally remote from caricaiuic and from mete aiitl'life- 
It of courte happens in suhjects from common life, that ihe painter 
can procure real models, and lie can get them to sit as long aa lie 
plcaiei. Hence, in general, thaic aititudea and expreBsiunii have been 
cho*cn which could be .iisumed the longest ; and in imitating which, 
the artiht, by taking pains and time, might produce almost an complete 
a fac-similc as he could of a flower or a flower-pot, of a damatk 
curtain, or a china vhk. The copy was as perfect and as untnterctt- 
tng in the oee case as in the other. On the contrary, subjects of 
drollery and ridicule atfording frequent examples of strange licforiaity 
and peculiarity of features 'hese have been eagerly sei>^cd by anolhei 
dais of articti, who, without subjecting themselves to the laboHou* 
dnidgery of the Dutch school and their imiuitort, have produced our 
popnJar caricatures, by rudely copying or exaggerating ihc cawal 
irreguIariliM of the human countenance. Hoganh has equally aToided 
the fault) of botli these style* — the insipid tanienc^a of the oncr and 
the grow vulfariiy of the other — lo as to giw to the productiooa of 
his pencil e^ual solidity and effect : for his faces go to tbe very retjtc 
of caikatuTC, and yet never (we believe in any single bnance} go 
tieyond it; tbey take the irery widest latitude, and yet we always 
tec the links which bind them to nature : they bear all the marki, 
and carry all the conviction of rcaliiy with rhcm, an if we had wen 
the actual ftati (ot the ^tst time, trom the precision, condstency, 
and good seVM) whh which the whole and every part is made out. 
Tbey exhibit the moat uncommon features with the most unconiraan 
exprecbiona, but which are yet as lainiUar and intelligible a* pocsiUe i 

79 



THE PICTURE GALLKRIES OF ENGLAND 



bteauw. with ail the boldnnti ibcf hm sU ibe tniUi of aatarc 
Hi>gtuth haa left beluixl him a* nuoy of tboe ineinorable fitccii, in 
their raemoraUlc moneiit*, u, perhap*, mi»t of tu rcmtmbcr in ihc 
courw of o«ir IJns ; and h» tbui doubled the i}iHi>tiiy of our 
obtcmtioa. ^t 

We hive, in the prcamt pancr, alientptcd to point out tbx fund ofV 
obcervatioD, phyHcaf and moral, contain^ in one act of tbc>e pi<:ttifci, 
the Mttrri^st a-Umodt. Tiw tm woald furnish a* atany lopica to 
docuK upon, were the paiitnic« of the toder u inexhaustible <u the 
painter'a tni-eocian. But a* thi* in not the caic, we thall content 
ourtelve* with barely rcferrifig to aotne of thoce fignres in the oth«r 
picture*, which appear the omma miking ; and which we *e>c, ooi 
oaly while wc are looking at them, but which we hare before us 
ai all other ttnws. — l''or tnaiance : who, hsriof; *ecn, can easijr 
forget ih«t exquiute frott-piece of religion and monliiy, the anti- 
qvaied prude, in the picture of Miriunj'. or that Mriluag commentary 
on the good elJ limct, the tittle wtetched appendage of a foot-boy, 
who ctawU, half tamiiJicd and half fcoieo, behind hct ? The fl 
French mxn and woman, in the Noon, are the perlcction of flighty V 
aifectation and nudted giiniace ; the amiable frattna%atiint of the 
two old women Mlating each other, is not enough to be admited ; 
and in the little maatei, tn ilie tame national group, wc aee tht^ early 
promiae aud per«oui<ication of that eternal principle of wondrou* iclt- 
complacency, proof againat all circumitancet, which make* the 
French the only people who arc vain, even of bdng cuckolded and 
being con<]uercd ! Or iihall we prefer to thia, the oatrageoo* distntt 
and unmiljgated tef rort of the boy who has dropped hii dish of neM, 
and who accraa rod all over with shainc and vexAlioo, and burating 
with the ooiM he makes? Or what can be better than tbe good 
housewifery of llie girl underueatb, who is devouring the lucky 
fragment!^ Or tbun the plump, ripe, llunJ, lunciouB look of the 
■errant- wench, embraced by a greacy rascal uf uii Othvllu, with her 
pyc*diiih toclcting like her Tirtue, and with the mogt precious part of 
lis Gontentf running ovri \ Just — no, not <|uilc — ai goixl, is the joke 
Q^ the woman over head, who, having quarrelled witii her husband, 
it throwing their Sunday's dinner out of ihc window, to coropteti' 
ifiit chapter of accidents of baked dishes. 'I'he hntband, m tbe 
Svttriiig scene, is certainly aa meek as any recorded in history ; but 
we cannot say that we admiie tbii p)ciate> or the ^^igti Kene after 
it. But then in the Taile in Hiih Life, there it that inimitnble 

fxir, diflcring onlv in ■«, congratulating and delighting one aiMHhcr 
y * all the mutually reUccied chartlies ' of foHy and (tifcctadon ; with 
the young tady, coloured like a rose, dandling her little, bUck, pug- 
So 



I 



CRITICISM ON MARRIAGE A-LA-MODE 

facedi wh)tc-T«eth«d, chackling ravcuritci and with the portrait of 
Mods. Dti Noycfs, io the backgrouod. dancinK in a grand ballet, 
turrouoded l>y buttrrStes. And af^n, in Tie ElMton Dmatr, it 
the tmmorul cobbler, furrouoded by hii peer*, who < frequent and 
fiill,'— 

' In ImiJ rcceu and bratvSitg conclave lit i * — 

the Jew, in the Kcond picture, a very Jew in grain — innumerable fine 
sketchea of head* io the Polling for Votti, of which the nobleman, 
overlooking the carica(uri«l, i< the beii; — and tJien the irrctittible, 
lumnltuoua ditplay of broad humour in the Ch<nni>^ the Member, 
which ia, perhaps, of all Ho;[arih'i jiicturca, the most full of laughable 
incidenta and lituations. The yellow, runty-faced threibcr, with hi* 
Bwinging fiai), breaking the head of one of the chairmen ; and hit 
redoubted anLigonint, the tailor, with his oak «tick, and itumping 
wooden leg, a supplemental cudgel — the persevering ccrtasy of the 
hobbling blind fiddler, who, in the fray, appears to have been trod 
upon by the artificial excrescence of the honest tar-^Monsieur, the 
Monkey, with pileouB aspect, Bpeculutinj> the tmpcadiug disaster of 
the triuraphant candidate ; and his brother Bruiri, appropriating the 
paunch — the precipitous flight of the pigs, louse over head into the 
water — the fine lady fainting, with vermilion lips — and the two 
chimney »wccper», aaiirical young rogues! Wc had almost forgot 
the politician, who ia burning a hole through his hat with a candle, 
in reading a newtp^iper ; and the chickens in The Marth /o Fmrhlty, 
wandenng in seatcli of their lo» dam, who ia found in the pocket 
of the «erjeam. Of the pictures in T^e Rai/s Pngras we ihall 
not here uy any thing, because we think them, on the whole, inferior 
to the prinis ; and hccaute they hare already been criticised by a 
writer, to whom we conld add nothing, in a paper which ought to be 
read by every lover of Hogarth and of l^ngliah genius.' 

' S«c ui BiHy on die Genius vi llotirih, by C. Lamb. 



vot~ If. i f 



8i 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Ntta »f a )!iim>xj ikn^i Fitaa mJ 1m^, Bj If. Hatha, WH pnblialuil io 
I lit), in tn 8 n>, voiuine (fx ^ indie*}. I^iiittil for Hunt isd CU[k«,Tav(aiiMlL- 
Stmt, CovRit-GiTilcn. Til* prinlci'a name it |[ittn bthini) the litle^a|n a 
* WiUiim CloWFt, NartlinintHilin<t-cODn,' BO-t ihe foUawiag llna rroai fjwhJtw 
(Act III. 4.) (fpuT uQUeraciiti tht lulboi'i niiue oa tbc litk-pj(( 1 — 

* I' the wnld't volnnw 
Our Britiin tremi » of it, hot not ia it | 
In • grMi pool, 1 tirta'% nul. Piitbce (hiDk 
Thm'i liven out of Britain.' 

A* toM I* tbc AnnanutMilrT, the Ntia wtte teptinleil bam the MiFswj 
Cirenkli, ID wbicb tfacjr bad bcrn coRttibuted in 1114 inil iSi;. Tbcy an 1 
tTjnintrH far lh« Ant time unc« th* pnbliMtion of the initniw ot 1 Ka6, anil 
they ippcirerl in that volume. A U<* fttufiet vbidi apfcarcd ia t)ko papcn M 
the)! came out In ike Afi'iis/ Cirgaiiir, and mte omitted irhin Hiilili. collnrttd 
the lelten in buok-Corm, will be found aaanK the note* at the end of tbo volnme. 




ADVERTISEMENT 

The following NoUt of a Journey tbroiigh France and Italy are 
reprmted from the cotumas of the Morning Chronicle. The favourable 
reception they met with there suggested the idea of the preseaC work. 
My object has been to describe what I saw or remarked myself; or 
to give the reader some notion of what he might expect to find in 
travelling the same road. There is little of history or antiquities or 
statistics ; nor do I regret the want of them, as it may be abnndantly 
supplied from other sources. The only thing I could have wished 
to expatiate upon more at large is the manaert of the country : but 
to do justice to this, a greater length of time and a more intimate 
acquaintance with society and the language would be necessary. 
Perhaps, at some future opportunity, thi> delist may be remedied. 



85 




CONTENTS 



CNAPTtK I— Ruin for invrlling abroad. Brighton. Crouirigthr 
Channel. Dieppe. Remarks on rhe fretich common PeopU 

CKAPTeti II. — Normandy. Appraranrt of (he Counny, Roikd. 
Tlir Caihedral there. The tenw of Smell . 

Chaptek 111— The Road from Roiieo to Parii. A Miiiake. 
Evreux. A young Fimehmin. A treii of national 
Politenns. Louvicn. 'I'he Diligtnw, and (he Compuijr 
in it. Lord Byion aiid Mr. Muorr 

Chapter IV,— The Louvre , , . , . 

Chapter V,— Gravity of the French. Their Behaviour at the 
Theatre, Accflurit of going to a Play. MioTifr attention 
paid to the AtUi and Scienceii in France. Sir T. Lawrence. 
Horace Vcrnel ...... 

ChaptirVI. — Dialogue on iheF.xhibition of Modern French Pieturu 

Chaftsk VII. — The Luxembourg Oailery , 

Chaptek Vni. — National .\ntipathici. Cemeictj (X Pir* la Ckidu 

Chaptek IX.^MadcmoiwUc Man. The tkiatri fraa^tm. 
Moiiere'* Mlmnlkrapi and 7artitffr. Admirable manner of 
ca«ing a Play in Pari*. French Aetors, Le Pcintrr, Odty, 
and Poticr. Talms and MidemoiKlle G«oTg«» 

Chapter X. — ^Deieripiion of Paris. The Ganlen of the Tui- 
leriet. The Cliamp Jr Mori. The y^mtm 4li Fbrnlti. 
Reflections ....... 

Chapter XL— French Sculpture. Note on the Elgin Marblei 

Cnapter XIL— The French Opera. Dido And y^ncas. Madame 
Le Calloi> in (lie Ballet, llali.tn Opera or £^f louvai. 
Moinbclli and Pellegrini in the Gokxa LaJra. Athiiiion io 
Brunei ....... 

CtiAPTiK Xlll. — Leave Parii for Lyon*. Advcniuict on the 
Road. Foniainhleaii. Montnrgii. Girl at (he Inn there. 
A Frrnch Diligence. Moulin*. Patiueau. The Bour- 
bonnoii. Dciccnt into Tarite. Meeting witii a j-ouiig 
EngUihman there. Atrivni at Lyont. Manners of French 
Servanti. French Ttwiilation of Tom joam. M. Maitine'i 
Death »f Smrttlts ...... 

Chapter XIV. — Set out for Turin by Way of Mont Cenii. The 
Cheat) of Scapin. The Diligence. Pont Beau Voisin, the 
frontier Tonm of Ihe King of Sardinia') Doininionn. Have 
to paw the CuHom Mouk. My Box of Boolci UaJtJ. A 
Note which it little to the Purpote. Fint View of the 
Alpa. The GmA ChartreuK. Cai-cm of La Grotte. 

87 



tfi) 



•7J 




CONTENTS 



Chambcry. Si. MicKctlc. Luu-le-Boois. Oar Spomish 
fcUan-irmvcllcr. Pitugc nf Mount Ccni;!. An»v»l at Su»a . 

Chapter XV,_Tiirin. In magnificent Snatkin. The EfFect 
of lint fetfing oneVseif in Ital}-. Tlieiitrc. CipitiO 
PWitomiiDC-octinx. Pauporti. Grt tatt in a Voitiirc w 
Ploicncc, with two Engliih Ladin. Mode of mvclling. 
llaJiiii PcaouCi. I^rms. Windans linnl irith Faces. 
Mvi»-Louin. Cbancur of Cotttnia Frcuwn by xbt 
lame in tltc CwoU of St. P«iir». Th< Faineic Theme. 
Bologna. Acmtiay of Piiniing. TowDt in lu)y i 

CHama XVt. — Ron) to Florrnrc. The Apoiniocs. Covigli^jo, 
L3 Maichcrc. Amiroach lo and f>acTipuan of Ftonrncc. 
Carnival. Leal, The Poniih Cakndar. FtMilc. Cold Efi 
Italy 

CHarriK XVn.~The public Gallery. Antique BtuI*. TbeVeOu*. 
Raphael'^ Pomarini. The Pcneus of Benvtnulo CclliiiL 
Jobn of Bologna'i Ripe of ihe Sabinn. Th« Pilan Pitli . 

Cn*PTK«XVni. — Sienna. Radlcofani. Aquapendeulc. Descrip- 
tion of th< Inn there. Stn Lorenio. Morne-Fiawotw. 
Lake of Boliena. Dewlate Apparantc lA the Countiy 
near Rumt. Kirit View of Si. Pctcr'i fruin Baccano 

Chaptu XIX.— Rome. The Vatican. Tbc Canelh Sltt'toa. 
Holy Week. The Coliwuro. The Temple of Vcma. 
Pieturc Oalletin — the Runt>igIioiii, Dona, Borgboe, Conuni, 
and Little FimeM. Giiidu .... 

CHAf TKK XX.— Chaiaoier of the EngliiJi .... 

Ckaptkk XXL— Reiiim to Florence, Italian Banditti. Temi. 
Tlroji. Spolcto. Church tad Pictuio at AMui. Perugia. 
An Iiiih PncM. Cortona. Arrcio. Incia 

Cmaptki XXIL— Journey to Venice. Plain of Lombanlv. A 
countrylnu. Fetrara. Rovigo. Padua. Detviipcionorvrnioc. 

ChaptijK XXIII. — Palacd at Venice — the Gtimani. Barbnigo, 
and Manfrini ColttcCionn. Paul Verooew. Titian'* St. 
Peter Martyr. The Anumptivn and Martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence. St. Mark'a Place .... 

CHArTKk XXIV.— JounteytoMllan. Verona. TheToinbof Juliet- 
The Amphitlteatie. The Fortren of Pejchicra. Laie of 
Oania. Milan. The liihabitauti. TbeDuumo. Titeaircof 
ibeGtanScala. ImU Bella. Lago Maggioir. Bavtno 

Ckaptek XXV.— 'The paaugc over the Simulon. Inn at Biigg. 

Valley of the Simplon. Sion. flea. Vevey 
Chapti:* XXVI. — Eacurtian to ChamounL Mont . Blanc 

Geneva. Lauianiie 
CHAPTan XXVIL— Return dovtn the Rhine through Holland. 

Concluding remsrki ..... 

8S 



"9 

*JI 
a6| 

2<t1 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 
THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

CHAPTER I 

Thi. rule for travelling atiraail U to talc uur common icnsc with ua. 
And IcaTc OUT prrjudicct behind ua. The object of tntTclling \t to «ec 
and Icam ; hui mcli h our trapaticncc of ignomicv, «r thr jcalouay of 
our Bclt'-Iovc, that wc f|CDeraily wt ay a certain precoDccplion belorc- 
hand (in idMelcnce, orataUirricr ajraia&i ilit !««ioiiaof experieoc^) 
sod are surprised at or quarrel with all tiiut doc* not ctmform to it> 
Let u« think what we picuc of what we really find, but prejudge 
nothing. The English, in paiticuhr, carry out their own defect* u 
a standard for general imitation ; and think the TJrtuc* of othera [tb«t 
are not lifir vicct) good for nothing. Thus they iind fault with ihc 
gaiety of tlie French a« imixTiinence, with their politeneas as grimac*. 
Thb re{iuUive tyiiem of carping and cootradictioa can extract neither 
uae nor meaning from any chin;;, and only tends to make those who 
gire way lo it uncomfortable and ridiculoim. On the contrary, we 
should be as seldom shocked or annoyed as poanihlc, (it i« our vanity 
or Ignorance that is moriified much oftcncr than our reason !) and 
contrirc to see the favourable aide of things. I'hts will turn both to 
prolii and pleasure. The intellectual, like the physical, is bctt kept 
up bj an exduflge of comnioditic*, initead of an iil-naiurcd and idle 
Karcb after grierances. The firn thing an Englishman doen on going 
abroad t* to find fault with what is French, becauKc it in not Engliiih. 
if he is determined to confine all excellence to his own couniry, he 
had better lUy at home. 

On arriving at Brightoa (in the fall *eaMo,) a lad ofTcrcd to 
conduct us to an inn. ' Did he think th»e wa> room ? ' lie wa« 
•ore of it. ' Did he betuoK to the inn '. ' No, he was from London. 
In fact, he was a young gentleman from town, who had been itopptng 
some lime at the Whitc-Horte Hotel, and who wished to employ bis 
Sparc time (when he was not tiding out oo a blood-hone} in (crving 
the houw. and rclicviDg the perpJexi(>t« of hia feUow-tiafellcrs. No 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



LoodoDW would toIhucct hii 



to tliia 



AbbiUc land of C«eiaj»t, h^nr ia tt«elf^ and in makiDg 
bupy ! Koc cxabenaoe of i cH '- miAai cn, that orrrflow* apoa 
otncn I Dttigbtftil tmptftiDeacc, that it forward u> oblige ibem I 

Thcfc is KMDCtluBg ID being Mar ibr m, like the confiBn of 
etcTfiii)'. It i* ■ WW danait, a pore abnndim. The mind lotee 
to borer on that wbkb i« endleta, aod forever tbe aame. People 
wonder at a (team-boat, the inreBtioo of inan, inaoiged by nun, tbai 
makn it* liquid path like an iroo tailwav thioogh tbe *ea — I vottitt 
01 the lea tudf, that nat l.eviathaa, railed rauod the earth, smtlina 
in ii4 tlcep, waJced into fiiry, fathomlcM, boundte**, a huge world S 
watcr-dropa — Whence i* it, whiiber goct il> i* it a( eteroity or of 
noiliitis i Siranitci putMleroui riddle, thai we can neither |>ei)etnue 
B0( graiji in our cooipreheiuioR, ebbinjt and flowing like buman life, 
and twallowinf; it up in ihy mnor»elew womb, — what an ihon? 
Wbil it there in cornnxia brtween thy life aod ours, who gaze at 
thcc? Blind, deaf and old, ihou «ccm not, hcatctf not, undcrstaBdcat 
noti neither do we Bodeitiand. who behold and KncD to ibeel 
Great aa thou art. uncootciow of thy gmtaest. unwieldy, enomoat, 
prepotterou* twinbirtb of matter, teat in thy dark, uafatbomed cate 
of myalery, mocking Immac pride and weakncti. SttU ii it giien to 
the mind of man to wonder at thee, to confcu ita ignorance, and to 
■taml in awe of thy ituprndoKit might and majnty, aod of iu own 
hciiM, thai can (]i»eUioD ibinc t Bui a trace wilK rcflecaooa. 

Thr Pavilion ai Brighton it like a collection of none pumpkina ud 
peppei-hoxe*. It teem* aa if (be gniin of aichhtctuie had at once 
the dropay aod the M^riau. Any thing more fantawical, with a 
greater dearth of invention, wat never »ecn. The Ktne'a atod (if 
they were horaea of laaie) wovld petition sgainK ao u r j a i oB j J ■ 
l*lging. 

finghtOB fiaoda faaag tbc mx, on the bare clilft, whh gland 
wiadowa to reflec* the l/iMnaf, aon, and Uack pitchy brick< ahaDim 
like the attka nS fiibet. The town b however {ay with iW laflKit 
of LoodoK vtMtan— kappv aa tl>e cootcioy* abode of ita atneraiji ! 
Gvery thing here appear* m motiop c o m i n g or enng. PeofJc tf a 
w Weri nt-Bfice ntay be conptied to the fix* of a stnnnKf } or 9 
hihiotiaWe dtevaea, or aott of cloibn walking ^mn the nrveta. The 
aoly «ia m gan it, v£ finery aad lawaos. Tbc read liiTwaii 
l^ W K W ai and Bcwbton pnacna tone very Caunttn^ ac enrr y x 
la ainttatir Ewmb coutiT~tnw3i than n to w tirnn . 
«f B^h ad! Aa we cntercd Bngbaan in the eaoiifr a Fa 
«M |i a wa t aad ■agjag to a (tani. U wa* a itW tn dw i 
ii>B » ttc QOK^ vfeaeh kad btM dMiy aiffaned ia a iMal ; 



THROI'GH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 
I 



a disciple of Mtt. Fry and amanucQiis o( philuothropy in MneraL 
Ai we heacd tlie lively mufiicijo warble, we fotsut the land of 
Sundajr-Khools and tpinning-jeDoict. The gentui of the South had 
come out to meet us. 

Wr left Brighton in ihe BiraiD'jincket, and soon uw the *borc( of 
Albion recede from ub. Out of tight, out ef minJ. How poor s 
geograplicr ia the human mind I How Bniall a ipace does the 
imagiDatioQ take in at once! lo ttardling, our idea* change like the 
KCeDcK of a pantomiroe, displacing each other at completely and 
rapidly. Long before wc touched on French ground, the Fnglith 
coMt was lo(t in diaiancr, and ooihing remained of it but a dim mist; 
it hardly ceemcd ■ in a great [kxiI a swan's ncM.' So shall ita glory 
raniiih like a vapour, its liheriy Ukc a dream 1 

We bad a, fine panaage in the Bteam-boai (Sept. i, 1814). Not 
a cloud, Bcarcc a breath of air ; a moon, and then itar-behi, till the 
dawn, with rosy fingers, luhcred ua into nicppe. Out fellow- 
paasengers were pleasant and oDobtrusifc, an l''nglish party of the 
better loit : a Member of Parlianientt delighted to escape from * late 
hours and bad company ; ' an Fn);lith Ceneral, ptoud of his bad 
French ; t Captain in the Navy, glad to enter a French harboui 
peaceably ; a Couniiy Squire, extcoding hit inquiriea beyond his 
paternal acres ; the younger HinK of wcnlthy citixenn, reiinca through 
the itrainen of a Unircrsity-edtication and finishing off with foreign 
travel; a yonog Law)'rr, quoting Peregrine Pickle, and divided 
between his last circuit and projected tour. Tlicrc was also a young 
I>Dtchnian, looking mild tliiough bin muitachiot, and a new-married 
couple (a French Jew and .leweis) who grew uxoHoua from the 
effect* of sea 'lick nets, and took refuge from the qualms of die 
disorder in paraxynmn of tendemeM. We had some difficulty in 
getting into the harbour, and had 10 wait till morning for ihe tide. 
I grew very tired, and laid the blame on the lime lost in getting some 
rejRivG horses on board, but found that if we had tei out two hours 
(ooner, we should onl^ have had to wail two hours longer. The 
doctrine of Opiim'um t> a Tery good and often a very true one id 
travelling. In advancing up the steps to give the oiSoeri our 
pauport, I was prcrcnted by young man and woman, who said they 
were before me, and on making a second attempt, an elderly 
gentleman and lady aei up the same claim, because they stood trhind 
me. It seemed thai a servant was waiting with [asspons for four. 
Persons in a cenain clai* of life are so full of their own business and 
importance, that ibcy imagine every one else mutt be aware of it — 
I hope this is the lait tpccilQcn I shall for some lime meet with of 
cicy-raaniicis. Aiiei a fonittl custom-house search, wc procured 

9* 




NOTES OP A JOrBNEY 



m Pncr** Hmd, ■ten dwy vid tkej had nj » ei f *« i 
far > Ladjr. Fnacc n a oo^ej wto« iiK7 giTC ^oa « - dBr Damtir 
Tbr «ia(k>« looked oai on the tiridgc lad oa tbc river, wliicb 
wfconl tbe ■*'')T"i and dte bown ; and wc itKiald luvp ibm^bi 
atMUM bckSy eC ni list the bed, wlndi ota4MJ a mcbe in tbc 
iil>ia£<aea^ had that kod of edov which conll ■>« be mia ttt cn foi 
otto cf raaoL 

I>«rn, — ^Thia tow» fiMaot* a wry ^rteaUe and raoMwtic 
app t wa aec is m i f aa. It i> c« ip iato a nnfacr of diMJaei 
dniMM tn onak, d u w bri dgta, and bnnioi. u if to iaterce|it tbv 
prqpea * of n cneny. Tbc bnt hoMe^ toe, are tbnt up io doae 
courti and higii wallt <a ibe aanc praicifJe, that ii, u ataaa a ftinbct 
■kgr in tbc gcwd okl liiiM*. Tbcrv are rowt of InBc^ree* on the 
naj. and mmm of the urrov arena rcBaing bom h took like wriU. 
This unro is a jacnire lo look at ; it ii a [Mty thai if is not a iiMegiy, 
aod that dw paMeniter who nntitm to cxplurr it* nooks and aUrya 
i( dmen bock again by • a cmnfMNiDd of TiOainont mella,' which 
•eeni to erow em of the gronod. la walknq tbe Hieets, one rum 
take oo^i dmc widi ooe, and thai aeaae ii ^ to be oficnJed in 
France ai wcD aa in Scotland, la ii haece called in French the 
trgamtftttuti The boMMMd thrdrMae*aieeqaaU]rold.faah*aBcd. 
la Prance one lives in the iwaginnion «f thcjaai i io Eiig|aMlc««y 
thinx ii new and on an iw feored platk Sacb i« tbe )vo][re«a tf 
mechanieal i ntgn u ow ! In Dieppe there ia one lui][e, &u»-<ibapea, bat 
rcnecablfrJooking Gothic Cbarch (a ibcolocical £xtnrc,) tnitead of 
twenty oew^aa^ed ercctioaa, EgypciaB, Greek or Coptic The 
bcad-drctaea of the wonen arc much tfat lam* u iho«r which the 
Sfifttater langfaed oat of coantraaace a hondrtd year* ago in L'ogUnd, 
wiih hi)ih PJ^itcd ciowBi, aad Uppeta haa^oig down orcr tht 
thooldcr). Tbe tfaape and coiouii of tbe bodice and petticaai are 
what wc tec in Dntch picture* t tbc faces of the common people wc 
arc £uniliarized with in Mierit and Jon Steeo. They are foil aod 
fiir like the Germani, utd have not the atnn-n/ and peaked chancus 
wc attribute to the Krcocb. They are not handsodK, bat good- 
oatuted, cxprcnirt:, placid. They rct»B the look of pcaaaota ■wee 
that! the town'ft-peoiile with ati whether from liriag note b ilic open 
air, or &oni greatei health aod t em pe n occ, I cannot uy. Wbit 
I like in their exprenion (ao &r) it not the vinKity, bat tbc good- 
DCM, the simplicKyi the thoogbtful reai)!Dation. The French an 
fiill of gcKicolatioo when they tprak ; ihcv hive at other tintct an 
c^ual appearance of repoae and content. You (ec the figure of a girl 
Htting ia tbe ma, to Mill chat her dre&i igeeu* like itreaks of red ud 
Uack chalk agaantt the wallt a loldict reading i a group of ^, 

9* 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

I (with «ItiDs ki tougb. yellow, and wriaUed u thoie oT a 
MiMte) ctutiiog ID a corner and bughing till tbeir aidea are retdy to 
aplit) oc a ntin;'. of children tugging a fiBblng-bcMt out of tbe hnbowr 
at errabg go«s down, and m.iking the air rin^ with their tongt luid 
nhouu of mcrrimcnc (i night to nuke Mr. Malihut (huddcr ! ). Life 
hcic clowt, or spina carctes«Iy round on its toft axle. Tbe mne 
antnial spirits ih»t supply a fund of cheerful thought*, brc&k ont into 
tU the extra*3gnDce of mirth ^ind social }ilec. The air it a cordial 
to them, aod they dtiak dfunn of tutiBhine. My prticuLir liking to 
tbe French is, however, conlincd to their oatuiTil and unsouhitticated 
cbaructcr. The good iciritt ' with which they ate dothni and led,* 
and which eke out the dclicicncioi of fbnunc or good goreniTnent, 
are perhapo too much for them, when joined with cxt^ml adv&ntage*, 
or artificiaJ pretensions. Their rivacity bccotiics insolence in office ; 
their success, presumption : their gentittly, aS'ectation lod grimace. 
But the national phyniognomy (taken at large) i« the reflection of 
good temper and humanity. One thing is ctident, and dcciiive in 
their favour — they do not insult or point at stranger*, but (mile oa 
them good-humouredly, and answer them civilly. 

'Uay, niri^lly land of mirth and tociit case, 
Ptc^^'d with thyiclf, vrhom all tlic Hiirlil tail plcast t' 

Nothing shews the contented soul within, so much as ou/ not 
•nkiag 6ai moacmait b the moniRcaiionti of other a : we only envy 
ihrir AdtSBtaiteSt or sneer at their defects, when we are conscious of 
waming somethtDg ourselves. The customs atid cmjJoymeats of the 
people here have a more primilire and picturesque appearance than in 
England. Is it that with os every thing is made domestic and 
contmodioDs, instead of being practised in the open air, and subject 
to the casualties of tite elements ? For instance, you sec the women 
washing clothes in the river, with their red petticoats and bare feet, 
instead of standing over a washinf.-tub. Human life with us is 
framed and «et in comfort* : but it wants tbe vivid colouring, the 
glowing expression that wc meet eltcwherc. After all, is not the 
romantic cnecl produced partly owing to the novelty of the Rcenc ; 
or do w« not attribute to a superiority in others what is merely a 
greater liveliness of impression in oursetves, arising from curiosity 
and contrast? If this were all, foreignen ought to be a« much 
delijthted with us, but they arc not. A man and woman ome and 
Bun^ 'God gave the King,' before the windows of the Hotel, as if 
the French had so much loyalty at present that they can spare us 
some of it. What an ojnmon must they have formed of the abtord 
nitionslity of the EnglMh, to suppose that we can expect them to 

9S 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

iotl th» tMl of nMck-acnttmeni towardu our King ! What Englia 
bsUxi^iBgct would dmin of fiutefing ihr I'Vcoch vititora by a 
b ptaiip of LuuM /e Dtnrc before ■ Brigbtoo Or a l>OT«r Hotel i 

As the door opcni-d juit now, I uw the Lad or x'^fr *'><> wait* 
00 ui, goiD^ up Eiairs u-ith 4 loolung-glaacf lod admiiine btin*elf in it. 
If he U picaicd with himtcl^ be it no len niitfied wita lu, and 
Cfcry (hug cbc. 



CHAPTER II 



Thi; road fram Dieppe to Rouen i( bishly tnurctting. You at S. 
uceod a sirnight itcep hill, which coainiandt a ricw of the (own 
biirbour behind you, with viWiu on each ndc, (omcthiDg between 
modern cgita^rs and antique ca*iles ; and aficrwardt, from the top of 
the hill, the prospect «ptcad» out over cadlem plains, richly cnltiv^ed. 
It hM been conjectured that the Lnj^lish borrowed their implcnientc 
and modet of hutbundiv from their Norman Conqoerart ; the tt*eta- 
blaocc is, indeed, complete to a deception. You might iiii]^)Ote omt 
«de of the channel wan transported to the other, from the general 
Mpect of the country, from the ncatncii« of the ore hard -plots, tfae 
madtan, and farm-yardt. I:very thing ha* a look of the greatest 
indiutry and plenty. There is a acanty propmtion of cooBiwa 

Crage ; but rich field» of cloiert oats, barley, and vctchea, irith 
iaoi crops ready to cut, are presented to the eye in untniemipied 
■accnrion; there are no wastct, no barren, ihanltlcM enclosum; 
crery foot of ground ivcma lo be cultirated with the utmoM success. 
It is in rain alter ihia to talk of Einglit.h agriculture, a« if no such 
thing exttted anywhere else. Agriculiuie can do no more than 
make pruviuon [hat every part of the aoit is carefully tilled, and raise 
the (inni crops bom it. The only distinctive feature i*, that there 
arc here no hedge* along the road-side, their place beinft supplied by 
rows of applc-ircc* or groves of elm and poplar, which stretch out 
before you in lengthened rina*, ax far aa the eye can reach. We 
like this, u'liaicver Mr. Mac-Adam may object; and rnoreo^er, the 
roadi here are a> good a* his. To be sure, tliey are much broader, 
and admit of this collateral improvcraeni. Shady plantations open 
their aim* to meet you, closing in a point, or terminated by a turn in 
the road t and then you enter upon aimtbcr long hospitable avenue, 

' Bidding ihf lovely urcncii at ditlancc hail j ' 

the sroiling landscape wavea on either side to a considerable extent ; 
you paia a shepherd tending his Bock, or a numbct of pcatanta 

9* 



n 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 



returning from marlcct in ft light long wnggon, like a hen-coop ; the 
bcils of the hoTKs jbgle, tlit poatitioo cracka his whip, or ipeaks K> 
them with a friendly mice, and the Di&gtim rolls on, aX the race of 
BJx miles an hour toward* Pwii ! — Tnvelltnjt u much cheaper in 
France than in England. The distance from Dieppe to Rouen it 
thirty-six miles, xaA we only paid cichi franc), thai it>, six ahilltngs 
and eight pence a-picce, with two francs more to the guide and 
postilion, which is not foarpcnce a mile, including all expenses. On 
tlie other haod, you have not the advantage of taktnj; an outnde 
place at half-price* a» a very trifling dilfeicncc ii mode in thii 
respect. 

The Diligence itself cuts a very awkward figure, compared with 
our stago-coacho. There \s much the same dilTeiencc aa between 
a barge and a plcaaurc-boat ; but then it is roomy and airy, and 
remarkably easy in its motion. In the common mechanic arts tli« 
French attend to the essential only i we are so fond of elegance and 
compactness, that we sacrilice ease to show and finish. The hamesa 
of the horics is made of ropes or nisty leather, and it i* wonderful 
how they get along so well aa they do, three, or sometimes four 
a-breasl. The applen of the orchards hang orer the toad-sidc, which 
speaks well for the honesty of the inhabitants, or the plenty of the 
country. The women appear to work a good deal out of doors. 
Some of the older ones have strangely distorted *isaf;es, and thoae 
horrid Albert-Durer chins and noses, that have been coming together 
for half a century. The younger ones are haniUomc, healthy- 
looking, animated ; a better iiort of English country girls. The 
character of French coquetry prevails even here, and you ice a 
young peas.mt-girl, broiling in the «un, with a blue paper cap on her 
head, thai glitters like the smoothest satin, and that answers the 

Surpose of finery just as well. I obserred that one man frequently 
olda the plough and guidct the horses without aay one else to awist 
hJRi, aa they do in Scotland, and which tn England they hold to be 
an agricultural heresy. In Surrey, where an Engliih gentleman had 
hired a Scotch servant to try this method, the bootG actually collected 
round the man in the church-yard on Sunday, and pointed at hiait 
fty'"8> 'That's he who ploughs and drives the horses himKlf I ' 
Our prejudices are do less on the alert, and quite aa obstinate agunii 
what ik right ai what n wrong. I cannot say I was quite pleased 
with my barber ai Dieppe, who iniertcd a drop of citron juice in the 
lather I was to ihave with, and converted it into a moot agreeable 

rrfume. It wu ui aaiociation of ideas, a false teiinemcni, to which 
had not been accuttomed, and to which 1 was averse. I'hc best 
excuse I coidd find for my reluclaoce to be pleased, wm that at the 

9S 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



ncii pbcc vbcre thr inme thing «» attempted, the opcncor, by 
MMDC villainoua mixture, iIbiom uunk me to dntli I 

Th«- entrance into Roaen, ihioujth «xt«iii*c srchwiy* of tall 
tre«», plantMl aloDg the margin of the Sdnc, b ccruinly d«lectjblc. 
Here i)i« geaitu of civiliied France fir« begao lo ditfiUy itself. 
Companic* of men and women were fitting id the open air, enjoybg 
tlie coot of the cTcning, and the terenc moonlight, under Ckioew 
lamp*, with fnirt and confectionery. Wc arriird rather late, b«t 
were wel) received and accommodated at the Hotel Vmcl. My bad 
French bj no means, howcier, coociliates the rcj^ard or incrcaiea the 
drUity of the people on the toad. They pay poriicalar attention, 
nod are partictuarly delighted with the En;>iiih, who tpeak French 
well, or with toleniblc fluency and corrccinew, for they think it a 
complimcm to thrniKlicR and to the langmee; whereat, bc&dc* 
their dbLikr to all dilTicuky and unceiuioty of commuucaiion, tbcy 
re*cni an obrioua neglect on ihi* point ts an aJTrOH, and an DaWTttit- 
aUc astumption of vuperiority, at if it were enoujih for an EDglithaiM 
to shew hiratclf among them to be well received, without »o m«ch ai 
deigning to make himself intelligible. A perMin, who patae* thtot^ 
a country in mllcn nilrnce, muni appear very much in the character of 
a spy. Man) thingt (a native is conacioiw) will teem Mfioigc to a 
foreigner, who tan oeither ask the meaning, tu)t undcrKtaitd the 
explanation of them ; and on the other hand, if in ihetr ciTCumimce* 
you are loquacious and tnquisitite, you become proportion^y trouble- 
■one. It would hair been better (tiucb Is the natural feeling, the 
dictate at once of self-lore and common aeiuc) lo bare Icataed the 
bQgu.'t)>.e before you visited the country. At) accent, an occaatooal 
blunder, a ccnjin degree of hesitation ;ire amtwing, and indirectly 
flatter the pride of foreigner*; but a total ignorance or wiUul 
retocuace in speaking nlicws both a coDlcmpt for the people, and kb 
inattctttitin to good manners. 1''o neglect to make one'* »clf ttUMcr 
of a language tacitly impliirs. that in trarrlling through a coantry we 
have neither waoti nor withea to gratify; that we are qiutc iD> 
dependent, and bare no amlntion to give pleaaure, or to receire 
intuuction. 

At Rouen the wall* of our apartment were bare, being mere lath 
sod plaster, a huge cobweb hung in the window, the curtain* were 
ahal^ and dirty, and the Dtrar without c.irpctting or nutting i bu 
our table was wcll-furnishcd, and in the I'!ng1ish ta«ie. i'rcach 
oocdtiag comprehend) Hoglish, and easily condeaceods lo it ; so that 
an En^iahman Rndl banwf better off in France than a Frenchman 
does in lingknd. Tliey cotnplatn that our cookery U dry, and our 
solid, uniavottry momlt, becf-tieaka, and niulton chop*, muat ttick in 

96 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

their Uiroatt as well U be rcpul«ivc lo their im^^ations; nor caa 
we lupply the additiooal tauces or disguiscB whicii aie DcccMaiy (0 
«rt them otr. On the other h^il, wc had a diaoer at the Hotel 
Vaicl, a roan fowl, greciiK, and bacon, M plalo. as sweet, and whole- 
Dome, as wc could get at aa linglUh larin-houii-. Wc had alto 
pigeoDS, pantidgCR, and other game, in excellent pretcrvation, and 
kept tjuitc clear of l-'rcnch receipts and odioua lagouti. Gxinc or 
poultry is the halt-way house, a aort of middle point, between i''reoch 
and Eogliih cookery. The bread here ia cxcclleat, the butter 
admirable, the milk and colFee Huperior to what we meet with at 
home. The wine and fiuji, loo, arc delightful, but real French 
dishe) are an aboniination to an Iinglisli pabic. Unlcsa a man 
means to eiay all his life abroad, let him licware of making the 
experiment, or get near enough to ihe door to make his exit suddenly. 
The common chargei at the inns arc much the same as in l^ngland ; 
we paid twenty-pence for breakfast, and half n crown, or three 
■hillings, for dinocr. The bctt Burgundy is only three sliiUingB and 
four-pence a bottle. A green parrot hunj; in a cage, in a imall court 
under our window, and received the complimenti and carci«e« of 
every one who panted. It it wonderful how fond ihe Prrnch arc of 
holding conversation with animals of all Hcicriplions, parrots, dog), 
monkeys. Is ii that they choose lo have »ll the talk to iherahclves, 
to make propositions, and fancy ilic answers ; that tliey like this 
discoune by signs, \>-^ jabbering, and genticulation, or that tlie m:ini- 
fc*tation of the principle of lite without thought dcli^htt them abore 
all things .' The sociahleneB* of the French leems to expand ittelf 
beyond the level of humanity, and to be uncoDScioua of any deaccnt. 
Two boy> in the kitchen appeared to ha*c nothing to do but lo beie 
up the white of eggi into froth for talada. The labour of ibc E'rcnch 
costa them nothing, m that they readily throw it away in doing 
noiluDg or the merest iriHea. A nice-looking ^rl who olficiatcd as 
chamber-maid, brought in a ripe melon after dinner, and oifcring rt 
with much grace and good humour as ' un petit codcau ' (a trifling 
proent) was rather hurt we did oot accept of it. Indeed it was 
wrong. A Mr. Jamea Williams acted a> our English interpreter 
while we ttaid, and procured u* place* in the Paris Diligence, though 
it was said to he (juite full. Wc here also heard that the packet 
we came over in, blew up two days after, and that the paaeengcrs 
escaped in lishing- boats. This has completed my di»aste to steam- 
boats. 

The city of Rouen is one of the oldeit and Rnest io France. It 
contatDi about a huodied thousand inhabitants, two noble churches; 
a handsome <iuay it embosomed in a range of lofty hills, and wucred 

VOL. IX. : o 97 




NOTES OF A JOUUNEY 

by ill* SHnc, which, proud of it* willowy bank* and tnftcd i«Und 
wind* along by il. The uctttt up the titiog ground* behind it, 
muj^tfioent bcyoitd dcKiiptioD. Thr town i* (prcsd oui at your 
feet (an immenw. »taiely maw of dark grey siodc), the doubt« towen 
of the old Gothic Cith«dral, and of the beautiful Church of St. 
Antoine, riie above it in theii majestic pro]xirtM>af, orcriookiog tbe 
rich (unny valley* which tireccb away in tbe distiDee ( joa gradually 
climb an amphithe:atre of htUt, mitiklcd with garden* and tiIIm to 
llic Tcry inp, and the walk on Sunday sftcrnoon i* crowded with 
people enjoying the scene, adding to it« animation by their itttcUigent, 
varying look», and adorning it by thetr picturesque and richly- 
coloured dre**e*. Thetc is no town in England at the tame time to 
iiBt, and so lincty lituated. Oxford i* a* line in iu buildings Md 
aiitociatioQs, but it baa not the tame adnuil^e* of tituatioR : Bnttol 
ia at fine a nuaa of building*, but without the tame itrilung accom- 
paaiment* — 

'The pompof grotm and garnitutt of tirkla.' 



Edinburgh alone ia aa aplendid in its tituation and buildings and 
would have cren a more impoibg and delightful effect if Arthor'a 
Seal were crowned with thick wood*, if the Peniland-hitit could be 
convened into gtccn panurca, if the Scotch people were French, and 
Leiib-walk planted with Trncyardi ! The only blot in ihii fair tcene 
wa* the meeting with a number of cripples, whose hideout cries 
attracted and alarmed attention before their fomkidabic mutilxtiont 
bec am e »i»iblc, and who extorted charity rather from terror than 
pity. Such objecta abound in Friiace and on the Contbent. la it 
from the want of hotpitalt, or Irom the bad care taken of the yotmg 
and nece**itout, to whom tome dreadful accident haa happened? — 
The hill that command* thia beautiful prospect, and aecmc the rcaoR 
of health, of life, of pleasure, is called (as I found on inquiry] Afaal 
Jtt Maladfil Would any people but the I'' tench think of giring it 
■o tnautpicioua a title i To the Lngliali audi a name would tptul 
the view, and infect the imagination with tbe recollectiona of pain 
and tickneas, But a Frenchman's imagination it proof against tuck 
weaknetaei; he haa no lympathy except with tlie pleatutabtc; sad 
proTided a hilt present* an agreeable prospect, ncTcr troubles hi* 
head whether the inhabiunw ate tick or well. The ttreeta of 
Rouen, like tho«c of other town* in France, are tUity for the 
mmc reason. A Frenchman's tcntet and uDdertianding are alike 
inacceasibic to pain — he recognise* (happily for liimtelf) the 
existence only of that which adds to his importance or hii 
satitfaciion. He i* delighted with perfumes, but poate* over the 
98 



i 



* 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

DfTensivc Bntellt,' and will not lift up Kis little ftQ)(er to rtmtnc 
_ al naJKince, for ii ia none to hitu. He leifm the walb of hi* 
faODK* unfinithed, dtU|ndatedt alnioat uniohibiuble, becauie hii 
thoagbtt are bctit on wureinfi hii own pcT»on — on jrwcit, trinket*, 
pamadr liivint ! He ii elaborate in hit cookery 4nd hit <LtcM, bcoUM 
the one flutcr« his vanity, the other hii apf>etitc ; and he ia liceniiooa 
in hi* plemnim, itay groii in hit> nunncr*, bccauac in the lint he 
conBulta only his itniocdiaw gratiticalioD, and in t]ie last annoya otben 
continually, from having no conception that any thing he (4 Frrocb- 
man) can do can pouibly annoy them. He is aure to otTertd, becauae 
he take* tt for granted he mual plcaK. A great deal of ordinary 
French conversation might be ipared before foreigner*, if they knew 
the pain it gives. Virtue i< not only put out of counleaincc by it, 
but vice becomes an indilferent tniranon-fliut in their mouths. The 
Inst alagc of humao depravity ie, when vice ceases to shock — or to 
please. A Ficnchnian s candour and indilTercnce to what must be 
tliought of him (combined with hia inordinate desire to shine) are 
curious. The hero of his own little ule carries a load of crimei and 
misfonunei at hia back like a lead of bttod-boxes, and ( light -he.-irted 
wretch) linga and daocet as he goes ! The inconsei)Ucntia!ity in the 
French chamcter, from extreme facilitv and buoyancy of impression, 
is a matter of astonialimeni 10 the Evngii^. A young man at Kouen 
was walking briskly along the street to church, all the way tos«ing 
his prayer-book into the air. when suddenly 00 reaching the entnnce 

' Ota wonM Ibink ihii s ptople to iinoxei Id petfaincs, who deal in ssnoOC* 
■nd (trail, siiH hive lifif ililKrtnt loni of tnuil*, woulil be cquiUy alu, tod 
ofTcDdci! It ih( apiiroiich of tvcry >ti«i|[rtr>hl< odour. Not 10. Thty teem le 
hive CO KfiK of (hr tliHjirteiblr in tmctit or listH, tt if their hu'ft wrrc itaAvd 
with 1 cold, ind hang ovrr 1 dunghill, 1* if ii were 1 btd of luiti, or iwiUow the 
molt dctnUbic dithci wiih the jfrnlcti idjih. The nirvr of Ihcir urniibililjr is 
buund up al the poiitt of pain. A Frrricbaian («i far an I ran Find) haa no idel 
aniwcrinir tn the vrorA Tiaity \ tir if hr hai, fnli a pr^iLJitcclinn fur, initrad of id 
■vcciioD to, it. So in morala the; bi>l fait in bf (he Syhiriiii of the modern 
world. Thtj mslie the btti of every thieg (whjth ji 1 virtue) — and trot (be 
wont with levity or <anifUi(*nie (which ii i vioe). They harbour no intipalhin. 
They wtald awailow Cil Blit'i aupper ai 1 luiary, anil boail of il aftetwardi la ■ 
fell. Tlielt (noril lysteni ii oot luiuiacd by ihe I>vo cppoaile piiiidplrt of 
attraction anci repubifm. for they ate thcjtlceil at nothing t what ncitpa horror or 
ditfuit in f^thrr mindi, ibry cnniiiler » a hagat/lU\ i( it rrtolvrd into in abitric- 
lion of itreeabte aentationi, a lourcc of amuatmrnl. There ii >n oil of Klf- 
Complacency in their constitulionv, which tjtkn the itinfE onl of evil, and neutrsliaei 
the foiioQ of (ormption. They, therefore, can commit atrociiiei with impunilj', 
and waiiow in diigrice without 1 blaah, ai no other feople can. There ia Mnniirur 
Chiicaubriand, for iniUDCt. Who would not tuppote thit the very echo of hia 
owa oame would hoot bim out of (he world i So far from it, hia pimphlet On 
ihi Cmariiip his juat come Is a (bird e>litiaa, and ia iiiiek all otvr Paris I 

99 



NOTBS OF A JOURNEY 



a pricM appeared canting from church, and he Tell on his koeea ott 
the ttept. No woodei the Popish clergy tuod up for their religioat 
when ti caakn otliert fall oo their koeet before them, and wonhap 
their appearance as ibe shadow of the Alnnghtf ! The clergy ia 
Piincr prrtent an agreeable and almott neceaury foil to the foibles 
of the national character, witli their wimbrc drew, their gntviiy, their 
Mmplictty, their sanctity, li ii nnt ittrangc they exen such aa 
influence there : ihcir professional prclpnsioi» lo learning and jncty 
muBE have a double wei;;hl, from having nothing to oppo»c to then 
but frivolity and the impulse of the montent. The eniermg tfae 
Cathedral here after the bustle and coDiusioa of tite urevt*, t« like 
entering a vault — a totnb of worldly thought* and pleatureo, pointing 
to the tkici. The (low and solemn movements of the Prictu, M 
grave as they arc unmeaning, reicrable the ipelU of occrninanc^i; 
the pictaret and statocs of the dead contrast strangely with the facei 
of tlie liriDgi the chaunt of the Priests wunds dijfercntly from the 
bfgun of tbe common people [ the little oratories sod cells, tviili aome 
lone mourner kneeling before a crucifix, every thing leads the thonghti 
to another world, to death, the resurrection, and a judgment to come. 
The walls and ornamenu of this noble pile are left in a itate of the 
mon lametiuble neglect, and the infinite number of paltry, nvb- 
boitomtd chairs, huddled together in the aisle, are joat like ibc 
rvbbiah of a broker's shop. 1'he great ball of Uie Cathedral n 
the most decp-mouthed I ever heard, 'swia^og tlow with •ullen 
roar,' rich and aonoroua. and hoarse with counttcg iltc flight of a 
thouaand year*. It is worth while to visit Prance, were it oisli 
to we Roaca. 




CHAPTER m 

Tmi Road to Paris. — They vaunt much of the Lowtr Road 
Rouen to Paris : but it is not so fioe aa that from Uieiipc to Roueo. 
Yon have comparatively few trees, the soil it Ie*a fertile, and you are 
(nearly ibe whole way) tantalized with the vast, marahy-tookiag 
plains of Normandy, with the Seine glittering through theia like a 
snake, and a chain of abrupt chalky hills, like a wall or faotttet 
bounding them. There is ooihiog I hate like a diatant preapect 
withoat any thing imtresling in it — it is continually dragging tbr eye 
a wearisome journey, and repaying it mtb barrenness and defbrmtly. 
Yet a Frenchman contrived to make a panegyric on this tceoe, afiet 
the fathioD of his couclrymen, and with that sort of tripping jerk 
which it peculiar to their minds and bodies — ■ II j a Jt Ptaa, if j a 

lOO 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 



dfs ie'it, H J a JtJ menlagna, ii f a de la vtrJurt,' &c. It !• true, 
there were ail these thingt in the abntract, or a* »o nuny detached 
paniculara to mike a ipcech about, which wan all that he wanted. 
A FrcDchman'a eye for nuure n merely namiaal. \ lind that with 
the Dorcltjr, or on farther experience my eothusiaim for ihe country 
and the people, palli a little. During a long day's march (for I was 
too laie,oi rather too ill to go by the lix o'clock murning Diligence,} 
I got ai tired of toiling on under a Gcorching lun and over » duirty 
road, aa if [ had been in Hngland. Indeed, I could almott have 
landed myself there, for I scarcely met with a human being to 
remind me of the dijfcience. I at one time encountered a hortemaa 
mounted on a Jemipiqut saddle, in a half military uniform, who teemed 
determined to make me turn out of the foot-path,' or to lidc over me. 
Thit looked a little English, though the man did not. I should take 
him for an Exciseman. I suppose in all countries people on horse- 
back give themselTcB airs of superiority over those who ate on fool. 
The French character is not altogether compounded nf the amiable, 
any more than the English is of the respectable. In judging of 
nations, it will not do to deal is mere abstractions. In countries, a» 
well as individuals, there i> a mixture of good and bad qualities j yet 
we may attempt to strike a general balance, and compare the ruJes 
with the exceptions. Soon after my eauestrian adventure (or escape,) 
I met with another pleasanicr one ; a little girl, with regular feature* 
and dark eyes, dressed in while, and with a large straw bonnet 
flapping over her face, was mounted behind a youth who seemed lo 
be a relation, on an ass — a common mode of conveyance in this 
country. The young lad was Hying to frighten her, by forcing the 
animaJ out of its usual easy pace into a canter, while she, holding 
fast, and between laughing and crying, called out in a voice of great 
sweetaesB and ndivai — ' // n'til pai Sen Irotttr, i! n'cit fai ion Irotttr' 
There wan a playfulness in the expression of her terrors i^uite charm- 
ing, and cjuite French. They inrncd down an avenue to a villa a 
little way out of the road. I could not help looking after them, and 
thinking what a delightful welcome must await such innocence, such 
cheerfulness, and such dark tparkUng eyes! Mail dhnt. These 
reflections are ocrhapt misplaced : France is not at present altogether 
the land of gallantry or sentiment, were one ever »o much disposed 
to them. 

Within half ■ mile of Louvicrs (which is seven league* Irom 
Rouen) a Diligence passed me on the road ai the full «pecd of a 
French Diligence, rolling and rumbling on its way over a paved 

' This M DOI rortecl ; theti ii oa root-ptth in PitDCc, but there is a sMe-palh, 
clumiog, I prciume, the ssme piirii()[a, 

tei 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



nmi, whh fire chinwy-lookbg hortei, and loaded to the toe tike a 
Plymouth van. 1 wu lo Kop « L-ouvien, at the Hotel de Moutan, 
and to proceed to Pari* by the coach the next duv ; for I wu told 
there WJ.S Du coDvcjancc onwardn that daj', and I ovn that this 
apparition uf a D)lif;cBce to full tail, and in broad day (when L had 
undcmtood there were none but nij^t coaches) lurprited me. 1 waa 
going to net it down b ' my taUe«^' that there ia no faith lo be placed 
in what they uy at Preach inoa. I quickened my pace in hopes of 
overtaking it whik it chaogcd hor»e«. The main Mteet of Loovicrs 
appeared to me very long and uncrcn. On loming a corner, ihe 
Hotel de Mouton opened it* gate» to rcccii-e mr-, the Diligence 
was a little farther on, with freah horsta jun put to and ready to atari 
(a critical and provukinK dilemma;) I hctnaicd a mootceit «nd at 
lut rew>lvcd to ukc my cbaoce tn die Diligence, and aecui}; Pxns 
vrittefl on the aut*idc> and being informed by Montievr It Canditeieur, 
that I could nop at Cvreux for the night, 1 took the rest far granied, 
and mounted in the cabriolet, where Mt an Englidi gcotlcman (one 
of thoic with whom 1 had come orrt in the iceam-boatf) aolitary and 
lilent. My sealing myacif in the oppoaitc comer of the cabriolet 
(which in that pan of a Ficoch Diligence which ii placed to froot, 
and re«emblca a poat-chatK in form and ca»c,) did not break the 
»olitude or ihc ailcnce. In company, t^o ae^alhyi Ja nctf noie «• 
afirmalivt. I know few ihingn more delightful than for two Engliab- 
men to loll in a poat-chuic in thin manner, i.-iking no notice of cMh 
other, pretcrving an obttinate silence, and determined to sctKi their 
GouoUy IB Covmtry.^ We pretended not to TccognUc each other, and 
yet our aaying nothing proTtd every initant that wc were not French. 
At length, atioui half way, my companion opened liia lips and aakcd 
in thick, biokcn French, ' How far it was to Evreux t ' I Io<^ed at 
him, and *aid in English, ' I did not know/ Not another word 
pM««d, yet, I dare lay, both of u« bad a very agreeable time of it, 
aa the Diligence moved on to l^vieux, making rcflectioot dd the 
naiionul character, and each thinking himaelf an exception to ita 
absurdities ^i^ instance of ita virtues ; ao caay is it always (and 
particularly abroad) to fancy ourtelves free from the error* wc wi 
in our ncighboutK. It ia this, indeed, which makes tu so eager 
detect them, a* if to Ke what ii wroDg wa( the *aroe thing aa 
in the right I 

At hvteux, i found I had gone <[mK out of my road* and that 
there wu no conveyance lo I'axis till the «ame hour the oext lught, 
I wa« a good deal mortified and perplexed at this iitielligencc, bu 

' 'There U nathiaR which la EnfliiluBui <ajay« m mudh m the platmre id 
nlkineH.' — EJiritrgA An-frtP.No. to. 
101 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 



I 



fbimd tome coDSolatian at the OfRct where 1 obubed it, fran 
casually hearine the name of my companion, which it a gtcat point 
gained in tcamling. Of cournc, the ai«covcty it plcaimni, if it U & 
oanic you arc auiaainted with ; or if not, at Icut yciu have the aatis- 
facuoD of Icnowing it ia lomc one you do noi know, and »o arc made 
eaiiy OD that head. I bespoke a bed, and was ahowR ioto the common 
room, where I took colTee, and had whut the Scotch call a IrandereJ 
/owl for lupper. The room was papered with marine landscapes, ao 
that vou aeemed litting in the open air with boat* and tree* and the 
■ca-ahore all round you, and Tclemachua and Caljrpao, ^gurca landing 
or crabaxkitig on halcyon acac. Etcd a couniry-inn in France is 
dawical. It ia a pity that the English are ao dull and sluggish, ' like 
the fat weed thai rooifl itself at ea»e on Lcihe'a wharf,' that they 
cannot lend thcmselvrs to the»e airy hctioDs, always atarin;; them in 
the face, but rather turn away from them with an impticnce and 
ditgust proportioned to the elegance of the design and the tax levied 
on their taste. A Frenchman's imagination, on the contrary, !a 
alwayii at the call of hi) eensei. The latter have but to give the hint, 
and the former is glad to take it ! I tired every one out by inquiring 
my beat mode of getting on to Pari* next day ; and being slow to 
believe that my only way was to go back to Louviers, Uke a fool as I 
had come, a youog Frenchman took companion on my embarraaimeni, 
and offered to be my interpreter, * as he spoke both languages.' He 
aaid, ' I muKt feel great pain in not being able to cxprenc mytclf.' 
I aaid ' None but in giving other* the trouble to understand me.' He 
shook hit head, I (poke much too last for him ; he apologized for not 
being able to follow me from want of habit, though he said, *hc 
belonged to a society of twelve at Paris, where they spoke En(;lish 
every ercoing gcnetaUy.' I said, 'we were well matdied,' and when 
this waa explained to him, be repeated the word ■ matched,' with a 
ludicroui air of dittiesB, at finding tint there wai an English phrase 
which was not familiarised to him in 'the society of twelve, where 
they spoke the English language generally every evening.' We toon 
came to a dead itand, and he turned to my English companion in the 
cabriolet, on whom he bcttowcd, for the rest of the evening, the 
tediouiineas of any ' society of twelve.* 1 could not lielp laughing to 
KC my lucklcaa fellow country man, after one or two attempt* to ratl^ 
and exchange remarka, reduced to the inccttant repetition of his 
melancholy 'our,' and ray lively Parisian rioting in the advantage he 
had obuined over a straggling Hnglishmaii, gliding from topic to topic 
without contradiction or control, passing from the population of Paris 
to the Btmix-Aru, from the Bclles-LettrcH to politici, running the 
circle of koowledge, and €flding himself ilill at home, faltering at the 

103 





NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

moiciaa of the Allin *bA the Boarbon^ and rnnig with outctrttched 
arm aai conunaoni Toicc at the D»ne of Bmomtfar-r (like the ea];le 
■oiriBg <n lerel wing) — getting never and aeutr tlie rictim of hi* 
folubifity, teizii^ mj poor fticixl hj the bvtun, and u la«i retiring 
■bniptlf, at if Bfriid of > re^ctioa, and wiahiBg fain * good repoM- * 
for the evening. Happy luembcr of a ■ (ociety of twelve .' ' Apt 
Te|xe<eatativc of thtitjr milliooa of people, who build theii aelf-eateeta 
on the baaia of TUiiiy, sod weave hajipmeu ooc of breath, which coaia 
ibem DOlhing ! Why envy, why wiih to incetmpi them, like a ioh- 
diiefoua (cbool-boy, who throwi a great *to«ic into a pond fiiU of 
frogt, who croak their delighu > generally every evenicg,' and wfaOi 
the vamaia. the chaun ii cloaed, retuni to the charge with onabaud 
glee and joyous diMaBuce! 

I miM DM forget to mentioa a favourable trait In the coiiirooa 
French chancier. I atkcd to ipealc to the CtmAeUv, and aorae- 
thing like a charge of deception wa« brooght, from which be defended 
hiwactf urcnnontly. The whole kitdten and nahlc-yard gathered 
rowid to hear a dupote, which was by no meant waged with eaual 
war of word*. They uaderttood that I wat diaappointed, and bad 
Ottdc a ridicnioiw miitake. Noi a word or look of dertatoo wu 
obacnaUe in th« whole group ; but rather a ritiag amile, supproaed 
for (ear of ginag mtn, and a wiih to ai^ytest Mtne expedient on the 
occaxioa. In EngtaDd, 1 will venture to nyi that a rrenchnuB, ia 
Bmilar cticwnttxnoet, naninieiing out a grare charge of impoaition 
agaiafta caacfanuo, xad cridcotly at a Iom how to proceed, woold 
Mvc been hooted out of the place, and it would hare been well foe 
him if he had eacapcd withoal broken bonea. If the French have 
the vice* of artificial refinenH-nt and eHeuiioacy, the Englith call 
retain too many of llio«e which belong to a urbaioiu and t»Ttgi 
atate. 

I retnnxd to Louviera the next morning uadeT the lafe conduct of 
ny fonner guide, where I arrived half an hour before the neccasary 
time, foand nyKlf regularly booked for P.iris, with ^ve franca paid 
on account; and after a very coniforiablc bieakfut, where I wu 
waited on by a pretty, modest- looking tnuuitt (for the French 
couotty-jprla are in j^neral modcti- looking,) I took roy seat ia the 
fiarthfute of the Diligence. Here I met with every thing to annoy 
an Englishman. There waa a Frenchman in ibc coach, who had a 
dog and a little boy with him, the laat having a doll in hia handa, 
which be innatcd on playing with ; or cried and screamed furio>ualy 
if ii waa taken from lum. It waa a trvc French cliild ; that ia, a 
'tittle old man, like Leooaido da Vtnci'* Laugii^ Bej, with eye* 
glittering like the glaia one* of hi* favourite doll, with rtaxen ringleta 

104 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

like hen, with cheelu as unooth and tuhcalUiy, aod a premature 
cKpreHJoo of cunning nod wlf-cowphcOTcy . A dingrcci^lc or ill- 
behaved child in a suge coach » a common accideot, and to be 
endured. Bui who but a Frenchmon would think of c^irryiog hia 
dog ! He might ai well drag hit hnrK into the coach after him. A 
Frenchman (with leave be it ipokcn) h»» no need to take a dog with 
him to ventilate the aii of a coach, in which there are three other 
Frenchmen. It waa impotaible to autfcr more from heat, from 

frnaure, or from the periodical 'exhalation of rtch-diitillcd perfumes.' 
f the French have Ion the aense of amell, they iihould reflect (as 
they are a reSecting people) that othcra have not. Really, I do not 
see how they have a right in a public vehicle to assault one in this 
way by proxy, any more than to wkc one literally by the nose. One 
doea not expect from the most icfincd and polished people in Europe 
grossneaseG that an Esquimaux Indian would have loo much sense 
and modesty to be guilty of. If the prcnencc of their dogs is a 
nuisance, the convcrtation of their masters is often no lesa offensive to 
another sense — both arc suffocating to every body but thcmaclvci, 
and worthy of each other. Midas whispered his secret in the reeds, 
that whispered it again. The French, if ihcy arc wise, ought not to 
commit the national character on ccnain delic-ate points in the manner 
ihey do. While they were triumph ant, less caution might be 
necessary : but no people can afford at the sanie lime 10 he odious 
as well a> conieniptible in the eye* of their encmie*. We dined at 
Manlci, where the ordinary was plentiful and excellent, and where a 
gentleman of a very preposscuing appeaniacc took up the conversation 
(descxnting on the adventures of a shooting-paity the day before) in 
that gay, graceful, imd animated tone, which 1 conceiie lo bc 
characteristic of the best French society. Id talking ind lauglitnn, 
he discovered (though a young man) the inroads which hot soups 
and high-seaMned ragouts bad made in his mouth, with the same 
alacrity and good-humour an if he had to thcw a complcic set of the 
whitest teeth. We passed an interesting village, tiluated on the slope 
of a hill, with 3 quaint old tower projeciing above ii, and over'hanging 
the Seine. Not far from ihe high road stands Rosny, once the scat 
of the celebrated SuUy. The approach lu tlie capital on the aide of 
St. Germain's is one continued lucceuioo of imposinj; beauty and 
artificial splendour, of groves, of avenues, of bridges, of palaces, 
and of towns like palaces, all the way to Paris, where the sight of 
the ThuiMcries completes the iriumph of external magnilicence, and 
oppresses the soul with rccollcciions not to bc borne oi to bc 
expressed ! — Of ihcni, perh.-ips, hereafter. 

In the coach coming along, a Frenchman was curious to learn of a 

105 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

ScBtA ggdt— . wfcfl yhc way w ifcc tj Uc Ptcscl^ wfacdicr 
ByrM «■• tn^ r^nacd ia Eigjharl ! He nid that vu 
fanscy ta bu wnuagi^ bat us mdt griiiiM aha eSta. He 
added, ttoi there ww no Mto^C M dka is Rjom. Tbia with 
die Preach it • (aal ^peal in maten of poetty and aate. A 
tnnalatioa of Lord Bjron'* Works ooBqd de w coaiBion m all the 
dwp here. I tm aot tan wbetfaer st Esgliifa Poet n^it to be 
pfood of tlu* cffccnHuce or boc 1 abo nv at '^^ " ^ -i^*^ 
adTcnited, taid to be writwa by hia bind. ^ Tbonat More 
Ham oddhr tbr Ftendi confaiae du^ 1 Tbara i* a Sir TlMmai 
MMn n Ea^uMi ril^t?ft aad L< u oai bat natf Sif llionBaa Buofe 
b Dot dw Bdi. Tbomai Moore — ^■let tbeti ^aoeet btm» bdjere ttl 'j 



CHAPTER IV 



Tm int tbiDg I did vhn I got la Parii wat to ftt to dw L.oarrc. 
b «a* mdeed • 6tm. and Ua acd midM ' in my iboafhta. WcQ 
■i^ it be lOt for it had never beta ^lara! from tbcm far t we nt y 
ytara. I bad gazed Dytdf abnott bliad in looking at the pce ci ona 
wotkt of an it then cootained — aboBld I not weep nyadf oGod ia 
lookitig at tbcm again, after a bp«e of half a lift — or oa findiag them 
gone, and with tbem gtjac all that I had once believed and htmd of 
honun kiad i Wliat could eva Ell up that blank ta my bean, tearfo) 
10 tfainli npon — feaifal to look upoo i I waa no leaftr yooag i aad 
he who bad collected tlwm, and ' won them aa a rich jewel in liia 
iron Crown.' wa« dead, a c^w aad Tanqm^ed ; ind with bun aB 
we who mnaincd were 'thrown into the pit,* the Ui'eleM botEea of 
men, and wore roaod out atcka the coUu of fcrritailc, aad oa oat 
brclMada the beand, asd b out fleak aad ia oat aoak tbe atlia of 
thraUon and of the bom dates of Kinfii. Yet thai far bad I come 
oace more * to dream and be an Emperour ! ' Tboa ocfcd ahrine of 
God-like flia^ficn>cc, moit not my bean fail aial my ieet ■Unnble, 
at I approach ihc«? How gladly would I kneet dowa and kita thy 
threabold i aad crawl into thy preaeoce. like an EaMeni tUn ! For 
here itiil tic|teT the btokca remaina and the UAei rpkadoar of that 
frood nKKnuncflt of the triumphi of art and of the nujttty of naa'a 
aatnre o*er ibc mock-tnainty of tbrooeal Here GeniiM atul Fame 
dvcU together; 'SrioJ callcth unto Seio«l,' and mighty name* 
aaawer to each other : thai old gallery poiota to the loog, dim pcr- 
•pe«tiTC of waaiag yeara, and the shadow of Glory and of Liberty U 
■eea a&r off. In pacing it* edioiag Aoois 1 bear tbc found of the 
io6 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

K>ouu{» of my youih, and the dead Man from their lUinibcr* ! . . . 
In all the time that 1 htid bcco 3way firont ther, and amidK all ibe 
chaDjtes that had happeoed to it, did 1 eter foritd, did I tier profane 
thee ? Never for a momtot or in ihought hire t swerved from thee, 
ot from the cauie of which thou wert the pledge utd crown. Often 
h.ivc I Doughc thcc it) >leep, and cried myielf awake lo End thee, with 
the hcart'fclt yeanUDgi of intolrtitbtc affeclioti. Still did«l thou haunt 
me, like a MMiooAtedrcim — like Bomc proud beauty, the queen and 
mieircss of my thoughta. Neither pain nor dckncu could wean ne 
from thee — 

■ My thentc in ciondt, my tolitary pride' 

In the tangled foreit or the tiarren waste — in the lowly hovel or the 
lofty palace, thy rooft reared their vaulted canopy over my head, a 
loftier pAlice, an ampler ipace — a ' brave o'er-hanging 6rmamcnt,* 
studded with constellation* of an. Wherever I was, thou wert with 
me, above me and about mci and didst ' hang upon the bcatingg of 
my heart,' a vision and a joy unutterable. There was one chamber 
of the brain (at least) which I had only to unlock and be master of 
boundleis wealth — a tteaiure-bouK of pure thoughts and chcrii>h<d 
recollection I. Tyranny could not master, barbarism slunk from it i 
vice could not pollute, folly could not cainaay it. 1 had but to touch 
3 certain spring, and lo! on the walls the divine grace of Cuido 
appeared (Vec from blemish — there were the golden hues of Titian, 
and Raphael's iipcaking fac«s, the splendour of Rubens, the gorgeous 
gloom of Rembrandt, ihc atty elegance of Vandyke, and Claude's 
classic scenes l.ipped the scnfces in Elysium, and Poussid breathed the 
Spirit of antiquity over them. There, in that fine old lumber-room 
of the imagination, were the Ttannfiguration, and the St, Peter 
Martyr, with its m-ijcutic ligurct snd its unrivalled landscape back- 
ground. There also were the two St. .leromcs, Domcnichino'« and 
Corrcggio't — there * stood the statue that enchants the world ' — 
there were the Apollo and the Antinous, the Laocoon, ihc Dying 
Gladiator, Diana and her Fawn, and all the glories of the aaiiqnc 
world — 

•There wan olJ Proteus doming from ilic wa. 
And agtd Triton blew hid wrrathcil hnm.' 

But L.cgithnacy did not ' sit squat, like a toad,' in one corner of It, 
poisoning the very air, and keeping the frcr-born spirit aloof from it I 
There were one or two pictures fold favourites) that I wished to 
•ee again, and that I wan told still remained. 1 longed to know 
whether they were there, and whether they would look the name. 
It was lortunatc I arrived when I did ; for a week later the door* 

I07 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

would bare been ihut ajiairnt me, on occaMOO of ih« death of the 
King. Hu bust it over the <)oor, which t had nearly miitaken foT 
a head of Mcmnon — or tome Egyptian God. After poMiag ihrough 
the modern French Exhibition (where I uw a picttire by Sir 
Thoraa» Lawrence, and a vile fatT»0 of Baariim'JUtloralKM pic- 
lures,} 1 came within tight of the Grsind Gailerf of the Lourrc, 
which is at present only railed a€. One or two [English Biragjtleim 
alone were in it. The coolness and sttUoest were contraated whb 
the bustle, the heat, und the smell of the common spiittmeat*. My 
thoughts rushed in and filled the empty space. Inttcad of the old 
Repnblicaii door-kcepcts, with their rough voice* and affectation of 
equality, a servant in a coufi-li«ery stood at the gate On pre»caiiDg 
ajrtelf, I inquired if a Monsieur Livrmois (who had formerly aahcred 
me into this region of enchaDiment) were still tlierc; but he was 
gone or dead. My hesitation and foreign accent, with certain other 
appeals, procured me admittance. I poated on wiihooi further 
question. I cast a glance forward, and found that the Pousiins wvrr 
Oicre. At the sight of the lirKi, which I dittinctty recollected (a 
fine green landscape, with stately ruins,) the tear* came into my eyes, 
and 1 passed an hour or two in that state of luxurious enjoyment, 
which is the highest privilege of the mind of man, and which perhapt 
makes him amends for many sorrow*. To my surpriae, inue*d td 
finding the whole changed, 1 bund every thing nearly in its place, as 
I proceeded through the fir« compartments, which I did slowly, and 
reserving the Italian picttires for a ton toueht. The colours evco 
•ecmed to have been mellowed, and to have grown to the walls in 
the last twenty yearn, M if the pictures had been lixed (here by the 
cram ping-icons of Victory, instead of hanging loose and fluitcriog, 
like so much (altered canvass, at the sound of [English drums, arid 
breath of Prussian manifesioes. Nothing could be better nuiuged 
than the way in which they had blended the Claudes and Pouscifit 
alternately together — the cthcical rcJincmcni and d.ii^zling brilliancy 
of the one relieving and giving additional mm to the sombre, grave, 
massive character of the other. Claude Lorraine pours the spirit of 
air over all objects, and new-cteates them of light and sun-6hinc. In 
•cveral of his master-piecet which are shewn bete, the veatela, the 
trees, the temples and middle distances glimmer between ait aitd aolid 
•ubstancc, and seem moulded of a new element in nature. No words 
can do junicc to their softnctn, their precision, their sparkling effect. 
But they do not lead the mind out of their own magic circle. They 
repose on their own beauty ; they fascinate with faultless elegance. 
Poussin's landscapes arc more properly pictures of time than of pbce. 
I'bey have a fine moral pertpccttvc, not inferior to Claude's jwiial 
io8 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



» 



onr. They cany ihc itnagioiiiion bftck two or four ihoagand jrara 
nt Icasi, and Iniry it in tbi- rcmoi« twilight of history. There it 4a 

otMqofww and wjlerniiity in his colouring, uBsiniiliting with the tone 
of long-pant cvcnti : his buildtngii are ittfl^ with nge ; Iub tniplcmcnu 
of huiiK-indry are inich nn would belong to the lirac rude i.agct of 
civilisation; hi« harvest! arc ouch (.it in the Ruth and Boail a« 
would yield to no modern sickle : his grapes (as in (he Return froro 
the Promiicd Land] are a load to modern shoulders; there is a 
simplicity jnd undistinj^uishing breadth in his figures; and over all| 
the hand uf time has drawn its ml. Pousstn has his faults ; but, like 
all truly great men, there is that in him which is tu be found nowhere 
cl<c; and ctcn the cxcellencefi of others would be dcfecii in him. 
One picture of his in particular drew my attention, which I had not 
seen licfote. It is an addition lo the Louvre, and makcn up for 
many a Haw in it. It is the Adam and live in Paradise, and it is all 
th.it Mr. Martin's picture of that subject is not. It is a scene of 
sweetness and seclusion * to cure all sadness but despair.' There is 
the freshness of the fifst dawn of creation, immortal verdure, the 
luxuriant budding growth of unpruned Naluii'i gifts, the stiline« and 
the privacy, as if there were only thote two beings in the world, 
made for each other, and with thii world of beauty for the scene of 
their delights. It is a Heaven descended upon earth, as if the linger 
of Cod had planted the garden with trees and fruit* and flowers, and 
his hand had watered it ! One fadt only can be found by the critical 
eye. Perhaps the scene is too fiat. If the 'verdurous wall of 
Paradice ' bad upreared itself behind our first partnts, it would hare 
cloaed thera in more completely, and would have given effect to the 
blue hills that gleam t-nchantmcnt in the ditcance. Opposite, ' in 
darknen vinble,' hangs the famous landscape of the Deluge by the 
same master-hand, a leaden weight on the walls with the ark ^ tuliiitg ' 
on the distant Hood, the sun labouring, wan and faint, up the sky, 
and the heavens, ' blind with rain,' pouring down their Iota] cisterns 
on the weltering earth. Men and women and different animals arc 
struggling witli the wide-npread desolation i and trees, clinibing the 
sides of rocks, acem patiently awaiting it above. One would think 
Lord Byron had transcribed his admirable account of the Deluge in 
his Hravtn and Earth IVom this noble picture, which is in truth the 
very poetry of painting. — One here finds also the more unequivocal 
productions of the French school (for Claude and Pousiin ' were in 

Wc may (ri« lonuthing of ihcir nttioail Bt'nm in bath their tnincli. to 
Claud« lh«rc is the Fitnch fimitalmm, sad love of minule ditiili ; bnl there is • 
fiaie* of (11 these into ihe motl perfect hirmony from the isAuence of i iDUthern 
•ky, laij be h>( none of the flimiinni or lilllenoi of cffcet, to whith his toaatry- 

109 



NOTES OP A JOURNEY 



m gma ncMnre IeiIuo,) Le Bran, Sdnasn fiaardaa, woait of Le 
Smot'i cxprcwrc facet, znd ihc hUnd npnin nyle of Philip 
Ckmpvoc — 00 neaB unw in the hmatj of >n. Ser, id paracoUr, 
At exqniir pictarc of the Skk Nui, (the Nbd «u hii own 
img^Kt, aad he painwd ihia jnctiuv u a pmeni to the CoBvcBt. to 
gratitsde for berrecoTcry,) — aod another of a Rdijgiow* Coiin»ttnion» 
wttA ancndantt to nch drvMPf* 

One find* ao cnondcnUe gap, tilt one conm to the Antwerp 

E«; aad thii yawniag diHiii it aot ill npplkd by the Luxem- 
pictofMi thoM fplmdid tolcciinu of Rubeiu't art. Never «m 
ted « poifT aDtOD of French flutter aod Gothic grace, of 
borroirexl abaordity aad iidtcfmt power. Me bat made a atnage 
jnnible of the Hesthea nytltokigT. hia owo wiret, and the wiimew-i 
of Loui* xiu. Hii youthful Gods are Baiatnl all l^bt ancl xir, and 
figorc b ^uiiotly cooogh, with lomc flaunting Dowager dreiccd in 
the height of the &riiaon in the middle of the tjth century, or with 
•one Krappiog ^loo {bi> auccti> itv (]aeaa*) with bcr robe* of rich 
mir* ■lippog off bcr ihoiJden, and dtfpbying liaiU that, both for 
fona and hoe, proToke any fcclinf; but iDdiraenoe. Hi* group* 
ipiiog ff om the bold IJcentiou hand of genius : aad decorated in the 
prepoateroui finery of courtly ilTectatioa, poxzle the Koie. I do not 
think with David (the cekbratcd French painter) that they oogfat to 
be bomt, bat he ha* bimaelf got poaanaion of their old places in the 
LiUxemboBrg, and perhapa be ia tolerably tatitficd with ibb armge- 
Bcai. A laiwUCTmc with a rainbow by Robena (a rich utd dazzling 
Biacc of colonriog) that nacd to occupy a receu half-way down the 
LoQTie, wat renMrtd (a the oppottie tndc. The tiegiibr picture 
(the Ucfcit of Goliath, by Daniel Voherra,) patoied on both ttde« 
on date. Mill retained ita statJoa in the middle of the room. It had 
bung there for twenty year* ucmolectcd. The Rembraodta keep 
their old placet, and are ai iine as ever, with their rich enamel, their 
thick Ittiopa of colour, their ttartling gloom, and bold execution — 

aaea an prone. Ataio, il ci>nal be iksiH ibM tberf ■• ■ ctmin •ctBca* tad 
IsctMllly, a dUtik or praaliig win ca Nicclu fouuio'i campoaitlaaa. Me pro- 
eatJi oo ajMUB, hat i dilibmti fUtfet ta make out, anil a ottM Ub*iircd, 
Besolonaa, and eitrmpni. Hit pictscr* irt tht 6nttt tubjnii in Ibc «otl4 
for Prtncti etiiicitm — la point thr mont, or <icach *D epimli. H« it aeanew h w 
ptdmtic aod ovcr-vignificinl, [n ihc miacict of French oruart tn^ poett. He 
mt, tike bit maaErrmcn, no grta tjr lai Dttnn « Inuh of erfrttaoB ; bat be 
had what (bey diefly wuit— 'Hafrurixr, m the power of plitai; hiBuetf ia (^ 
drcaoMUnee* of athen. Puuiitn, in ficL, hcl<f i middle f\ta betuccn RaphaaL 
■ad othei piMsrt of the Ilslian lehnol, irha hart rmbDHirff tha bigfaeM poatry «C 
■tymiian, ib4 Iba common run of Frrncb irtitti, wbow Htmoat Mrcteb of iav«o- 
tiOB raichai do farthtr than carr t c it ai in the ootnrme and chrooolaf; of thtli 
anljtct. 

tto 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



their eu-rioxv. their goM-chains, a&d fiir-collatt, on which one n 
ditpoMd to Uy furinre handi, ao much ha*e tbey the look of wealth 
^nd «ub«t»)tnl use! The Vandylcei are more light and aiiy than 
ever. There U a whole heap of them ; and amoitg the mt ibac 
charming portrait of ao English Udy with ;i littlr child [m line and 
true a compliment ae wsi rrer paid to the Rngiiih female character,) 
tuitained by iweetncM and dignity, but with i niothct't anxious 
thoughts piUDg slightly across her scrcDe brow. The Cardinal 
BcntiToglio (which I remember procuring eapecia! permixKoa to 
copy, and left untouched, because, after Titian'ii portt^iiii, there waa 
a want of interest in Vandyke's which 1 could nut get OTcr,) in not 
there.' Bol in the Dutch division, I found Wecnix's game, the 
battle-pieces of Wouvermins, and Kuysdael's sparkling woods and 
waterfalls without number. On these (I recollect as if it were 
yesteiiiay) I u»edi after a hard day's work, and haTing tasked my 
faculties to the utmost, to cast a miagled glance of surprise and 
pleasure, as the light gleamed upon theiu through the high asement, 
and to take leave of them with a non npiiilem invUm, mtrer magii. 

In the third or Italian division of the Gallery, there is a profiinon 
of Albatios, with Cupids and naked Nymplin, which are tjuite in the 
old French laste. They are certainly very pleasing compositions, 
but from the change produced tiy time, the figures shew like beauty- 
spots on a dark ground. How inferior is he to Guido, the jiainter 
of grace and sentiment, two of whose master- pieces enchanted me 
anew, the Annunciation and the Presentation m the Temple. In 
each of these tlicre is a tenderness, a delicacy of expression like the 
purest afTcclion, and every attitude and turn of n limb is conscious 
elegance and voluptuous refinement. The pictures, the mind of the 
punter, arc instinct and imbued with iieauiy. It is worth while to 
have lived to have produced works like these, or even to have seen 
and ti;lt their power I Painting of old was a language which rta 
disciples used not merely to denote certain objects, but to unfold their 
hidden roeanins, and to convey the finest movements of the soul into 
the limb* or features of the face. They looked at nature with a 
feeling of passion, with an eye to expression ; and this it was thai, 
while ihey sought for outward forms lo communicalr their feelings, 
moulded them into truth and beauty, and that surrounds them with an 
atmosphere of thought and sentiment. To admire a fine old pcture 
is itself an act of devotion, and aa we gaze, we turn idolaters. The 
modems are chieHy intent on giving certain lines and colours, the 
naik or material face of pioting, and leave out the immortal pan of 
it. Thus a modem Exhibition Room (whether FieiKh or English) 
> It is St PlaitDM. 

lit 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



bu a grnit dml of ihcw uid glitter, .tnd » imcll ot point !n ii 



the L 



of 



^^ 



^ouvrc wc j(c thrown hack iirto the picicnce 
thought* aiul fcc-lingi, the htghcn acu and rmanaiioni of the tniiul of 
man breathe from the wal\», shadoiry tears and ugb) there keep vigils 
and tiir aif within it ii divine ! 

The iJtaJ i« no lea* observable in tbe |xinnut* iban in the bUtorie« 
fa«v. Look nt the portrait of a man in blactL, by Titian (No. 
liio). There ii a tongue in that eye, a brain beneath that fore- 
head. It ifl Itill ; but the hand tceruR to hate been just placcii od ita 
aide ; it docs not turn it« head, bat it looks toward* you to atk, 
whether you recognise it or not ! It was there to meet me, after an 
interval uf yearti, as if 1 had parted with it the instant before. It* 
kern, iitc;idfa»i jjUnce st3]tgered me like a blow. It wii the same — 
how wai I altered ! I presied tow;ird« it, a» it were, to throw off a 
load of doubt from the mind, or an having burtt through the ob>tacl< 
oftimc.ind distance that had held me in torturing "uspeosc. I 
not know whether this U not the most striltiag picture in the room 
the least commm-ftarr. There may be other pictures more ddtjbtiiil 
to look all but this seems, like the eye of t!ie Collcetkin, to be 
looking at you and them. One might be lemjited to go up and ipeak 
to it ! The allegorical portrait of the Marchtoneu of Guaato is Kill 
here, trannparent with tendcmcs* and beauty — Titian's Mittma, that 
thincs like a crystal mirror — the i^ntombing of Christ, •olcmoi 
harmoDious as the coming on of eveniDg—the Disciples at l£innuu 
— and the Crowning with Thorns, tbe blood here and there 
ready to start through the fle«h<o1our, which even Isngtish 
batfc not known enough how to admire. The Young ManV H" 
with a glove that uxed m much to delight, I cunfcsa, disappot 
me, and 1 am convinced must have been painted upon. There are 
Other Titians, and n number of R.iphacls^thc Head of a Studeai 
muffled in thought — his own delightful Head (leaning on its hand) 
redolent of youthful genius, and »e*cral small Holy I''amilies, full of 
the highest spirit aud unction. l*hetc are also the three Mary* with 
the Dead Body of Cbrtst, by L. Caracci | the Salutation by SetKucian 
del Pionibo ; the noble Hun ting. p«ece, by Annilxtl Catacci ; the fine 
Landicapei of Domcnichino (that in particular of the tfory of 
Hcrculci and Achelou*, with the trunk irf a tree left in the bed of a 
mounuin-loncDt J ; and a host beiidts, ' thick as the autumnal leavei 
that strew tlic brooks in Vallombrosa,' and of the aaioe colour) 
There are to many of these select and favourite picture* left, that ooe 
doet not all at once &el the lou of others which are more comnMM 
in print* and in the mouth of lame i and the absence ol which may 
be conaidered aa almott an adtuntage for a first rccognitioD «nd 

lit 





■ bro 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

tevlval of old ataocialions. But aiterwud* we Bud a want of larger 
picture* to aniwcr ta the magnitade of the Collcciion, and to sustain 
the biUncc of iflrte brtwecn the Italian and the other »choola. We 
have here m fine Claudet litnd Poiinsiai' as any in the wotldi but not 
AS line Raphaels, Corresgios, Donicnichtnos, as there arv ctaewhere, 
— ai were once here. There j/c wanting., lo make the eallery 
Guniplece. nx or eiflht capital pictures, the Truunjiguration, the Si. 
Peur Manyi, &c. ; and among uchiTB (not .tlrcady mentioned,] ibc 
~ Itarpiece of St. Mark, by Tintorct, and Paul VcroncJc'i Marriage 
n Cans. With these ii had been perfect, ' founded m the rock, as 
broad and general as the casing air;* without these it is 'coop'd and 
Cabio'd in by saucy doubts and fears.' The largest Cotlcctioo in the 
world ought to be colossal, not only in itself, but in its component 
parts. The Louvre is a quarter of a mile in lenf{ih, and equal (a* it 
is) to Mr. Angerstein'a, the Marqijess of StulTord's, the Dulwich 
Gallery, and Blenheim put together. It wai once more than equal 
to them in every circumstance to inspire genius or console reHection. 
We still see the palace of the Thuillcries Irooi the windows, with the 
white dag waving over it : but we look in vain for the Brazen 1 lortet 
on its gates, or him who placed them there, or tlie pale bands of 
warriors that cot^uered id the name of liberty uid of their country I 



CHAPTER V 

The gravity of the French character i) a oo less remarkable (though 
k lets obvious} feature in it than ita levity. The last is the quality 
that strikes us most by contrast to ourselves, and that come* most 
into play in the intercourse of common life i and therefore we are 
generallv diapoted to set them down ai an altogether frivolout and 
supcriiciil people. It is a mistake which we shall do well to correct 
on farther acquaintance with them ; or if wc persist in ii, wc most 
call to oui aid an extraordinary degree of our native blindness and 
obstinacy. We ought never to visit iheir Theatres, to walk along 
their streets, to enter their bouies, to look in their faces (when they 
do not think thero»elie* observed,} to open their books, or take a 
view of their picture-galleries, Sterne teems to kn\t been the first, 
ta well as last traveller, who found out their weak side in this rcApccl. 
' If the French have a fault. Monsieur Ic Comtc,' wy» he, ' it is that 
tbey aie too serious.' This coniradiction in ibcir character has been 
little noticed, and they have nerer had the credit of it, though it 
■tares one in the face everywhere. How we are to piece the two 
extremes together is another question. Is it that their whole 
VOL. ix. : H 113 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



duracur u a rjtum of aKtmtryaaiaSij i Or are they gay aod 
nrUing in Mrioa manam, icrioaa ooly ia uiS** i Or uc theix aiiacU 
more of tbr catadmKamt that rcflecu all ofejecu ilikr, whether 
grare or %tj, ted give thcorMlvn vf cnUKly, and vidww wiiBiaM, 
to the prmiHog impnbe f Orb li ii»iiij)_ m i ■iiic irf'iiiaijailMiMiiMi . 
•o that tfanr « JBC^ahte ot OMtmimg oae fcefag by another, aad 
tbiM m mio ew r enca ? Or that A^ bave a gnam toofic and 
variety ot rcaavrce*, excdltDg a* aa mncb in gnntf a* in waoi of 
tkoQ^n, oatdMBg »* in ir^SBly aad comniyi at th^ betake thrm- 
Kl«e« lo cadi, ■■ dw poetical ot in tbe protaic dcpntsMOU of life, 
tally chat iliey t am u i m t t nub a traoipoattioa of the two duracter* 
a IriIc oiiiiiy, jfid paai from the ooc to the other arithoqt oor well 
kao<tm% whjr ^ 

I hsTC been fr co u ently pnziieil with thn excepttoa u> tbe butterfly, 
airy, iboaghileM, B uttenn g character of the Frmcb (on which we 
complimciit ovrtrlTci,) and oeTcr rooic k> than ibc fint aighi I went 
to the theatre. The order, the attentioa, U<r decoonn were *uch aa 
would ihame aajr London aodictice. The atteauon wai oiore like 
ihu of a IrarBMl lociety to a lectare on tome tcienit&c inbject, than 
of a prodiiKoooi crowd odlected togetber merely fur aaKuement, and 
to paai away an idle boor. There wa* a profawonal air, an noraryiog 
granty in the Icxih* and demeanour of tbe whole Mtemtieil mnltiudc, 
ai if rvery one had lo inunediaie tMereM ia the character of the 
luiional poetry, ia the purity «f the Preach accent, in the pn^iicty 
of tbe dcclamauoi), in the cooccpcioD* of ibc actor, aad the develope- 
meot of the itory, inttcad of iia preaenttog a nM>b of idle boyi and 
girli^ of ignorant gupiog citizen*, or wperciliout box-lobby loun^ra, 
aflecdng a coatempt En the perfomuace, and for every one aromd 
them. The leut ntiiie or irre;;uUrit]r called forth tbe moK iottant 
and Urely ditasiprobitioii : and the livacity of the French character 
displayed itiwlf u> advantage in caractt gcsiicalaiioof and cxpreMtou 
of imfaiicTtcc. Not onj; wai tbe itricicst lilencc oboerrcd, ai soon 
aa the curtain drew up, hot no one moved or attempted to move. 
Tbe ipcll thrown over ibc cuMomary or uippoAcd renleuneu and 
vobiilitjr of ihc French wm in thii retpea complete. Tbe uniformity 
of the appearance wa* indeed almoM ridiculon* ; for the raw* of be«d* 
in the aeatt of the pit no more itirred or projected the breadth of a 
Cngrr beyond tbe boci than thote ol a rcgimeni of recrvita on parade, 
or than if a aoldier were uaiioncd to keep each chin in it« place. 
Tbey may be reduced to the aiaic of auuxuaiom ; but there were no 
trace* of tbe nnmity character Icfu' If tbe pcrfonnance bad been at 

' It not I maokey pan vha it a itiat% Dntbuifi, of whca it i> aot tmfloyvd ' 
la nuchief * 

"4 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



^ 




Courl, greater proprirty codd not hive i>«ra numfiwd ; but it wai 
a French play (one of Racbe't) anti acted before a Pariiian 
audience : thU seemed to be eaouj^h to ensure it a pioper reception. 
One would auppoK, from their interen in dramatti: repmentctioot, 
tbat tbe Ftecch were » notion of actort. Perhapn it may be Mlted. 
' I* not that the caw t and ia it not their vanity, tbcir own detirc to 
ahiikc, or their lympailiy with whatercr or whocTCT is a candidate (or 
applause, that accounts for tlieir behaviour i ' At least, their va&ity 
makes thctn gravi ; and if ii is this whicli rivets their attention, aad 
silences their eternal loquacity, it must be allowed to produce elfcct* 
which others would do well to imitate from better motiivs, if they 
have them 1 ' 

Tbe play was not much; but there seemed to be an abstract 
interest felt in the stage at such, in the sound of the verse, in the 
measured step of the actors, in the recurrence of the sume pautes, and 
of the same ideas ; in the corrtctnesi of the costume, in the very 
notion of the endeavour after excellence, and in the creation of an 
artificial and imfiginary medium of thought. If the Ficnch aic more 
susceptible of immediate, sensible impressions, it would appear, 
judging from their behaviour at their own theatres, that tlicy are also 
more sensible of reSex and refined ones. The bare sugjiestion of an 
interesting topic is to them interesting : it may be iiaid, on the most 
distant intimation, to excite tbe roost lively concern, and to collect 
their scattered spirits into a focus. Their sensibility ukes the alarm 
more easily ; their understanding is <iuicker of heating. With them, 
to the sublime or pathetic there is but one step — the name; the 
moment the subject is started, they 'jump at' (he catastrophe and all 
the conseijuencei. We are slow, and must have a thing made out to 
us in striking instances, and by successive blows. We are stuggiih, 
and must be lifted up to the heights of a lilctitioui enthusiasm by the 
complicated machinery of a powerfiii imagination : we are obstinate, 
not to say scllish, and requite to be urged over the abyss of mental 
anguish by the utmost violence of terror and pity. But with the 
French) ail this is a matter of course, a verbal procesa. Tears, aa 
well as smilec, cost them less tlian they do us. Words are more 
nearly aUied to things in their minds ; the one have a more vital 
being, though it doe% not follow that tlie other are altogether empty 
and barren of interest. But the French seem (in their dramatic 
exhibitions) not to wish to get beyond, or (shall I speak it more 
plainly f) to have no Acuity for getting beyond the abstract con- 
ception, the naked proposition of tlie subject. They aie a people 

' The Ftcach phrase (at tet fatnl at « flaj ii, to 4ui>i M k. It mutt be 
ownid ihit ihcK ii some sppcaisace of truth In the cipieuion. 

"S 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



(I repeat it) roJd and bare of the faculty of imaginatioa, if b; thit 
we mean the power of pJuctog thmn to (he mott novel iuid (trikiog 
pobt of new | and they are to for tfai* rcaioD, that the j have no need 
of it. It b to them a mperfluity — a thanklnt laal. Their cjutck, 
diicunivc apprchennion runi on before, and B&ticipatM and dcfeaca 
the cfforti of (he higheai poetry. I'hcy are conteoicd to indulge in 
all the agomy or testacy ot eoundiog and tig&jficant conunom-placcs. 
The wordi ciarmn^, drSciouj, inile/eriiaiir, tic, exctle the nine 
lively emo(ion« in (hdr mind* us the roo*t vivid repreMMationa of 
what ia nid to be to ] and hence verbiage and the cant of tcntinMUt 
fill the place, and Mop the road to gcniu«~^a vague, Haccid, enerrated 
rhetoric being too often iub«titiited for the pith and marrow of trath 
and nature. The greatest facility to feel or to coniprehcod will not 
produce the inoet tnteosc paMioe, or tlie most elec(rical cxpreoMa of 
It. There mutt be a rcttitaace b (lie matter to do thit — a collidoo, 
an obitacle to overcome. The torrent ruihea with fury from being 
impeded la it* courtc : the lightning aplitt the gnarled oak. There 
i> no malice io thit matemcnt ; bat I abonid think they may ihcni> 
iclves allow it to be an Bngliah version of the truth, containing a 
great deal that is favouable to them, with a taving clause for oar owd 
uw. The long (and to us tiresome) epeeehea in French tragedy 
txinnist of a string of emphatic and well-bialanced lines, annoondag 
ccncral mxximi and indeOnitc sentimenta applicable to hum.-in life. 
The poet Rcldorn conirnitt any cxccisct by giving way to hi* own 
■BMMioUion, or ideniilying himncif with individual ntuatioaa Mxl 
ramrillgt. Wc are not now rniKd to the height of pa«itOB| BOv 
plunged into itt lowest depths ; the whole find* its level, like 
water, in the li(]uid, yielding susceptibility of (he French cbaractei, 
and in the unembarraaied scope of the French iatellect. The &oat 
line in Racine, that is, in Frencli poetry, is by conunoa coB*cat 
understood to be the fallowing: — 

Craignea Dieu, mon cher Abner, et ne traigneii que Dicu. 

That is, Ftur Gad, my Jiar j^hntr, and fear «idj him. A [wout 
jutt exliortaiion, it it true ; but, when thin it referred to u the higbMt 
point of elevation to which their dramatic genius h.i« aspired, though 
we may not be warranted in condemning iheir whole region of poetry 
as a barren waste, we may consider it a& lery nearly a level plain, 
and AMcrt, that though the toil contains mine* of useful truths within 
its bosom and glitter* with the gracci of a poIiihe<t ttyle, it does not 
abound in picturesque points of view or romantic interest! It is 
certain that a thousand such lines would have no effect upon ao 
English audience but to set them to ileepi like a acrinon, or to make 
116 






THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

them conimeoce a disturbance lo arotd it. Y«, iliounh the decl»m»- 
tion of the French ttagc i* m moootonout m the dialogue, the French 
listen to it with the ic:in in their e^e«, holding in their brntlii 
beating time to the cadence of the vertc, and folinwing the acton 
with a book in their handn for houti together. The hingliah moat 
assuredly do not pay tlie same attention to a play of Shakspearc's or 
to any thing but a cock-fi^ht or a ipariin^-ntatcb. Thia in no great 
conipliment 10 them t but it tiia.kc« fur the i-mvily of the l''rcnch, who 
ha»e miatakco didactic fur drain;iiic poetry, who can sit out a play 
with the greatest patience and complacency, that an En(;liahman 
would boot off the stage, or yawn otct from beginning to end for ita 
want of striking images and lively effect, and with whom Saturn ii a 
God no lest than Mercury ! 1 am inclioed to aubjiect the geniu* of 
(heir religion may hate something to do with the genius of their 
poetry. The firsl absorbs in a manner their powers of imagination, 
their love of the romantic and the marvellous, and leaves the last in 
possession of their sober reason and moral aense. Their churches 
are theatres ; their theatres are like churches. Their fancies are 
satiated with the mummeries and pageantry of the Catholic faith, with 
hieroglyphic obscurity and quaint devices i and, when tJiey come to 
the tangible ground of liuman alfatrs, they are willing to repose alike 
from oinartiem and eitrnagance, in plain language and intelligible 
ideas. Tbey go lo mass in the morning to dsijile their senses, and 
bewilder their imagin-iiion, and inflame their enthutiasm ; and they 
retort to the theatre in the evening tn seek relief from iraperwitious 
intoxication in the prose of |x>nry, and from Gothic mysteries and 
gloom, in classic elegance and costume. Be this as it may, the love 
of the i''rench for Racine is not a feeling of the moment, or left 
behind theRi at the theatre* ; they can <)uote him by heart, and hia 
sententious, admirable lines occupy the next place in their minds to 
their amatory poeirj. There i* nothing unpleasant in a French theatre 
but a certain infusion of loup-mmgrc into the compoaition of the air^ 
(so that one inhales a kind of thin pottage.) and an oily dingincM 
in the complexions both of the men and women, which shews more 
bjr lamp-light. It ia not true (as haa been tald) tliat their theatre* 
are nearly dark, or that the men stand in the pit. It ia true, none 
but men aa' admitted into ii, but they have leats just the same m 
with us, and a curious custom of sccuriae their places when they go 
out, by binding their handkerchief* round them, so that at the end of 
the play the benches presented nothing but a row of knotted pocket 
handkerchieis. Almost every one returned and sat out the enter- 
tainment, which was not a farce, but a sentimental comedy, and a 
very charming one too, founded on the somewhat national subject of 

117 



NOTES OP A JOURNEY 

1 KdaciioD by an Englbh nobltnun in Fnooet and in which the £iir 
tulTcrcr was repre»rated b^ a yorniK JtiutJiitu, ia natural cxprrMion 
and ]iatho> little inferior to Miu Kelly, (us £ir u tc can translate 
French into English nature,) bm fxa<t lad prettier. So much lor 
their taitc in th«Mnicxl«, which doct not incline wholly to puppct- 
lihowii snd grw-g;iwii. The Thcairc, in thort, it ihc Throne of lh«^ 
French chjiiactcr, where it i) mounted on it« pedcvtal of pride, and^ 
eecn to efery advantaj^e. I like to contemplate it there, for it 
tpconcilcs mc lo them und tu myself. It ia a coiumon and amicable 
ground on which we meet. Their tears ar« each aa other* shed— 
their interoi in what happeneil three thotinDd yean ago i* not 
exclusively French. They are no longer a distiaci race or eaiU, bat 
human bring*. To feci towards others as of a dilfcreat specie*, b , 
not the way to increase our respect for ourtelvee or human DanN.f 
Their defects and peculiarities, we may be almost sure, have com>^ 
spoodinK oppotite vices in n^— the excellences are confined pretty 
much to what there ti in common. 

The ordinary prejudice entertained on this subject in Bngbnd is, 
ibat ihc French arc little better than grown children^ 

*Plca»'d with a ftather — ticiTtd witli a straw — ' 

fiill of grimace and DoiK and shew, lively and pert, but with no turn 
or capacity for serious thought or continued aiiemton of any kind, 
and hardly descrrinjt the name of rational bcicgt, any more tlian apes 
Of jack^daws. They may lauf-h and talk more thJn the English; 
but they read, and, f suspect, think more, taking them as a people. 
You Bcc an applc-girl in Paris, sitting at a stall with her feet over a 
stove in the coldest weather, or defended from the lun by an umbrella, 
reading Racine or Voltaire. Who ever saw such a thing in London 
as a barrow-woman reading Shakspcarc or Ficldin| I You h« a 
handsome, smart grurtte at the back of every little shop or coaster in 
Paris, if the it out at work, reading perhapi one oi Manaontcl'a 
Tales, with all the abtorntion and delicate interett of a beioine of 
romance. Yet we make doleful complaints of the wont of education 
among the common people, and of the want of reflection in the 
ftmittt character in (-innce. There is something of the same turn 
for reading in Scotland; but then where is the gaiety or the grace! 
They arc mure nour and fornial even than the Iingltsh. The book- 
stalls all over Paris prestrnt a rcry delightful appearance. They 
contain neatly-bound, cheap, and portable editions ul all tlidr standardd 
author*, which of itself refutes the charge of a want of the knowledge' 
or taste for books. The French read with avidity whenever they 
can match the opportunity. They read standing in the open air, into 
ii8 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



» 



which they are driren by the want of sir at home. Thej read in 
ganets and in c«llat«. Thty read st one end of a couquti whco 
a penon is hammering a lock or a pie<e of cabinct-wotk at the other, 
without taking their eye from the book, or picking :t qiiartc) with the 
person who i> making the noite. Society is the school of education to 
r tancc ; there it a tranapucnc; in their intcllecU 3* in (heir atmot- 
phcre, which make* the communication of thought or sound more 
rapid and general. Thv/arina of knowledge float* in the air, and 
circulatct ai random. Alaa ! it 'quickens, even witli blowing.' A 
pcrriwic-maker is an orator ; a fish-woman is a moralist ; a woman of 
faihion ia a mciaphyncian, armed with ;ill the topiu ; a pretty woman 
in Paris, who wan not alio a blur-tlaelmg, would make lillle figure tn 
the circlet. It would be in rain for her to know how to dispose 
a knot of ribands or a bunch of flowers in her hair, unless she could 
arrange a critical and .loalytical argument tn nil (he forms, it is 
nothing against her, if «lie excels in personal and ntental accomplish- 
mcnls at the same time. This turn for literary or acientific topics in 
the women nuy indeed be accounted for in part from the modes of 
■ocini intercourse in France ; hut what doei (his vetv circumstance 
prove, hut that an interchange of ideas ii> considered as one great 
charm in (he socic(y between men and women, and that iJie thirst of 
knowledge is not baotshed by a grosser passion P Knowledge and 
reason, however, descend ; and where the women arc philosophers, 
the men are not quite block-heads or pail-maiiret. They are far from 
being the ignorant «mattcrcrs that we pretend. They arc not back- 
ward at asking for reasons, nor slow in giving them. They have 
a theory for every thing, even for vice and folly. Their face* again 
are grave and ocnous when they are by themselves, ns they arc gay 
and aniraated in society. 1'hcir eyes have a vacant, absent stare ; 
their features set or lengthen all at once into ' the melancholy of 
Moorditch.' The ConiiutMir of the Diligence from Kouea confirmed 
me agreeably in my theory of the philosophical ch;iracicf of the 
French physiognomy. With l.irgc grey eyes and drooping eye-lids, 
prominent distended noFitrils, a fine Fcnclon expression of countenance, 
and a mouth open and eloquent, with furrowed lines twisted round it 
like whip-cord, he «tood on the steps of the coach, and harangued to the 
gentlemen within on the it'tiit of some voYttj[tur Aa^/oir with the air 
of s professor, and in a deep sonorous voice, worthy of an orsiion of 
Bonnet. I should like to hear a Yorkshire guard, with his bluff, 
red liice, bristly bullet head, little peering eyes, round shoulders, and 
squeaking voice, ascend into an imaginary rotirum in tliis manner, 
wave a florid specul.ition in one hand, and hold fa«t by the coach-door 
with tl)c other, or get beyond an oath, a hearty curse, or hia shrewd 

119 



NOTES OF A JOCTRNET 




OmtU 



IV &R of Ae FrtKh «Afienr m % ba 

rt Md k MBBB to faor IB itt e^ r 
«iciac7,the cagfeaadibc SBea! I niwai hc^ aAfag htn, 
Am. a Fnch a 1 1 (— Aw^) «te U«b ■ tbe bocd 

QfyoMH t» m€t jtmt* hii oac ia rwrfjag il iktMaaiifr Jiiri, phyi 
wmk Im cUIAm lAn Am«. Md otoi a hMd ai badtpanoa wafa 
■a oUjiwHMMirii dKci«Mi^ HcdanaMifB* a<a^ whli a 
! of kOfan IB dw (Cicm Oa ow EaffakjKitp/ ( vfaa tnfiy are 
I r*f tiMi tBCB^ 1 BGV don DM vile pcsniK nift 
BesMtsraa afieraB tfae new MglciL Aad ^ tfcej an fran tfee 
co^Riy. Tin* looks Kfccdnwi«if oearfbn wl iaaoval r ao wtCT . 
Bw aaay diKipJo of Roaacn** Aaabuara tboc iaFraBoe at tfce 
pwcKdiyf I kscv oac twoBj fan afo^ 

The Fmcfa art a ptopit who ftxatt tbe ana aad a ciewcea 
A itM44ack n tfe «tttfr ib>v (MtMt o( Ifae daf.) aod 
awa<iM'n^ 7" ^ " ^ Ki^K aMoiMa ^m mt jmtMttu 
EwT ^iag » wKh tfaon laiiinikg, pxi^ ianwrta» . * Kamiy (it 
■^ Be and) wbat reaOjr la » ; * aad it najr be ' 
tbor pruuBMOoi «e *4'>*'h' "^ aw ctoy aad 

, at tkcir «arfc> «f aootwaadaf an — ^oaedwi 

aad tno. dM oAm dtt aw« bbodoaa nd SiiAti m tbe 
aund* Wiiat an tBctf oMAaati^ inaic aatroMooMnt imv i 
thdr poaaten, tbor Koipton ? Ifaottfei 
^^■^ML llie iDoat accBiaBa conoilenr aod 1 
ifecir amsal Ja|wiiataaa. La IHac^ Li»ow>fr, Csriti, David. 
Boodaa, m aot tHAm or fneradera- la aaeact^ if wv have 
diaevptnd tW priadpJca, they have geoc ante mo the dccatb— bi 
vt w aocaM tfciai of bang otw tafa aa wd, aod of <»ahiat too 
■MNdr aad mtttatiaUf i aadifcty ckii|i aa ( JMir f^ ) Mk 
a raK tMjKtnjtt^ lad vits urudBCiMft ntdc iBora Ibm raoc HCtcaei 

aadaoeMific fc ra o chti rf dbeir an, are aoterioaa— aad the care wMi 
wkidi Aey work up didr dnpeie* aad back-gnnada ia obnoaa ta 
c<«T ow. aid a Mamit mHmk «f ooBpUoK Md ridicalc i» EagliBh 
a^Ai BH cnoci* Toatf MnnMttiB an* 1 ooowii^ coMiica r iiirnj' 

ilMakdea bnpljr jb attcatiaa 

Kwaof tnelbgny Fieocii t hai acu r, 

Prescb artiM to the Lmm, 

«ccka » 

iMlmsapa 




to thoat 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

about litm — coDBulunj; tlieJr opinion ai to Im unwearied tiDp«rccpt]Ue 
progrcw — going lo the Iik to warm liii hinJs, and mnniiag to 
ftrfcclionate himitlf\ There w» i good deal of ' bbunoui ibolery ' 
in hU this, but itill he kept on with it, and did not lly to fifty ttiii^i 
one ftfier the other. Another student hnd undertaken to copy the 
Titiaii'i Miiimi, and the method he took to do it wu to (tttcel ooi 
hit canvaM into squares like an engraver ; aftci which he bcgsD tny 
delibeiatcly, not with the fate or hair, but with the first square in the 
right-hand comer of the picture, containing a piece of an old table. 
He did not care where he began, so that he went ihiough the whole 
regularly. C'ai tgal, i« the common reply in all such cates. This 
continuity of [lurpote, witliout any great effort or deep iniercM, 
Eurprisea an Englishman. We can do nothing without a strong motive, 
and without violent exertion. But it is thia very circumstance 
probably thai enables them to proceed : they take the matter quite 
easily, and have not the s-imc load of anxious thought to bear up 
against, nor the same impatient cagcrnes* to reach perfection at a 
single stride, 10 stop them midway. They have not the Engliih air 
hanging at their backs, like the Old Man of the Sea at Sinbad's ! 
The same freedom from any thing like morbid humour asMsta them to 
plod on like the Dutch from mere phlegni, or to diverge into a variety 
of pursuits, which is still more natural to them. Horace Veraet baa 
in the prctent Exhibitioa a portrait of a lady, (a rival to Sir T. 
Lawrence's) and close to it, a battle-piece, equ^ to Ward or Cooper. 
Who would not be a Parisian bom, to aiuin excellence with the 
wish to succeed from mere confidence or indiifcreDce to success, to 
uoiie such a number of accompliahmenta, or be equally aatisfitd 
without a single one ! 

The t^ngtish are over-haaty In supposing a certain Itghtneas and 
petulance of manner in the French to be incompatible with sterling 
tliought or steady application, and flatter thcmsrlvei that not to be 
merry is to be wise. A i-'rcnch lady who had married an English- 
man remarkable for his dullness, u»ed to apologise for his silence in 
company by incessantly repeating ' Crti taigourt Latir, UaJBHrt 
Ntv/lon,' as if these were the subjects thai occupied his thoughts. 
It is well we have these name* to appeal to in all ca«e* of emergency t 
and aa fat ai mere gravity is concerned, let these cclcbraltd persona 
have been as wise a* they would, they could not for the life of them 
hare appeared duller or more stupid than the generality of their 
countrymen. The chief advantage I can find in the E^ng1i»h over 
the French comes to this, tiiat though slower, if they once take a 
thing up, they are longer in laying it down, provided ii is a grievance 
or a 4wt lutftcl. The reason is, that the French do not delight in 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

p,r!cvance!i or in totr nibjcctt; and that the Rnglith delight in ninbing 
else, and battle their way through ihcm most manfully. Vhnc/orie in 
the diimgrrcablr and rq}alBiic. I tlitnk thty would hSTe Totight the 
battle of Waterloo over agtain ! The T^njirliih, bet!d« being 'good 
hatert,' are dog);ed and downrisht. ;ind h.ive no nlros for their 
Mif-loie. Their rtahy cloet not hca] the wound* made id their 
pride. The French, on the contrary, are noon reconciled to (ate, and 
}o enamoured of their own idcn, that nothing can pni them out of 
conceit with iu Whatcrcr their attachmcDt to their country, to 
liberty or gloty, they are not so alTected by the lou of ihc«e as to 
make any dc«>erate effon or lacrilice to recover iheni. Their 
continuity of feeling ia «uch, as to be no enemy to a whole skin. 
They orer-nui Europe like ligeri, and defended their own tcrtttory like 
deer. They arc .1 nation of heroes — on this tide of martyrdom ! 



CHAPTER VI 

DIALOGUE, FRENCH AND ENGLISH 

Fk£nch.' — Hare you seen the whole of our Exftiilien of the preaent 
year ? — 

English. — No, but I have looked orer a good part of tt. I hive 
been much pleased with many of the picture). As far at 1 can judge, 
or have a right to »y «o, I think your artiua hare improred within 
theie few years. 

French. — Perh.ipa no, occasionally, but we have not David and 
lome other*. 

English. — 1 cannot any that I miin him much. He had, I dare 
say, many excellences, but his faults were still more glaring, accord- 
ing to our iosuUr notions of the art. Have you Gucrin now ? He 
had just brought out hit first picture of Phj'dra and Hippolitus when 
I was in Paris formerly. It made a prodigious lenaaiioo at the unK* 
and very great things were expected from him. 

French. — No, hi( work* are not much tpoken of. 

English. — The Hippolitus in the picture 1 iipc;ik of was very 
bcautUul ; but the whole appeared too much cast in the mould of the 
antique, and it struck me then that there was a injmntfiim about 
it that did not augur favourably for his future progress, but denoted 
a premature perfection. What 1 like in your tircseot Exhibiuon is, 
that you «ccm in a great meaiute to have left Inis academic laanner, 
and to hare uloptcd a more natural ttylc. 

132 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



French. — I do not exactly comprehend. 

English. — Why, you know the I^DEltnh complain of French an u 
too labourrd and mechnnical, as not allowing scope enough for geniui 
and ori^nality, a« you retort upon u« for being coafM and nulic. 

French. — Ali I I undtrgUDd. Tbrrr is a picture tn the h'ngliah 
«ylc i the lubjcct is a Greek masocre, hy Rouget. It h an ftaaeit. 
It is ibr effect. There ii much apiric in the expres&ion, and a bold- 
ness of execution, but erery part i> not linished. It is like a firit 
sketch, or like the p;)inting of ihc ocenea at our ihcaiies. He has 
another picture here. 

Gnglich. — Ves, of great merit in ihe same style of dashing, ofT- 
hand, explosive effect. He is something between our Ward and 
Haydon. But tliat is nut what I mean. I do not winh yoti to 
exchange your vices for ours. We are not ai yet models in the Fma 
Akts. I am only glad that you imitate u«, as it is a sign you begin 
to lecl a certain deficiency in yourselves. There is no necesiiiy tor 
grossnes) and eiitravagance, any more tb*n for being finical or 
pedantic. Now there is a picture yonder, which 1 think has broken 
through the trammels of the modern Frencli school, witliout forfeit- 
ing its just pretensions to claiiical history. It hu the nuine of 
Driilling on it. What, pray, in the subject of it ? 

French. — It ii l/fyjiei conilucling Potyxma U ihe lacrifce. He has 
one much better at the Luxembourg. 

Englixh. — I don't know; I have not seen that, but this picture 
appear* to me lo be a very favoumble specimen of the present French 
school. It has great force, considetable beauty, symmetry of form, 
and exprcsnon ; and it is animated ficih, not coloured slone. "Hie 
action and gestures into which the figum throw themselves, teem the 
reault of life and feeling, and not of putting caits alter the antique into 
Opera attitudei. 

Frencb— We do not think much of that picture. It haa Dot been 
perfected. 

Fngliah. — Perhaps it passes a certaici conventional limit, and is 
borne away by the impulse of the subject ; and of that the mo« 
cnUDcrit among the French artists might be thought to be as roudi 
afraid a> the old l.idy at Court was that her face would fall in nieces, 
if her feature* relaxed into a smite. The UlynRC* is poor and itifT: 
the nurse might be finer ; but I like the face* of the two foremost 
figure* much ; they are handsome, ioteresting, and the whole female 
group is alive and in motion. 

French. — What do you think of the picture by Gerard, No. y+j, 
of the Mealing tiivfttm Lmai XtV. emd tht Spanuh Ambatiadori It 
is greatly Klmircd here. 

U3 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



Pmck.— Wi 




Eo^nli. — At but* m hare a f>ood hud; of ibcm. 1 know aa 
Englali critic, «4m woold at Icatf const yon i^ thirnr gmineot 
cflniD i Biiii < ufp>|Miigyi at a nrwtnj aH fifia-fW geniQao t lo 
diBemitljr do we new tbeae tluag< oa diflVrent «dt* of tlie Ch aimd ! 
Ib tmh, all RUDtatum mnM be much alike. Tberc can be no ndi 
llnBg a* aa EagBih maidwrt, thai ta, ai a coane, tlovraly daub id 
little. We finaih when we cznnot help tt. We do not volnoicvf a 
boat of sraecf, like tm t l"B we can make a virtue oT M oe aaity . 
There wai a Mr. riajter, who pfltwrd reapleodem luinaitum, 
perfect tnirroTi of the higlaeit hcsvcii of beamy ; bat he pre f erTc J the 
Lngliih liberty of HgD-pott r*""'^ in oil. I obaem anoe^ yoor 
nuaiaturcf (CTcral cnaiacb aid copita From the OU MaMera m the 
LosTK. Hat not the cooaBs to than the eftct of lookiBf throagh 
a window i What b breadth, what a deamen, what a lolidhy ? 
How do yoa Bccotnt for thti tupcnorityf I do not ny ihii 
ioiidioualy, tor I coafeia it ii the Hme, wheoncT copies are 
intioduced by Health in out Fngliiii E^xlubtiiofl. 

French. — I perceive, Sir, you have a prejudice ill Isfovr of ifae 
Roelnh nyle of an. 

hnKliih. — Nooc at atl i but I cannot throk oat lanltt aoy joattficB- 
tion of youra, or yo«r« of oura. Pot ioHance, hen it a laadacape b« 
■ eountrynttn of mine, Mt. Consablc (No, 358). Why then all 

126 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

ibis aCectation of dashing lights and brolcm tiouand itraggling lam)M 
of paint, which I dare eay giTc the horrora to a coniumduite French 
anitl .' On the other band, why do not your nrtiiti try to give 
something of the wmc gfccn, frwh, and healthy look of liring nature, 
without uuciifing coal* of varnith over raw ilahi of colour (u we 
do), till the coiniHitition resembles the ice breaking up in ntirshy 
frround after > frosty morning J Depend upon it. in disputes about 
Lute, u in other qtuireU, ther« are fiulis on both sides. 
French. — The English style has effect, but it it gross. 
Rnglitb. — True : yet in the inner rooms there are some water- 
colour lnnd*capc«, by Copley Fielding, which strike mc a* uniting 
effect with delicacy, particularly No. jfio, with tome beautiful trees 
fringing the fore-ground. 1 think our parnicrt do l)est when ihcy 
arc cramped in ihc tchicic ihey employ. They are abusers of oil- 
colours. 

French. — I recollect the name ) but ht* works did not iccm to 
me to be liniihed. 

English.— They are finished an nature in finished : that is, the 
details Alt lo be found in them, though they do not obtrude theni- 
(clrcs. You French require ewery thing to be made out like pin's 
poicia or botanic specimens of learcs and trees. Your histories want 
life, and your landscapes air. I could have sworn the little fishing- 
piece (No. — ) was English. It a such a daub, and yet hoa such a 
feeling of out-of-door accnery in it. 

French. — You do not Ratter «». But you allow our excellence in 
•culjiturc. 

English. — There is an admirable study of a little girl going into a 
b;iih, by Jac(]Uot. Ii is so simple, true, and exptesaive, I thought it 
might be Chantry's. 1 cannot say I eaw any others that pleased mc. 
The EuryJice, by Nanimiil, is a French Euiydice. It is in elegantly- 
formed female, atTccticg trifling airi and graces in the agonies of 
death. Suppow we return to the piclurcii in the Green Room. 
There is nothing very remarkable here, except the portrait of an 
artist by himself, which looks for all the world as if it fed upon its 
own while lead. 

Fieuch,-— Doyou like that figure of a woman in one comer in the 
Mairam of ijht Jimocttiti'. The artist hu done all he could to 
propitiate the English taste. He hai left his work in a sufTiciendy 
bartarouD and unlinishcd stale. 

English. — But he has taken pains to throw expression, originality, 
and breadth into it. With us it would be considered as a work of 
geniu3. I prefer it much to any thiog by our artists of the same 
kind, both for the tone, the wild lofty character, and the unctuous 

'»7 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

Irndom of the pencilling. Then b a nnnge hmlj-bmly in the 
backf.rouDii, and » lurid tooe otct the whole picture. Thit b what 
we mean bj imipotico— ffTJag the icding that there b m eunre. 
Yob meu bf iiwmiiiiliiiii the pviag ><Wlithia| m( of a — »uch u the 
t/ymf^ (No. — ) a f ft a ri ^ » tit River Go3. The Toimg Isdy u 
s Tcry cbarming trawpcuency, or gatue-dnwinf! ; and the River God 
it a Kaidy womicn Aook, pnnted over ; bot I would ailc nm, m 
there wn thing in the ptctve that t^es yon hefonA a luUiDera eliop 
m the Palab-roTal, at a ica-gardco ta the neig^boarbood of St. 
Clond i The mbject of Lmu^ih foismm g « y«>^ ilavr, by Figalon, 
M, I think, forcibly and wll treated. The old wrcereM i< not an 
tvcnr day peraoo. The Fftncii too aebJom reaort to the grace of 
DeKtrmity. Yet how finely it telli ! Tber are more timid and 
bttidion* than the ancienta, whom they profeM to imitate. There 
U one other large hiuorical compoaiioo m the room which I am 
paitial to i aad yet the face*, the maonef*, the coiovring, erery thii>{ 
m it t* French. It it the Hrmry lit Fotrth farJmi»g ihr finuaiu 
wk ^<iw t^fM iht iemtd m Paru with jicd. That bead of a 
yovDg wonua near the middle U particulatly bte, and in the hkppjett 
0Bf\t of French art. It* effect agaioit the iky it pictureM]iie; k 
it httdtomei gracefil, tentitire, and ibged whh an agreeable 
Aorklhiie. 

French. — Bat what if y<wr ofiaioM of Hofacc Vcmet** Battle, 
pieced 

Englitfa. — May I aik the subject ! 

French. — It b the battle of Moot-Mira!l, after the return from 
Roatia. 

Engliih. — Good : I waa tadly afraid it waa the Baltic of Moot 
St. Jean. tfV ought to bloc it forcrcr from our history, if we hare 
been, or inietid to be, free. But I did not know but (ome Frenchmaa 
mi^t be foufid to naia hb canvaia with h, and prcfent it to H. le 
Vicomte Chaieaubrond. 

French.— Bot I ipeak of the painting, Sir. 

E^Dglikb- — It U lomcihing in the tame ityle, but hardly k> ctcver 
U Ibt pctsre of the Qoec* a Trial, fay Hayier. Did yoa aec that 
vbcB yo« were in Lcmdoa ? 

Freoeb.— No, Sir. 

Englitfa. — Then we cannot enter iwo the compariitoa. 

French. — That ia ttoe. 

Enghih. — Wc ncrcr had a achool of paiolbg till the preaeat day. 
Whether we have ooc at present, will be aeen in the courae of the 
winter. Youn doarithed one hundred and fifty year* ago. For, 
not to include Nicholat Poouin and CUude Lorraine ia it, (names 

118 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

that bclooj; to time and lututc,} ihcic were Philip Champagne, 
Jouvcnct, Lc Sueur, «ho*c wnrkt arc nirely uiir(ju;>lln] by ibr 
present face of ftriisii, in colouring, in conception of the Riibjeci, in 
the imitation of nature, snd in pictufc«quc ettcct. As » proof of it, 
they become their places, and look well ic the LauTie> A picture 
of David's would be an cyc-aure there. You arc famDiar with 
tbeir works } 

French, — I have Been those munters, but there is an objection to 
p^xiing into that part of the I.ouvre. 

Fngliiih. — The .lir in, I own, dilTcrc'nt. 



CHAPTER Vll 



TH2 LUXEMBOURG CALLBRV 



RAcms't poetry, and Shakspearc's, howcvet wide apart, do not 
absolutely prove that the French and Englieh are a distinct race of 
beings, who can never properly undcretand one aivother. Bui the 
Luxembourg Gallery, I think, settlo this point forever — not in our 
favour, for we have nothing (thank God) to oppose lo it, hut 
decidedly against ihem, ae a people incnpable of any thing hut the 
Ittlte, the adixted, and extravagant in works of imagioatiDn and 
the FiK« Arts. Poetry is but tlic language of feeling, and we niay 
convey the same meaning in a ditfcictit form of words. But in the 
language of painting, words become lii^gj ; and we cannot be mis- 
taken in the chiiracicr of a nation, that, in thut expreinng themtelvM, 
uniformly leare out certain elements of feeling, and greedily and 
ostentatiously ioscn others that they «hould not. The Hnglith han; 
pro)<crIy no school of art, (though they have one [laintrr at least equal 
10 Mo!i^fe,)^we have here cither done nothing woith speaking of, 
compared with out progress in other tilings, or our faults are thoie of 
ncKligencc and rusticity. But the French have done their otmott 
to .main perfection, and they boast of having attained it. What tliey 
have done is, therefore, a fair specimen of what they can do. Tbeir 
works coDUin undoubted proofs of labour, learning, power ; yet they 
are only the worse for ail ihetc, since, witliout a ihotough knowledge 
of the scientific and mechanical pan of tbeir profession, as well as 
profound study, they never could have immortalized their want of 
untc and genius in the manner they have done. Tbeir pictures 11 
the Luxembourg are ' ibo«c faultlets monsters which the art ne'er 
saw ' till now — the * hand-wtiiing on the wall,' which noihtng c») 
VOL. II. : I 139 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



tvtttte. It IiM beta ttid, that * Vic*' to be hated necdt but to 



teen,' tnd the lame nik faolda good in natur-.il u 



It 



pty 



that aome kind haad doei nut uke an 



moral deform i 
ipportunii^ 



ptiog to a«be* thU monumunt of their glory sad their ihamc, but 
thni il i> impottani to prcicrvc the pioofs of luch an noonuily to th« 
history of the human mind as b gencrxtion of articl* paintiog tn tht« 
manner, and lookitig down upon the rest of the world a* not cvcd 
able to appreciate their paramount superiority id (cGoement and 
cleKuncc. It is true, ttrangert know oot what to m»ke of tbcm. 
The ijinorant look at tben> with wonder — the more juilicioii*, with 
pnin anil iiiiuniahmml at the jierveraion of tilcali and indiutiy. 
Still, They themielrn ^o cm, i^uoting one another'* work*, and 
p.ircH ling out the excellence* of the icvcral |»ctuict under dirTerenl 
heads — fmur Itt folorii, pour it Jtitriii, fmur la lomfioiilian, pour ftxfirfj- 
iloB, at if all the world were of accord on this subject, and Raphael 
had never been heard of. It i« enough to «ug^r a nation, bb well as 
an individual, in their admiration of their own accomptixh meats, when 
they find the^' have it all to themscl««»i but the Freocb are blind, 
insensible, incorri(;ib[c to the least hint of anv thing like imperfection 
or abaiuditv. It is this wuit of Klf-knuwledj^c, and incap.-icity to 
coDCtire of my thing beyond a certain i^onveniional circle, thai is < 
the original tin — ^thc incurable error of all their worki of imagination. 
If Nature were a I'reneh counc/ao or Opcradancer, their poetry , 
and painting would be the finest in the world.' 

The fault, then, that I should lind with this Collection of Pictures 
is, tliat it is equally defective in tlic LnutAtion of nature, which belongs 
lo painting in general ; or in giving the wul of nature — expression, 
which bclopgi marc particularly to hisiory-painting. Tbeir style of 
trt is false from beginning to end, nor is it redeemed c*«n by the 
vices of genius, originality, and splendour of appearance. It la at 
once umr and extravagant, laboured and without elfect, repulsive to 
the senses and cold to the heart. Nor can it well be otherwise. It 
sets out on a «Tong principle, and the farther it goes, nay, the more 
cumpleiely it succeeds in what it undertakes, the more inanimate, 
ibortive, and uoaatiifactory must be the performance. French patnt- 
ing, in a word, is not to be considered as an independcot an, or 
original language, coming immediately from nature, and appealing to 
il — it is n bad traniluieii of sculpture into a language ewcfltialiy 

* It is (h* tsRie idle, innticiiv Mlf'sampbesacy, the sime limlteil c«infvc- 
hcnsion, thit his bnn thtir niia in tvtiy thine. PDriiim ijr^aii^ii tmld sot 
eancci*e that it tnawcl in Russia, noi bov it oh puiiiMe foi bsrbstiHU to 
tivotai in [he Chimpi Elys^f. But they hitc furKottrn llie eirosmslancej 
altofclhci. "Whf ihiiuld I remind ihem at it ! 
130 




I 



I 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



■acoroptibic witb rt. Tlie Prmcb iuii(t« take pluler-cut* from 
the snriquc, nod colour thL-m by a receipt; they ukc pU<tci-cuu umj 
put them into action, and give cxpmiion to the fcaiufe* accmdiog to 
the tra^liticiDal rules for compouiion »nd cxpictuoo. Thit i« the 
invj.iiubli; procc«»: wr sec the infallible tcvoltH, wbicli ditfer only 
accurdinK to tiie jKiticnce, xhc boldnces nod ingenuity of the painter 
in dcpanic}; from Buluru, and L:iricaluricij{ liia Rubjecl. 

For innance, let lu take the EnJjauw of Girodet, No 57. It ■« 
3 well'drawn, though lomewhat effeminate Academy-figure. All 
the rest in what I ha»e «id. It U a waste of labour, an abo*e of 
power. There is no repote in the attitude; but the body, inatead 
of being disKilvrd in an immorinl alee]), »rcni« half lifted up. »o a* to 
produce a balance of form, and to make a display uf thi- symmetry 
of tile proportions. \'anity htre presides ereo over sleep. The head 
IX turned on one uidc a» if it had not belonged to the body (which it 
probably did not) and diicoven a mi-agrc, insignificant pcotilc, hard 
and pinched up, without any of the genial glow of youth, or the calm, 
delighted rKpar»ion of the heavenly dream that ho»ercd 10 long over 
it. The aharp edges of the features, like linu of (in, catch the moon- 
light, but do not reflect the benign aspect of the Goddcaat There U 
DO feeling (not a panicle) of the poetry of the uitiject. Then the 
colouring it not natural, la nut beautiful, is not delicate, but that of a 
livid body, glittering in the moonbeams, or with a cloud of atecU 
fijingi, glimmering round it for a veil of light. It it not leit as liaid- 
celour'ing in an evidently unfiniahed iiatc, or 10 aa to make a blank for 
the imagination to fill up (as we »ec in Fnseli'a piciutes) i but every 
part ia worked up with malicious industry, not to tcpreaent flcah, but 
to be M like marble or polished steel as posaible. Thetc ia no vaiiety 
of tint( aa reflected light, no [ua*aofo but merely the difference that 
is produced in a smooth and uniformly coloured surface, by the altera- 
tion* proper to sculpture, which are )ttven with a jiainful and oppressive 
Knae of effort and of difHculty overcome. 

This is not a natural nylc- It is foppish and mechanical ; or just 
what niight he expected fron> taking a piece of «lotic and attemptinf; 
to colour it, not from nature, not from imagination or feeling, but 
from a mere wilful deter niinatioo to supply the impreuions of one 
senie from ihone uf another, by dint of pertceerance and a (rrowing 
conceit of one's-«elf. There ia, indeed, a progieaa to perlecrion ; 
for by the time the work is liniched, it i* a finuhcd piece of arrogance 
and folly. If you air copying a yellow colour, and you resolve 10 
make ii blue, the rnorc biue you make it, the more perfectly you 
aucceed in your jwrposct but it ia the leas like yellow. So tlie 
more perfectly French a work of art ia, the l«a it in like nature ! 

'J' 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

The Frmch aniMi have imiuted the preiumption of the ryrani 
MezcDtiiu, who wished to link dead bodie* to liting one*. — A^d, 
in the umc artin's picture of Aiaia at ihf Tomi (which I think hit 
belt, and which would make a fine bM-rclicf } the ouilioe of the 
countenance of Atala is really noWc, with a btautiful (.'^prestiott of 
calm ccngn.ition ( and the only fault to be found wiih it in, that, 
■upporied :t9 the head ii in the armt of the Priett, it hat too much 
the look of a bunt after the antique, that we see carried about ibe 
Birccu by thr Italian pUitcr-catt-makeTc Otherwiiic, it it a cbjaica] 
and felicitoua sitokc of Frwich grniun. Thry do well to paint Sleep, 
Ueiith, Night, or to approach as near as they can to the rerge of 
itHiJife, iind liraden'Cyed obBcurity \ But what, I believe, iit regarded 
at the nuster-piccc of this arti«t, and what I have nu objection to 
consider a* the triumph of French tuUiniity and pathos, it hii picture 
of the Dtluge, No. 5ji. The tutionat talent hai here broken lootc 
from the trammeU of refinement and pedantry, and man UQConciniiwd 
10 iu DStiTc rrgionii of cxuavagancc and bombast. The Rngltth are 
willing to abide by thi« a* a tcM. If there be in the whole of ihi* 
gigantic picture of a ^^<ic subject any thing but ditiortion, mein- 
MW, extreme ablurdity and bruit force, we arc altoKCthcr mistakrn 
in out noiiont of tlie niauet. Was it not enough to place that hoge, 
unsightly ikelcton of old afie upon the ihoulden of the ion, who i* 
climbing ^ tottering, overhanging precipice, but the farce of impouurc 
and improlwbility mu«l be tyitemaiicafly kept up by having the wifc 
clinging to him in A\ the agony of the moni prcposierouf theatrical 
atTcciatioa, and then the two children danghng to her like ihe fag-fad 
of horror, and completing the chain of disgusting, because impractic- 
able and monstrous distreti i QuoJ lit mthi oslfnilh, incrfdalitt cJi. 
The principle of gravitation must be at an ctid, to m:ikc thi» picture 
endurable for a moment. All the eNTcct dependt on the fear of 
falling, and yet tiie figum could not remain tuipended where they 
lire for a tingle inntant (but must be Hung 'with hideout ruin and 
combustion down,') if they were any thing cl*c bin grialy pluniomit. 
The terror is at onc« physical and preternatural, [natnd of death- 
like stillnens or desperate fortitude, preparing for inevitable fate, or 
hurrying from it with panic-fear at some uncertain opening, they ha»e 
Kt ihemtclve* in a picturesuuc tiiuatiun, to meet it under cvety 
disadvantage, playing off their aniici like a family o^ tumbler* at 
R fair, and exhibiting the horrid grimacct, the rulgai rage, cowardicv, 
and impatience of the most wretched actors on a stage. The [Utnter 
hat, no doui)t, ' accumulated horror on horror's head,' in maiiiing 

' Fivnch aittiim, to bt ihoriHicliIy an<{ iinr)«tplioniibIy jtood, oufhl to be 
irtnUitJ back igain into Kulpiurt, Into whicb the; *rc tripaillf ukta. 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

the crnlulicy or harrowm^ up the fi-vlingi of ihe apecUtof to the 
utnicwt, and proving his wunt of conception no lc» by the cxagecrD- 
tioD, than hit want of invcniion by the monotony of hit doign. RcaI 
ttraigth knows where to stop, because it is founded on tnith and 
nature ; but cxiraragancc and affectation have no bound*. They 
tush into the vacuum of thought and finding, and cummic every ran 
of outrage and excem.' Neither in the ijudatape is thert a more 
historic conception th;in in the acton on the icenc. There t< none 
of the keeping or unity that so remarkably characterizes Pouitin's 
fine picture of the same Bubjcci, nor the seme of sullen, gradually 
coming fate. The water* do not ii»e »lowly aad heavily to the tops 
of (he highest peak«, but daah lumulnioudy and violently down rock* 
and precipices. This in not the truth of tlie historvi but it accords 
with the genius of the compoiition. I should think the painter 
might have received some hints from M. Chateaubriand for the 
conduct of it. It i« in his frothy, fantatitic, rhodomontade way — 
• It oui-herodi Herod ! ' 

David'* pictures, after thi*, arc tame and trite in the comparison ; 
they ate not romantic or revo/utionary, but tlicy are coDiplctciy 

' Yet thtjr lAX Shikiptan with Erotim*! mH liarbirily. Thtrc ii ootlune lib 
Ail Kcne in all hi> pliyi, ticrpi Tii>i> Anilroaicui, which ii full of the lame 
iKflc MmerMJoa Ul<l tmlology. I wn wilkiai! out (ihit lit of October— a 
dtargitj •Dlumnal morning) in ihc );ifilciii of ihc TullciLn, nnJ ttinis ibc lung, 
UII avenue of tra< Mart me ihil luilt up lu the btrtiei of Neuill)', il put nic in 
mifl'l of fornirr liniu, of prinli tmi pictun* oi the ac^ncry and rva'la in forri^n 
coDAlriea which I had bcfn uard to froni a chilil, with [he old-faahiontLl look ot 
every Ihinc iniBn<l Paiii, » if it wvrr the frar t7]4, inMead of 1S14, till the 
ticYi before ric K4i)icii to bc<om< pin of a ilrcim, or ti> Itanifort in« into pail 
lime, ar to tMiK iIK]f up !□ my tmaginilLon, likr a picturf in the ' I'ilprini'a 
Prt^^rcit/ I ut>a'ler¥<i whether liuonapaiic lomciimtt InouKht of thia view when 
he wfg II St. Kelma. I cbcckrd myicK lo thii itiain of apecuUtlon ta over- 
charged Dn<) iliiproportioned to ibe uccninn, iccotiling to ihe eurfed aail elegant 
taale of the people where I waa, when on a poaC oppoiite, I law aluelt up in lar^ 
leitcti, ' Finiin il rUmtUTi^ nwaning a tenfrnny ordinary. Thtae are (ho HOple 
ihit lie conlinijilly crjing out aniinit ihc (itrivifatice and bombaat of their 
iicightwun. Thcii imagination rum lu the rndi of the univenc, when it hai 
notbinf but wortia (0 carry — no people ao magnificeni. ao prodigal of proAaaiona, 
ao hyperbolical ti lliey — add but meaning or a weiiihl o[ feeling to iheni, and ihey 
Complala hitiedy of the load, and ihrow il oil' aa barbaiDua, ititoleiable, Guthie, 
aod uncoulh. Ii ia not the riliavapnct nf (he aiyle, Ihin, willi whieh itiiy 
qsareel, hot ihe plpablent«« of the imicery which (iota a blow to their ilender 
inldleelual iinairm), or ttic ■(cafDublian of feeling about il with which ihcy have 
nni tirniTien or eomptehenaion id i;ripple. 'Dip il in ihe octsn, and it will tund ' 
— <aaya Sicrne'a barber of the buckle ^f hia wig. They magnify tri^ev, irt amon ( 
il ii only vhen 1 poor Mrutgliog itlcmpl ia to be made to gain nlief (loni the 
'periloaa iiulT that weigh) upon Ihe heart,* or to eatbody the lueUiog concepliiiaa 
or the aciul in remote and Infty imajxt, that ihejr ahriak back with the llmidily ot 
women and Ihe formality of pedanu, 

'33 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

ProKfa I ihey ue in a Bttfe, finical aaaaa, witboM bewMyi gpadevr, 
or effect. He Iw prcciaoa of oodine asd accvncy of <«tMBg i 
bat bow MnaD a mn ■■ tin* of higb faMtory t ta a icaK lilw tbst 
of the Otfi tf de HtraA, ag the Pau of Thtrmfylm, vrfw wonU 
tUnk of renarinog the tstn of aa vkIc, or the djipowtiott of a |aecc 
of drapery, or ilw miiiimiii iifi riiiill ' Yet oiiCMi|Bitc at Icinire 
W io thi» m leokinf at the pkturet, wHhont bnog ooc'a iluMght* 
caBtd off bjr etbw mi aoUer iatemt*. The atteoiM « otprBwioo 

Tbere ■, bewner, a onky of detigo and an HteTUcing of tbtcM* 
and limba, wbicfa Kenw to e x p«t M one moI in At HeraA, to which 
conidcnUe praiae would be doc, if ibqr had more the took of 
haroca, and lew thai of pttil makm. I do not wonder Dind doe* 
not bkr Rubena, tor be baa none of the Fteming'i bold, iwecping 
o«Uiae> He finiihe* the detail) rery |<retiily aod tkilluUy, but faaa 
BD idea of jtiricg magnitude oi motion to tbe whole. Hb «ns 
Ronuna and £erce Sabion look like young gentlemen btoa^ht u|> at 
a dancim or (cDcing ichool, and taking letaooa in thetc •everal etegatu 
nterciMa. What a fellow lu* be made of Ronrahu, ctanding is tbe 
act to mike with all the air of a modcro daady 1 The woroen are 
ia attiradca, and cooirtbnte to ihc doqaencc of the *oeiK. Here ia a 
wife, (ai »c kam fron dw C«ulogiae) there a Mtct, bcre a minreaa, 
ibefc a gnntdflMiher wiik tktte inbiua. Thna an tbe niiodM made 
oni by a genealogical taUe of the relatioaa of buman tile ! Such n 
the oatore of French genins and inrention, that tbey cao nercr get 
ont of Icadtng-ctring* ! 1^ finre of Bnitot, io the picture d thai 
anbject, hu a line, manlyt onalcctcd chancier. It ha* ihruak oo 
one ride to brood over ka act, without any Rnii or philoac^ic 
oatentaiMxi, whkb waa moch to be dreaded. He i* wrapt in gloomy 
thought, at in a inaBilc. Mr. Kcan might hate tat for chU Hgnrr, 
for. io truth, h ia erery way like liini. Tbc group of women on 
ibe oppowte nde of the casTau, making a conuau by their lively 
colour* and dimty exprosioo of grief, might have been apoted. 
Thcac picture* have, at we were told, been objected to foi their 
Wo great ditplay of the naked Ggsre, in aooic iattancet bordering 
on imlecency. Tbe indecency (if aa it ia) ii not in the nakedneta 
of tbe ligure*, hut in the barrenncca of the artiii'* reaourcc* lo clothe 
than wkh oiher atuibutea, and with gcniua aa with a garmcoi. If 
their aoul* bad been laid bare aa wetl aa thrir limba, their tprii* 
woald have abene tbroogh and concealed any ootward defoimity. 
Nobody ccniplani* of Michael Angelo'i figure* aa wanting aeverity 
and decorum. 

Gnerin't Phddra anJ f/iffioiinii I have already treated of, and 

'3* 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

I we no n»son to »hn ray ^oion- It wu just painicxl when I lau 
taw it, and ha« lott wmc of iu frcBhncM aod the glos* of notcliy. 
Modern pictures haw the att of very soon bccomiug oUI. WJut 
lemuina of tt bi*> the nmit of very clever siudiei uftvr the antiqtir, 
arraiqed iniu .1 subject. The icit it not worth tpcaking of. A tet 
of Khool-boyn might ;is well come with ihcir portfolio* and chalk- 
diawingn under their arms, and set up for a itcbool of Fioc An. 
A great nation ought to know better, and either itnke out wmc- 
thiog originator olberi tu imiliile, or acknowledge (hat they have done 
nothing worthy of iheiiiaelveg. To aich an eye-brow, Ot to point 
a finger, is not to paint history. The itudy of nature can alone form 
the genuine ;ittiBt. Any thing but thi* can only produce counterfeit*. 
The tone* and colours that feed the eye with beauty, the ctfceti of 
light nod shade, the )oui speaking in the eyes or gasping on the tip>, 
the groups that varying passion blends, these arc the means by which 
nature revetils herself to the inspired gaze of genius, and that, 
treasured up and stamped by labour and study 00 tlic caavasa, arc 
the indispensable materials of historical composition. To t^kc 
plaater-caslB and add colour tu them by an act of the will ; ot to 
take the tame brittle, inanimate, inticxiblc models, and put life and 
motion into ibcm by mechanical and learned rules, i> more than 
I^rometheuB or Iris tould pretend to do. Ii is too much lot I-'rcnch 
genius to achieve. 'I'o put a statue into motion, or to give appro])riatc, 
natural, and powetful expression to set features of any kind, is at all 
limes difficult ; but, in the present tostaocc, the difficulty is raliancni, 
till It aniounti to a sort of contr:idiclion 10 terms ; for it is piopoocd 
to engraft French character and expreuion (the only onei with which 
the artists are aci^uainted, or to which they can have acccsc as living 
■tudics) on Greek forms and features. Two thing* more abhorrent 
in nature exist not. One of two con«ct]uences necessarily happens : 
cither the original model is given literally and entire, without any 
Bticmpt to dUguiM: the awkward plagiarisni, and inform it with a new 
characcct : or if the artict, diadainiog such servile trammels, Mrivct 
to iofuie bis own concepcioni of grace and grandeur into it, then the 
hero or God of aniiijuity come* down from hit pedestal to strut a 
French dancing- master or tragedian. For simplicity nnd unexampled 
grace, wc have impertinence and affectation ; for stoic gravity and 
majestic sulfering, we have impatieoce, rage, womanish hysteric*, 
and the utmost violeace of frenzied dinioriion. French art (like all 
otlier national art) ia either noiliing, or a transcript of the national 
character. In the JuaiM and Dido, of the same artist, the drawing, 
the coKtumc, the ornamentii, are correct and clataical ; the toilette of 
the {HCtiire i« well made; the MavM ia not much more insipid than 

'35 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

the boo of Vtrgil, aai Uktc m an cxcecdiitgljr pretty gul, (ti)^ a 
cqmiDoo French peannt gifl,} a nqipoted ittny-laiit on the Quccd. 
The only pan of the picisrc ia which he iu» uictnpied an extra- 
ordmuj c^t. aod to which be bat totally faikd, is in the vxprc*- 
•ioD of cnafliouted aucnuoD on the pan of the Qikcd. Her eye* do 
not, ■ lite iUit, tboot madly from tfaeii apfaera,' but tliey >Mfti u> 
have no rtort of bwiiKn in bcr head, and make the damtnwu in a 
most edifying oianixT. Yon are attracted to the face at a diMancc 
by the beauty of the ouilioc (which ii Greek) and ifluaatly repelled 
hj the ijTouncu of the filling up of the expmtioo (which b Froid)). 
The ClytemnetUa it, I think, his thtf^ttmrt. She u a noble 6guiCt 
beautiful ia [vr*0D, and deadly of purpose ; and there ii thai kind of 
breathlcw nrnrmkn of (eeliag, and aoiKleca Taorta% oa to her cod, 
which tbe rigid style of French art i* not ill-adapted to coarey. 
But there it a Miaoge tone o^ colouring thrown over the nictiue, 
which gin* it the appearance oi' figure* dooe in naincd porcelain, or 
of an optical deceptwo. There is nothing to rcnind you ih«i the 
acton of the *ccdc are of fle«h and blood. They may be of ucd 
Of bronze, or glazed eanhcaw-arc, or any other smooth, nnftcliog 
•dmtnce. Tliis hatd( taij, metallic, tangible chimctet is one of the 
great ditciiniiDatiDg feitoret of French Duntiog, whkb atwet partly 
from their habitual mode of study, partly from the want of an eye 
for mlurc, but chiefly, I think, from their craving after precise and 
delinitc ideas, in which, if there is the least 6aw or i&Scctiati, their 
formal -ijiptehciuion loics tight of them altogether, and caniut recover 
the clue. This tncntsted, impenetrable, MiSing appeanuMc ii not 
only unpleasant to t)ic eye, but ttrpels syniMtby, asul reoders their 
picture* (what tb«y hate been aiserted to be) Mx^tsM/ equally of the 
cSHntial ouaJttiet txith of pioting and sculpture. 

Of thar want of tdCm/ pastion, or of the poetry of pointing, and 
tendcocy to turn every thine either into comic or tmgic poniomime, 
tbe picture of Ctm ajitr iht Mtirdn of /fbrK by Paul Guerin, is a 
striking exaraplc. This compmitioo does not want power. It would 
be difingcnuou« to say so* The nrtiBt Iids duac what he meant in it. 
Wbst, tben, has be expressed? The rage of a wild beast, or of a 
nmiM pushing hit teeth, and rushing headlong down a precipice to 
gire Tent to a momentary frenzy ; not the fixed inward angutsb of a 
man, withered by the corse of his Mnkct, and driven out into ihc 
wide univertc with dctp^iir and solitude aiid unaTflilini; remone for 
hit portion. 1'hc face of htt wtfi;, who appears crouched behind 
him, possesses great beauty and bweetnets. But tbe sweetness nod 
beauty are kept <)uite disttoct. That is, grief absorbs some of the 
ftttnres, while others retain all their raftnets and serenity. This 

136 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

hypercriticttm would not h.ivc been possible, if the {niatcr liad tludieJ 
tBC exprenion of grief in njcuro. But he toult a pUster'niodtl, oud 
tried to melt it inio becoming woe ! 

1 hare «aid enough to explain my objections lo the grand Myle of 
French art ; and 1 am »uie 1 do ooi wish to purnue so unpleasant a 
subject any faithec. I only wish to hint tu my countrymen »otne 
excuie for not jdminn^ (hc»e uielures, and to laiinfy their netghbouta 
that our want of cnthutiatm u not wholly owing tu barWism and 
blindness to merit. It may be asked then, ' Is there nothing to praibv 
in this collection ? ' i'sr from ii. There are many things excellent 
and admirable, with the drawback* alieady staled, and lome others 
that arc ftee from them. Theie is Le Thicrc's picture of the 
Juilnmenl ef Bratia i a manly, solid, and powerfuj compositioD, 
which was exhibited some years ago in London, aad is, I thiolt, 
decidedly superior to any of our West's. In Horace Vetnel** 
Aftuiacre of tie Mamiluiei, no English critic will deny the cxptesiion 
of gloomy ferocity in the couniettance of the Sultan, or refuse to 
extol the painting of the diapcry of the Negro, with hi* back to the 
spectator, which is, perhaps, eqtial to any thing of the Venetian 
School, and done (for a wager) from real drapery. Is not *ihe 
human face divine ' as well worth studying in the original as the dyei 
:ind texture of a tunic? A small picture, by Delacroix, taken from 
the inferno, l^irgil ami IhiMc in iht i«at, is truly pictiire«|ue in the 
composition and the effect, and shews a real eye for Rulieni and fur 
nature. The forms project, tlie colours are thrown into masses. 
Gerard's CufiJ and Piycbe is a beautiful little picture, and is indeed 
M beautiful, both in composition and exptesaioo, as any thing of the 
kind can well be imagined ; I mean, that tl is done ta its essential 

Erinciplea at a design /rom or far iculptute. The produciioDS of the 
'rench school make better prints than pictures. Yet the best of 
them look like engtarings trom anti(|ue groups or cameos.' There 
is also a set of small pictures by Duels, explaining the effects of l.ovc 
on the study of Fainting, Sculpture, and Poetry, taken from appro- 
priate subjects, and elegantly executed. Here French arc appears in 
its natural character again, courtly and polished, and is propuri ion ably 
attractive. Perhaps it had belter lay aside the club of Herculci, and 
take up the dittafT of Omphale ; and then the women might fairly 
best the men out of the field, as they threaten almost to do ai present. 

I The OrfiiiMi 4nd SvjJnt of Orullin^ is ■ pcrformsDW af gttat nurit, The 
fcoulcs, fliutlDtt 11 the Sir bcfon O'phcut, src pile it lillei, sad beautiful in death. 
But he ii«a< hirlly ilctpir, 01 run wil'l a) he dun. He tatytttilyovcnAt tbcm; 
and «■ lo vintthinf, thty bsve do appcurancc of it. Their Afuro arc ^uilc solid 
and dttermiaed is Ihtir outlist. 

IS7 



NOTES OF A JOURNEV 



nd awkwud, who cui help H- Muy an Engliib Mtt, who figure* 
■I home rn the fim c'ncin of fa^hioa and m adniiivcl foe bcr airy, 
tlieucbtlcM vdnbility, u Mruck dwnb^ ud hroks a mere Amnfy (as if 
k WCK a volMnUrjr or asiomed traoifbnnMMM of daracttt) div 
■'™— — tbe Mt* foot oo French gronsd ; and the whiipcrcd Kwoda, 
bmde or tSe m'ui fat ifiritiuSe, liBgering in her can, will not indac« 
her to diMudc hcf buabaod {iT he ia a Lord or Member of Parlia- 
meartj fram votiag for a Preach war, and are aMwrmI by the 
UniMen of our cannoa on the French coui ! Wc crnt (jturrcl 
with the btauty of Freocb woeneflt bccauae it i« not Eagliab. If 
tbctr feaiuin are icguUr, we liiid fault with their coaplcuow j and 
a* to ibeir exprcuion, we grow tired of that eternal Hule opoa their 
(acei; ibough their teeth arc white, why ahoold they be alwaya 
•hewing ihcni ! Their cyc» hafc an unplcaiani glitter about them ; 
aad their eyebrow*, which atr frequciuly black and arched, are 
ftimtd and put oo ! In *bort, no individoal, no nation it liked by 
•Mdicr for the adtantaxct it jioMCMca om it in wit or wifdom, in 
hafpincM or vittBe. We detfnse otfaen for their inferiority, wc hate 
iMn for tbeir Mpcriority ; and I tee no likelihood of an accom- 
modadon at thi* rate. The English go abroad i and when they 
come back, they brood orcr the civilitiea or the insalt* ibey have 
receired with wjiul diKonu-nt. The gaie*y of the Continent hat 
thrown an additional dani|) uuon their tuiive air, and they wiih to 
ckar it bv *etting lire to a lorcign town or blowing ap a foreigc 
ejtndel. We are then eaty and contfertable for a whik. We think 
we CUI do aooiething, that i>, violence and wrcof [ and ahoold othcia 
talk of retaliatii», wc ny with Lord Bathurat, ' Let them come I ' — 
onf fii^en tinging for the fray, and finding that nothinfi roiueo ua 
frocn oar habiiuiil itDpor like hard blow*. Defeated in the aru of 
|)eacc, wc get in good humour with ouraelTc* by trying thotc of war. 
Aihamed to acco«t a lady, wc dare face a baiiioo — without tpirit to 
hold up our head), wr are too obctinaic to turn our btck*— Wid gire 
CWMhca credit for being the greaten nation to the world) becauM 
our Jack Tar* ( who defend the wooden wall* of Old Ei^bod — tlic 
■ame that wc afterward* cec with acre arm* and wooden leg*, begging 
aikd bawling about our ttrcett) are the greatett Uacipua^ on the 
face of the globe ; brcauw our Life GuardMaes, who bate no braina 
lo lote, arc willing to ha^c iheni knocked out, aad bccanac with the 
iDceauM noiae and atir of our tteatn-en^inei and (piaoiBf-jmoiet (for 
baviiM no wiah to cnjoyi we are glad to work oitnelm to death) we 
can afford lo pay all ocwt* I 

What make* the maucr worse, ia the idle way in which we abttraet 
opua one another** character*. We arc itnick only with the diUcr- 

140 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



cnets, xaA Invc ihe common qualitic> out of the (juetiion. Thti 
render* » mutunl undcrtundlng hoprlcifl. Wc put the cxcrptiotu for 
ihc rulf. If wc meet wiih any thing odd and ab«urd in Fraoce, H it 
tmmedialely set down as I-'rcnch and cliaiacteriatic of the country, 
though we meet with a thounand odd and disagiecable thtngi every 
day ID England f'hal wc never met before) without taking »ny 
notice of them. There is a wonderful htping in oar prcjudiws ; we 
reason as consiatcntly oa absurdly upon the confined notions wc have 
taken up. We put the good, wholesome, hearty, respectable aualitiet 
into one heap and call it Eoglish, and the bad, unwholeiome, fnvoloua, 
and contemptible ones into another heap, and call it French i and 
whatever docs not answer to this pretended sample, we reject an 
spurious and partial evidence. Our coxcomb conceit stands over the 
{fitTcrcnl races of mankind, like a smart Serjeant of a regiment, nnd 
drills ihem into a pitiful uniformity, wc auriielves being picked out as 
the ilite du larpt, and the rest of the world forming the forlorn hope 
of humanity. One would suppose, to judge from the conversation of 
the two nations, that nil Frenchmen were alike, and that all Lngliih- 
mcn were pctnotiilied by a particular individual, nicknamed John Bui). 
The French have no idea (hat there is any thing in England but 
roasi.bccf and plum-pudding, nnd a number of round, red faces, 
growing fm and stupid upon nueh kind of fare ; while our traditional 
notion of the French in that of lau^-mmgn and wooden shoes, and a 
set of scare^crow ligures corresponding to them. All classes of 
■ociety and differences of character are by this unfair process con- 
solidated into a aluidy, surly English yeoman on the one dde of the 
Channel, or arc bailed down and evaporate into a shivering, chattering 
falet-dc-chambre, or miserable half-starved peasant on the other. It 
is a pleasant w^y of settling accounts and taking what we plcaK for 
granted. It it a very old method of philoiophixing, and one that is 
quite likely to last 1 

If we see a little old hump-backed withered Frenchman about five 
feet high, tottering on before ua on a pair of spintUe-shanki, with 
white thread stockings, a shabby greatcoat, and his bair done up into 
.t queue, his face dry, grey, and pinched up, hit checks without blood 
in them, his eyes without lujiire, and his body iwisied like a cork- 
screw, we point to this grotcstjuc figure as a true Frenchman, as the 
very essence of a Parisian, and an edifying vestige of the ancient 
r^tme and of the last age, before the French character was sophisti- 
cated. It does not signify that just before we had pasaed i bluff, 
red-faced, jolly-looking coachman or countryman, six leet four inches 
high, having limba in proponion, and able to eat up any two ordinary 
l^Dglishmctt. This thumping make-weight is thrown out of the scale, 

'■fl 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

became it doci dm belp oiu our argument, or coafitm oar prejudice*, 
'i'bi* bug?, ttv-board, heatry, knock -kaeied, well-ftd, ibuiine-fued 
churl make* no imt<rc*tMii on our miiulE, bcciuw he is doi Frnich, 
according to our iaci of Ihc word ; or wc piu him over oDdci the 
pretext tliU he oi^tl u be id l^nnltthmaii. But ihc otbcr rxircRw 
we aeiu npoa wiili avidiij and di-Iight j wc dandle it( wc dodi upon 
it( we nuke a puppet uf it lo the ira^tnaiioo ; we Kpeak of it with 
glee, we quote it at a text, wc trjr to nakc a cuicxtare of it | our 
peat itch lo describe it as a complete ipeciBeB of the Preach natiol^ 
and a« a convincing and utiifacioty proof, that die Engliih arc the 
only people who are of lound mind and ix>dy, iirong wiod and limb, 
and Irce fiora the inlirmilica of a ptoy conuiiutioo, alftctation, and 
oU ag^! An old woflun in Krance, with wrinkle* and a high- 
daiied cap, nrike* m a* being quite French, a* if i be old wotuai is 
England did not wear ni^ht apt, and were not wrinkted. In paiting 
along the street*, oi through the walk* near Parii, we cootuunlljr 
meet a gcntlcm.-iQ and bdy whom we lake for Eogliih, and ther turn 
out lo be Preach ; or we fancy dui they are French, and wc bid on 
a nearer approach, or from bearing them speak, that (bey arc English. 
Tfat* does not at all ntitfy w that there ii no such marked ditfercoce 
between the two nationi as wc arc led to expect i but wi- futen on 
the Cm lunu nature we can find OM a* a nnkiag repreientative of 
the univertal French nation, and chuckle over and alnaoat bug him to 
ow boaome as having kindly come to the relief of our watering pre- 
jadicei, and as an undonbted proof of our superiority to such a Kt of 
abortion* a* this, and of oui right to iuult and lord it over tbcm at 
plcBsure! If an object of this kind (as it sotneuines bappeos) uks 
charity with an air of briskneu and pilotjit, and does not seem quhe 
to wrewbcd a* wc would hare him, this is a Airiher coofirmation of 
ow theory of the national conceit and •elF-nifficienc)- ; attd hts chcer- 
fidnes* and coolent under deformity and poverty arc added to bit 
catalogue of oimes ! ' Wc have a very old and ridiculous fancy ii 
Eflglaod, that all Prcochmcn arc or ought to be lean, and ibcir 
women abort and crooked; and when we sec a great, lat, ptmtf 
FtOlditKUi waddling along and ready to borst with good living, we 
gM off by saying that it is an uowboletoow kind of firi t or, if a 

> A FiBMh ilWH^ uhAkoi ■ UbAm mm* jtnt ifav w' who h«J tW mi*. 
li«lwH M bt bora I awe to^dc, pva « rat>< m tlw iDaitian *t maihiT 4wttt n 
I rlnl m bo4il7 I m fClfc ct iM, anil iftn intiMinf: itiit the Mhn h^ hoth hatuU 
Md (af,iuUhllrH nn(luticsU7,*Mii> meiijc nia aniqiK.* MyoU scfMiMaaar 
(Or. Staiain) aseJ fgniwrly to ncsuii thu mil of Crtach Aanna trrp tiian- 
■hinlly, biff thai It araa la ww^time. He my ihiiik ■■ indtcnl Is hiw hn* 
hiaHd tmj ndi tbinf of M iativMiut of i M tie w with whom wt on U pMse. 
At immi, hi Hnos to haw become ■ Kin of partiM isd b]r>w«rd fauantf Miiiat 

14* 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

PrcDchwonuD happent to be tall and nraight, we immediately take 
a dUgu«t nt hci rna«culic)c took*, and aik if all the women in I'rance 
ate giantesses^ 

h in DlianKe wc cannot let other people ftloDc who Codccto theto- 
nclveii lu little about us. Why meuiiure them by out sULoda/d ? Can 
wc allow nochinf; to exist fot which we caunal account, or to be right 
which hau out our previuue unctiud .' The difficulty teem* to be 
to tuKpcnd our Judgments, oc to iu|i[>05c a variety of causes to produce 
a variety of effects. All men must be alike — all Frenchmen muM be 
alike. Thin is a portable theory, and suits our indolence well. But, 
if they do not hap])cn to come exactly into our terms, wc are anftry, 
and trannforai them into bca«ts. Oar Hrst error lies in ex{>eciin;[ x 
number of different thinfls to tally with an abttraa idea, or general 
denomination, and we next atigmatize every deviation from thia 
sundard by a nickname. A Spaniard, who ha» more gravity than 
an F.nglishman, ii an owl ; a Frenchman, who has less, is a monkey. 
1 confess, I hi h last Kimiic sticks a good deal in my ihroat; and at 
times it requires a stretch of philosophy to keep it from rising to my 
lip*. A walk on the Boulevards is not calculated to rid an Eng!i«h- 
man of all his pn-judiccs of of all his spleen. The resemblance to an 
English firomenaJe :ificrw:irdj makes the difference more mortifying. 
There is room tu brcuthe, u footpath on each lide of the road, and tree* 
over your head. Dul presently the appearance of a Bartlcmy-fair all 
the year round, the number of little shaHiy italls, the old iron, pttstry, 
and children'* toys; the little white lapdogs, with red eyes, combing 
and washing ; the mud and the green trees, wafting alternate odours i 
the old women sitting like Urtii-<oUa figures i the paawngert running 
up ugatnsi you, (most of tliem so taken up with themtelveii that they 
seem like a crowd of absent people I ) the noiiie, the bustle, the flutter, 
the hurry without viuble object ( the vivacity without intelligible 
meaning ; the loud and iocet.«ant cry of * Mtn'tmri ' from a bawling 
charlatan inviting you to tome paltry, cheating game, and a broad 
stare or insign ill cant grin from the most ill-bred and ill-looking of the 
motley set at the appearance of an [Englishman among them ; all litis 
jumble of little teazing, fantastical, disagreeable, chaotic sensation* 
really puts one's patience a little to the teit, and throws one a little 

Eagliih politiciini; ini! without hnH or hcirl mi]i cielalm — 'Mail «nc, ji mh 
mioi^w I''Sec hiB Life artkle* on Ihr SpsnUh Kefa^n, ttt, Wiutei inch a mtrn 
havr brcn soy belln, hirt he never turnr-t rcnAfi'lr, or ht^i ho becomr (hU first 
ambition} ■ rcvnlulinnary Irifrc t WonM he not h*w been *• bJooiLthirity, M 
bifiolrri. II petvcrM inii rrifitiilou« on the tt-it of the qucttian fat left, i> on tht 
one he hii (Dine OTtr to F Ii import! little what mta sre, ■« long u they art 
liimKhtt. The etal mirfcutune 0/ 1 oertiin el«H ot perlani (both for ihcii owB 
ultc anil thil o( othcn) ii ever 10 bin been bota di hat<l oi ! 

>43 



NOTES OF A JOURNEV 



oir one'* guard. I wm in thi* humour tht other day, aod wanted 
•ome object to conduct otT a lupcrfluity of tUiag irriubiUiy, when, at 
» painted booth opposite, 1 law u R'tat lubbdly b<>y in an ecstacy of 
tatiafactioo. He nad od a red coat, a huge wi;t o^ coarac yellow 
hair, and with hit hat wx» beating a monkey in the face, dreMcd nt 
gti&lmrt — grinning, jablicring, laughing, icrcaming, franlic with delight 
at the pitcouf aipcct and pceviah genurrs of the animal ; while a tall 
showman, in a rusty blue coal and long fug^tail, (which might hare 
been stolen from the monkey) looked on with severe complacency 
and a lofty pride in the iitarrrrir, and the ■ mutually reflected 
charirie** of the ocene. The trio (I am vexed to think it) maMcd 
themielvea in my imagination, and I wa> not sorry to look upon ibcm 
as a little n.itional group, well -matched, and tricked out alike in 
preicniionA to humanity.' 

I was relieved ftom this lit of misanthropy, by getting into the 
shade of the barrier-wall, and by meeting a man, (a commoo French 
mechanic,} carrying a child in his arm*, and the mother by it» ride, 
clapping her hands at it, »miling, and calling out ' Mon petit ami ! ' 
with onmingled and unwearied delight. There wat the lame orcr- 
animation in ulking to the child at there would have been in talking 
to n dog or a parrot. But here it gave pleasure inMead of pain, 
because our sympathies went along with it. I change my opinion of 
tlte French character lifty times a day, because, at every step, I wish 
to form a theory, which at the next step, is contradicted. The 
ground seems to me so uncertain' — the tenure by which I hold my 
opinions so frail, thai at lait I grow ashamed of them altogethcr^-of 
what I think righi, an of what I think wrong. 

To ptaiie or to blame h pt-rhapt equally art impertinence. While 
wc are «tanger» to foreign manner* and customs, wc cannot be judges t 
it would take almost a life to understand the reasons and the dtlTet- 
encei ; and by the time we can be supposed to do thi«, we become 
used to them, and in noiiie sense parties concerned. The English 
arc the fools of an hyptrthcsis, as the Scotch are of a system. We 
muKt have an opinion — tight or wrong ; but, in that caw, till we have 
the menni of knowing whether it is right or wrong, it is as well to 
have a qunlilicd one. Wc may at IeR«t keep our tenipcr, and collect 
lunts for self-correction ; we may amuse ourselves io collecttng 

' I remember bcioK on« miifh driiiici] wiih mecilnit. in > hnl iluity dij', brtuwra 
Blinheim mil Oirocii, fame ilrullin); Ivnliini with s iixnp of >!>ncin( dap, anil ■ 
monkry in ioirrmr mnnntvii nci (lit hack of one ctf tlirm. He mdr rm t^v^aiHr^ aorf 
ktfpt hj< (nianrrnnnfr with ETr.ii f:i,ivHy and ^It^ciirum, mil iiirn<'i{ round ttUb a 
trrliin look of mipriir >nK mcnlTnriil, ihxi I, » faot-psMenKir, ibeuM SMM M 
question hit rinhi Io i;o on horsFbick. This teemeii u mc ■ Am flea of pcMtial 
•ilirt in the ntinnci o( SwlfL 

M4 



4 

4 
4 




THROUGH FBANCE AND ITALY 



niiitrfialB fur a decuion that m.iy ntvet be piuwi5, or will hnve little 
etTcct, even when it ii, and may clear our cycught ftom the mote* 
and btramu of prejudice by looking at thing) !u> ihcy occur. Our 
□pinioni hitTC no great inftuenoc onothfrt; but the tpirii ia which 
we foini ihcni ha« a coDstdcrnbli' ODC oa our own happincH. It it of 
more impurr^nce tu ourselves (hxa to the French, what wf think «f 
ihcm. It would be tmrd if a nientul utilii^diy aa tlieir puns tliould 
* thcun UB from ■* Icvul cuntidcration,' or sonic hasty olfencc takcD al 
tlie ouUct should «huc up our eyes, out cars, and undcrttandingt for 
tlie rut of a journey, thnl we have commenced for no other pur]!0«c 
than 10 he spccuiort of a new and thitting scene, snd to hiiTc our 
faculties alike open to inipreasion« of all sons. 

What LnglishinuQ haa not seen the Ctmettry of Pert la Chmtr ? 
What I^nglishnun will undertake either to condemn of entirely 
approve it, unlcM he could enter completely into the inindi of the 
French thcmsclvct? The approach to it {a little way out of Parin) 
ia literally 'garlnndcd with Hower^.' You imagine yourself in the 
ncigbbourbood of a wedding, a fjir, or some holiday-fcilival. Women 
arc lilting by (he road-side or at their own doors, making clupleit of 
a Mrt of yellow llowcrs, which aic gathered in the ftcldt, baked, and 
will (ben last a French 'Foreiet.' They Iwvi- taken 'tlit lean 
abhorred nionater,' Death, and strewed him o'er and o'er with 
iweeU) they have made the grate a garden, a flower-bed, where all 
Paris rcpotei, the rich and the poor, the mean and the mighty, g;ty 
and laughing, and putting on a fair outtidc as in their lifetime. Death 
here seems life'* playfellow, and grief and imiling content tit at one 
tomb together. Koscs glow out of the clayey ground ; there is tlic 
urn for tears, the slender cro«i for Eiilb to twine round ; t\xc neat 
marble monument, the pinted wreaths thrown upon it to ffeshen 
memory, and mark the hand of friendship. ' No black and melan- 
cholic ycw-trcet ' darken the tccne, and add a studied gloom to it 
— no ugly dcalh'« heads or carred ikcletons shock the ught. On 
the contrary, some pretty Ophelia, as general mourner, appears to 
have been playing het fancies over a nation's bier, to have been 
nuttccing *jwn»ic» for thought*, (uc for rcnicnibriiicea.' But Is not 
the expteraon of grief, like hers, a little too fantastical and lijiht- 
hcaded ? Is it not too much like a childish game of Afah-SiHeve i 
Or does it not imply a certain want of strength of mind, a* well at 
depth of feeling, thus to tamper with the extremity of wi>c, and 
Tarnish over the mo«t serious coaietnplaiion of mortality ? True 
sorrow is manly and deceot, not efTcminBte or theatrical. The tomb 
it not a baby-Iiouae for ibc imagination to hang its idle ornaments and 
mimic finery in. To nwet nd thoughts, and o/erjiowet ot allay them 

TOL. II. : K 145 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

bf other lofty aod uodtr oot», i* right ; bai lo thun ibem altogether, 
(o affect mirtb in the midH of nghiog, and divert ihe pug) of inwud 
misToiiune by wnietbinj to uich (be eye and ttckic die tciuc, it what 
ibe UD^bith do not iyn)[Mthize witli. It ii an adrAnt;ige ibc Fteoch 
have tn-i-c xa. Tbe freab pUata and tr«es that w3tc oret o«r grave* ) 
the cold nutble that contaiai our a»he« t the techidcd acene that 
collect* the wiDdcring tho«ighta; tbe inrtocesi, naiwal flower* that 
tpring tif, unciMudoua of out lo« — object* like tiinc u ooce 
chrridi aod (often our regret*; but the feaj daily olfcringt of con- 
doleoce, ihc forced livdincfx sod the painted pride of the accne bcfof c 
ui, are like gilruic attempt* to recall the fleetuig life — they neitlier 
daittn the deid nor become tbe lt*ii^ '. One of ihc nwA hesrtkn 
and flimty exiravaganoei of the ffev> El«ut, it the attempt made to 
drm up the daughter of Madame d'Orbc hkc Julu, and set her in 
her place at the table after her death. U not the burying-)>i<}und of 
the t'rrr la Chaiir tricked out xnd oiYt'icted much OD the tanie 
fnlw principle, a« if there were noUting lacred from unperliDence and 
alfectAtioD ; I will not pretend to UcicrnuDe ; but lo an EnKliah 
t3«tc it ia so. Wi- met tliinj^B too much, perhapi, on the datk aide ; 
they «ee them tuu much (if that in po»iib!c) on the bright. Here ia 
the tomb of Abel;ird und ICIoise — immorul monument, immortal as 
the human heart and poet'* Tettc cin nuke it ! But it b tlight, 
fantastic, of the olden time, and scemi to tihtink firooi the glare of 
daylight, or m if ti vould like to louer back to the old walls oS the 
Paraclete, and bury ita ouaint doice« and itt hallowed inscriptioDt in 
■hadowy twilight. It », however, an alfecting sight, and tnany a 
votirc garland i» sprinkled oxer it. Here i» the tomb of Ney, fihc 
double traitor) worthy of hit fate and of hit executjoticr i— and of 
Mawena uid Kelletman. There are many other* of great note, 
and tome of the grcateat namea^Molidrc, Fontaine, De LiUe. 
Chancellor* and cbart^iirri lie mixed together, and announce them- 
icItc* with equal poni]>. These people have at good an opinion of 
themaelrea after death aa before it. You ace a butt with a wreath 
or crown round it* head — a MtanRe piece of niasijuerade — and other 
t0M)b« with a print or miniature of the deceaied hanging to them I 
Frequently a plain marble ilab ii laid down for the iur*i<rtog relattvei 
nf the deceaaed, waittng it* prey in expreuive lileoce. Thi* i* 
making too free with death, and acknowledging a cLum which 
requires no kind of light to be thrown upon it. Wc should viiit the 
lombs of our fiiends with mote wiothin}; fecUngt, without marking 
out ouf own place* betide them. But every French thought or 
aeotiment munt hare an extetuJ emblem. 1 he toscripliont are in 
{tneial, however, (implc and appropri.tte. 1 only rcnvukcd one \o 
■ 46 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

which my cxnrptian could be taken ; It wa» a plain tribute of 
nHVction to lomc individual by hii family^ who profcucd to have 
'erected thil modut monumenl to prcterve hia mcmot j Jartvar'.' 
What a lioguUr idea of modesty aitd ctcmity ! So the KrcDcb, tn 
the Catalogue of the Louvre, in 1^03, after recounting the varioiu 
tiansmigratioiii of the Apollo Belvidcre in the last two ihoutand yeait 
[v^n warabg* of mutability \) obteivcd, titat it wus ai lu>i placed in 
liie Muneuiu at Patix, <to remain thete ^rever.' Alas! it hat been 
gone th«e ten year*. 



CHAPTER IX 

MADKMuisr.i.LK Maks (of whom so much hat been laid) iiuite comes 
up to my idea ot an accompliahed comic actrcu. I do not know 
that she docs more than this, or impaitti a feeling of excellence that 
we ni'vcr had IxTorc, and are at a loan how to account for afieiwarda 
fas was the ca»e with our Mr». Jordan and Mrs. Siddons in oppoiiie 
depart nicntu, ) but the aniwers exactly to a preconception in the mind, 
and leaves rtothing wanting to our wishe*. I had seen nothing of the 
kitul on our wage for many years, and my aaiisfaction was the gtcatcr, 
as 1 had otien longed to tec it. The last liinglish actress who shone 
in genteel comedy was Mies Farrtn, and she was just leaving the 
lUR when I lirst became acquainted with it. She was said to be 
a feint copy of Mts. AbicKton — but 1 sceni to ace her yet, ftUtlering 
in the verge of the huri/on, Ilutt(;(in;>, gay, and airy, the 'elegant turn 
of ber head,' the nodding plume of feathers, the gloves and fan, the 
carelcis mien, the proToking indifFcccncc — wc have had nothing like 
it since, (or I cannot admit that Miss O'Neil had the Laily-Tiax.it air 
at all. Out of tragedy she was awkward and heavy. She could 
draw out a white, patient, pathetic pocket-hand kerchief with great 
grace and simplicity ; the had no notion of flirting a fan. The rule 
here U to do every thing without effort— 

' Flavia thi least and ilightnt toy 
Can njch [nirflcis ail employ.' 

Tlu* art is lost among us ; the French still have it in very considerable 
perfection. Really, it is a fine thing to see Moliitc's Mitanihvpe, 
»t the Tbeauc Frao^ais, with Mademoiselle Mars aa Criimene. I 
had already teen MHie very tolerable acting at the minor French 
Theatre*, but I rcmatned tccptical ; 1 still had my English Kruple* 
hanging about me, nor could I get C)uite reconciled to the French 
manner. For manneriim is noi excellence. It might be good, but I 

•47 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 






wu not lurr of it. Wluirvcr one hctiuu* about ia ttu* way, ia not 
die bnt. If a thing u tirM-tAic, you att it at oo«, ot tbe fault i* 
yout*. True geoiua wilt always jttttbcr baterofuur local jwejudkcs 
mi h baa already turmouaied in own. For ihi> muoo, one become* 
«D immediate convert to the excellence of the Frendi *chool of 
(criouK comedy. Tbeir actorc hare loit little or nothing of tbor 
•pirit, tatt, ot (kill in embodying the vit and *ciMr of their favourite 
attfaoTh The mo«t tucccnfu] patsies do not interfere with our 
nimmiaD of the best sample* of Englbh iciiog, of rut counlet to 
our nodona of propiiety. 'I'hat which we tliou^ht well done among 
ouraelrci, we here sec au well or belter done: that which wc 
thouKht defective, avoided, Th« excellence or even luperiotity of 
the French ovei ut only confirm* tbe justnest of our lauc. If the 
actor might feci mme jcalau*y, the critic can feci none. What 
Eogliahman doci not rc^ul Moliirc wiih jilratufcf Is it not ii 
treat ilien to mc him well acted ? There i» Dotluii;^ to recall our 
national aciipathicii and wc are gUd to part with nich sj^leannt 
gueau. 

The cutiab ti icarcely drawn up, wbeo lometbbg of thti eflfect 
it {>roduced in the play 1 have mcntioocd, and the entrance of 
Madcmnitcllc Mars decide* It. Her few first timpic KOtcnce* — her 
■ Man yimi ' at her lover'* iir*t ridiculoaa (uggMtioo, (he ntiaglcd 
surprise, displcaaurr, .ind icndemcH in the tone — her little peeiinj; 
eyc», full of languoi and archorH of meaning — the fieaked noK ami 
thin compressed lips, opening into an intelligent, cordial imile — her 
•clf-pu»»c»>ion — her »lightt*t gettutc — the ease and rapidity of bet 
utterance, every word of which ii perfcctly di«tinct — the playful, 
wondering good-nature with which iKc humour* the Mitanihtope't 
eccentric! lie* throughout, and the finer tone of »ciiw and feeling in 
which she rejects hit final projioul, muiC tiamp hc( a fovourite with 
the English at well as with the French part of the audience. I 
cannot see why that should not be the cate. iibc is all life and ipirit. 
Would we be thought entirely without them i She haa a thorough 
undemanding and relisli of her author's text. So, we think, have 
we- She haa character, expression, deciaion — tbev are the very 
thiogt we pique oursclvn upon. Ease, jjrace, propriety — we a*pire 
to them, if we have them not. She ii free from the i'lmitsrirt, 
the unmeaning peinlancc and petty affectation that we reproach tbe 
French with, and has none of the aukwnrdncsa, insipidity, or vuljiatity 
that we ;iie «> ready to auartcl with at home. It would be stranjte 
if the English did not admire her as much as tliey profess to do. I 
have seen but one book of travels in which she waa abused, and that 
waa written by a Scotchman 1 Mademoiselle Mar* ia nejtbct hand- 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Mine nor delicately fbrroed. Sbe b*» not the ligjtn aiiy grace, nor 
the erimeiccnt frigility of appumnce thai diatiDguiihett Mm Karrea, 
but more point and meaning, or more of the inccllccittil pan of 
comedy. 

She was admirably supported in Ct&mfitr. Monsieur Damu 
played the hero of ilie Miiantiropt, and played it with a force and 
natural freedom which I had no concepTion of aa belonging to the 
Frrnch Mage. If they drawl out their tniKic rhymeii tmo an cndlcM 
ting-MMlg, they cut up their cttmk versct tnio rn'memiral. The pancu, 
the CRlphatiti, are left quite ail SfHliim, and .ire as suttden and Tuitd 
as in tlic mo*t farnilinr or paninnnale convcrsaiion. In Rscine they 
aic obliged to make an effort lo get out of ihcmBel?ca, .tnd are solemn 
and well-behaved ; in Moli^ce they arc at home, and commit all Mirta 
of extravagincei with wonderful alicrity and effect. Hetoei in 
comedy, |iedanti in tragedy, they are greaieit on small occasions ; 
and their most brilliant clfortE arise out of the ground of common life. 
Monsieur Damu's personification of the Misanthrope appeared to me 
masterly. He had apparently been chosen lo till the p«t for his 
ugliness; but he played the lover and the fanatic with remarkable 
skill, nature, good -bi ceding, and disordered passion. The rapidity, 
the vehemence of his utterance and gestures, the iransiiions from one 
feeling to another, the fond rapture, tlie dcipair, the rage, the sarcaitic 
coolnexi, the dignified cuntenipi, were much in the style of our moK 
violent tragic rr|)rcienialions, and luch it we do not see in our serious 
comedy or in l-'reoch tragedy. The w.iy in which this philosophic 
madman gave a loose lo the expression of his feelings, when he Grai 
Huapecit the fidelity of his mistress, when he quarrels with her, and 
when he is reconciled to her, wa* strikingly affecting. It waa a 
regular furious leoldtng-boat, with the ordinary accompantraenl* of 
tears, screams, and hysterics. A comic actor with us would have 
made the pan insipid and genteel ; a tragic one with them pompous 
and affected. At Drury-lanc, Mr. Powell would take the part. 
Our line gentlenKD sre walking suits of clothes ; their tragic per- 
formers are a profiei>Ot*a gown and wig : the Mtunthrope of Motijre, 
as Monsieur Damaa f^ays it, i* a true orator and man of genius. If 
they pour the oil of decorum over the loftier wa*e» of tragedy, their 
sentimental comedy is like a puddle in a storm. The whole was 
admirably cast, and ought to make the English ashamed of them- 
selves, if they aie not nhoTc attending to any thing that can give 
pleasure to themselves or other people. Arsinoe, the friend and rival 
of Cetiniine, was played by Madame ■ ' ■, a ripe, full-blown beauty, 
a prviJe, the redundancies of whose person and pastions are kept in 
due bounds by tight lacinp, and lesMOt of muraJity. tiliante waa a 

'49 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

M ad wn oittDc Mcajud, a vny JunnhleJookii^ yamw pcTMn, and 
nacth fined to be ao ^w ia ihU S<i»J for SemjJ. Shr nniled 
sad bnufaed lad luped mMdHcf u tbe jnuiM muuKf iaMgwabk. 
The nM wlio eonm to read kk SooiKt to AlceMc «u inu^ttUc. 

His teeth had zn enamd, hU li]Ma*«nailia>i,lutcrn> brSSaocy, )na 
cmiic a (clf-compbccacy, mcb a* never met in poet or in peer, nnce 
ReralntkiH and Rcnewi came into tahJoa. He secmnl to hare 
beem pmemd in a glsw-csae for tbe Us fanndnd and fifty year*, and 
to h»e walked out of it in tbe«e degenerate dani diCMcd in brocade, 
in amilea and leif-coDceK, to ^ee the world aanmncc of what a 
Freochman vai ! Philinte wat alio oac of thoee peoaing cuofidaat*, 
WTih pTm feaiuie*, and profound granty, that are to be funnd in all 
Fteocb playt, asd who, bjr their patient atteotion to a vpeech of half 
ao hour lone, acquire an andoobccd right to make ooe of c<)ual letigth 
io mara. When they were all drawn up in hottlc^amy, io the scene 
aear the begiBOsn^ vbich Sheridan ha* copied, h prcacnted s jnj 
fomudable aipea iodced, and the eficct wa« am hiiwrical deception. 
Ym iorgoi jxw were ttuiog at a tby ai all. and Gtacicd voiirtdf 
traa^orted to tbe court or afje of Looti tit. ! — Bleet period ! — the 
tmandi of lotlj and of France, when, instead of poeing over tyMemi 
of pmlonpliy, tbe world h'Tcd in a round of impeniDence — when to 
talk nonicntc wu wit, lo littcn to ii polit en c a* when men tbonght 
of notluM ban thcntaelvc*, and ituMd their bead* with drcn laHcad 
of the anire of E^utope — when the tmile of {reaiaea* wai feltcityi 
the imile of beauty EJyiivm — and when men drank the brimining 
flKtar of aelf-ap^auae, ioftead of waitii^ for the opnuoo of the 
rrirfiy p»A&e ! Who would not fling himidf bock to thi) period of 
idle eocfaaotmcat? But ai we caoDOt, tbe bes nibtticutc for it n to 
•ee a comedy of Motive's acted at the Theatre Fran(ai& I'be 
thing i« there imitated to the lific. 

After all, there it tomethiag mfficiently abrord and improbaUe in 
thia play. The character froni which it take* iti title u not well 
nude out. A raiunthropc and a phihnifcropiat are the tame thing, 
aa Rouaxau hai to well Ebewn in hit admirable criticism on thia piece. 
Berid ea , what can be ao nationally charaeteriitic aa the vohdNary of 
(bamatic tmiaftn of pa ai ion in it ? Aiceite wipeaa hit mintwt'i 
tntfa, and ottkea aa abrapt and violent declaration of love to aoother 
•oma io cooaeqiience, aa if the pOMOn (in French) went along with 
tbe cpeech, and our fedingi could take any direction at pleanre 
which we bethought ounrrvc* of giving them. And then agaio, 
when a&er a number of outrage* and Uondert committed by biaaaelf^ 
be Coda he ii b the wfobj;, and that be ought to be laiiified with 
Ce&mim and the world, which tutn* out no wone than be alway* 

ISO 



i 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



thuuitht it i he takea. in pure *yw and th« tpirit of coniradictioo, the 
rMoiulioo to quit litr forever, unle«» the will agrtc (o RO and live 
with him in » wildtmcta. Thi» it not luisinthropy. but die«r 
' mict>uinmcr Tnailnen.* It ii :i mirre icJIt- ibtiruct determinxtion to 
be miscKblc, and lo make othcrt mi, and not the de«pente retource 
of bitter diuppoimmcnt (for he hA* received none) nor ■• it in the 
least wamntcii by thr ptoud indignation of a worthy lenEible man at 
ihi" follies of ihc world ( which character Alceste if at fint repfctcmcd 
to be). It it a gratuitous start of French imagiDBtion, which ia uill 
in cxtremei, and evet in the wrong. Why, I would wk, niu« a man 
Ijc either a mere courtier and man of the world, pliant to erery 
custom, or a mere enthuniait and maniac, absolved from common 
MDsr and rcaM>n ? Why could not the hero of the piece be a 
philosopher, a satiriBi, a railer at mankind in gcnenl, and yet marry 
Ctl'mentt with whom he is in love, and who has proved herself 
worthy of his regard ? The extravagance of Thnon is tame and 
rcaionable to thi», for Timon had been ruined by his futh in mankind, 
whom be shuns. Yet the French would consider Timon a» a very 
fiuouthi and tiutrt norl of periuruige. To be hurried into extremities 
by extreme suffering and wron^ ii with them abiurd and shocking : 
to play the fool without a motive or in virtue of making a set upeecb, 
they think in character and keeping. So far, to be sure, we differ in 
the first principles of dramatic composition. A similar remark might 
be made on the TartuflV. Thi^ character is detected over and over 
again in act* of the mow bitrcficed profligacy and imposture i he 
makes a fine speech on the occaiion, and Org^an very quietly puit the 
otfencc in hii packet. This credulity to verbal profcsiiuni would be 
tolerated on no stage but the French, as n.-itural or probable. Plaitt 
i^nglish practical good sense would revolt at it as a monstrous fiaion. 
Uut the French are so fond of hearing themselves talk, that ihcy lake 
a »ott of intercw (by proxy) in whatever afi'ords an opportunity for 
an ingenious and prolix harangue, and attend to t)ie diaJogue of their 
plays ai they might to the long-winded intricacies of a taw-suit. Mr. 
nanolino S.iddtctrcc would have aiiiittii admirably at a genuine 
proMng French Comedy. 

Mademoiselle Mars played also in the afterpiece, a sort of shadowy 
Calbermt and Prtrachia. She is lets at home in the romp tlian in the 
fine lady. She did not give licrself op to the ' whole loosened wul ' 
of farce, nor was there the rich laugh, the sullen caprice, the childish 
delight and astonishment in the part, that Mrs. Jordan would have 
thrown into it. Mrs. Orgcr would have done it almost .1.1 well. 
There was a dryness and restraint, as if there was a constant dread of 
ranning into caricature. The outline wa* correct, but the filling up 

•S' 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



rM affim, ■ which Aef iMp Mfpow i h i — Jn i to haw > 
ntui i» MC Bfutt, b« 4^ BM. 
TdiDS and Ma d w a MtM c G«ar|« (iIk grev fropi of Fnitcb 
tncedT) are not at pmm berc Tiwia •• at Ljcbi, aad Made- 
aoMdle Gt n r gLs hu retired am a fiq»t ibb ihe eomtrj, w die 
BBaHHf ctf loae Eogliili actrcMe*. I lud mcb them both formerly, 
aad ritooU Imvc Ukcd to mv tben agaik. Tslna ha* Hitle ci the 
fpfiBil aiUBwitfii «yle ib lua acoog. He ha* tadecd that cwiBOft 



&ali b hi* CB Mtt T McM of fpcakiat ■• if be had •w^lomi a baadfal 
of mdtf Im in tfitc ef (hi*, there it peat ewfhawi aod energy ia 



hM ewmciaaoDt a ia*t coocepcioiif and aa Mnreanve i ty r uuMjimn of 
character. He come* more in contact with oatve than oar KcmbJe- 
TT^wyl. whh more of digpntj than the aoogMMt oae. Tbcrc i* a 
inmh doqocDcc m bit g ea tu rcfc. In fB^^mt, I n gcnifecr hit rairiag 
U* hand* aboftt hi* head, a* if tone a^alKag wdgfai were Eilliog on 
Uo w cnah him ; aad ia the FMe t ttfi, the exprcaiott of etcriKiatiag 
■aia wat of thai auxcd neotal aad pbraial kiad, which i* to 
irwwuibly affectjag ia readiaf the oripaal Greefc ntaj, which Racine 
ha* praphiaaed *ery Satelf. The aoodt of hu despair aod the 
MjMiylaiat* of hit deaolate ntuatioo were to thrilHog, that jtta might 
abnoK UiKj you beard the wild wave* moaa aa aatwer to tbeai. 
KademoiM-tlc George* (who gate Tedtaiioa* ia Loadoo is 1817) 
WM, at the time 1 taw her, a very roDirfcabte perton. She wa* 
exceedingly beautiful, aad exceedingly hL Her fine haadtome 
feature* bad the regnlariq of an aattqoe itatae, with the renndBc** 
aad loftoe** of io^ncy. Her weUfroportioaed arm* (cwellcd ont 
•MS the largett dimeaaioa*) tapered dnwn to a delicate babyJiaod. 
Wth •adi a diiadvaotage there wai no want of gnce or flexibility in 
her moTtmaaM . Her voice had al*o great fwwiaca* and ctaapat. 
It either taak iaio the lofteu accent* of tteoiakm tl al a ti reoe**, or 
ro*e ia thaadcr. The cdect wai mrpriiiagi and one wat oot 
akofgether reconciled to it at fint. She playt at tbe Odeon, aod baa 
a rival at the Tlteatie Fraofaii, MuUine Paradol, wbo i> very like 
her ia perton. She it an imnicn'c wDtnan; wfaen 1 taw her, i 
ihoaght it wa* Mademoiarllr George* fallco awaj I There arc tome 
other tragic acxretae* here, with the peim airt of a French millinef 
fony yean ago, the harJirm of a battered gvmvmoMt, and the bruen 
laagi of a dnmwnajor. Madeoioitelle D nchet noit I have not h»l 
anoffonani^ of seeiag. 



'(4 



THROUGH PRANCE AND ITALY 



CHAPTER X 



Paui ia a beatt of a dtj to be in — to tliose who cannot g«t out of it. 
RouRncau Mid well, that all the time he wa* in it, he wa* only trying 
how he should Icarc it. It would mill bear Rabclaln' double ctymo- 
logy^of Par-fit and Luitiia.^ There i« not a pla<« in it where you 
»n Kt your foot in peace or comrort, unlcM you can tak« refuge in 
Dne of their hoteUt wlierc you are locked up at in an old-fahhioned 
citadel, without iny of the di^jnity of rortiance- Stir out of it, and 
you are in danger of being run over every instant. Either you mu*l 
be looking behind you the whole time, lO at to be in pcrpetiaal fear of 
their hackney-coachen and cabrioleu ) or, if you lummon resolution, 
and put off the cril to the last momeni, they come up against you 
with a sudden acceleration of pace and a thundering doim', that 
dislocates your ncrvouir syttem, till you arc broujithi lo yourself by 
having the same Biartling proces« repeated. Fancy your*eif in 
London with the footpath taken iwiy, to that you are forced to 
walk nlong the middle nf the iireeu with a dirty gutter running 
through them, lighting your way through coaches, waggons, and hand- 
carts trundled along by large nuDtiif-dogi, with the houses twice as 
high, greasy holes (or shop-windows, and piles of wood, green- stalls, 
und wheelbarrows placed at the doors, and the contents of wath-haiKl 
baaini pouring out of a dozen atorien — fancy all thi» and worse, and, 
with a change of scene, you are tn Parin. The continiul panic in 
which the panenger is kep^ the alarm and the e«capc from it, the 
anger and the laughter at it, muit have an clfeci on ihc Parisian 
character, and tend to make it the whiffling, skittii^h, snappish, 
volatile, inconsequential, unmeaning thing it is. The coachmen 
nearly drive over you in the street*, because they would not mind 
being dciven over theni>elves~that is, they would hare no fear of it 
the moment before, and would forget it the monient after. If an 
Engliihman turnn round, ii angry, and complains, he it laughed M ai 
a blockhead ; and you muii submit to be rode over in your national 
character. A horseman make* hit hor«e curvet and capriote right 
before you, because he has no notion how an English lady, who is 
patting, can be nervous. They run up against you tn the street out 
of mere heedlettneti and hurry, and when you expect to have a 
quarrel (ai would be the case in Engbnd} make you a low bow and 

' Tilt frontt i>f thr hngKi ind af nun* nf ihc linrit buililinp tam (lu to ipok) 
ID havt brrn compotcit In mu-l, mil iriailitdl inio iIod*— » litilr pDJtction, 
rtlieT, at lirincx hiw they. TIK7 hive ■ look W tvin[ mkI tetctthtr, 

"SS 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

•Gp on one licie, to shew that pofeeneM. The rtcy w>lk of the 
Parinaa*, dut tight, )erlus^ ftcigcttiag trip oo which they pride 
thcmKlvFi, and think it grace and tpirit, i* the etfea of the awkward 
coDMnictiod of their (ircrts, or of the roood, Aat, tUfptrj uoatt, orci 
wiueii you are obliged to aiakr jrovr wajr oo dpio^ u over a (uccev 
•ion of Neppug>«oaet, and wbm naiaral caw and auadiiwa* arc oat 
of the mttHioo. On the time principle, French womea Aew their 
Ic]^ (h I* a jitj, for thej arc often h:milKiRic, ami a nolen glimpse of 
them would fonKtirne* be charming) MMoer than f^et draggle-tailed ; 
and you ace an old Prench beau generally walk Like a crab nearly 
•idewayt, from having been to often stuck np in a lateral petition 
between a coach-whce^t, that thrcatenod i)w wholcacM of his bone*, 
and a ttooe-wall (hat might endanger the cleanltneta of hit peraon. 
In winter, you are iplatbed all oTer with tJic mud ; ia tunviKr, yo« 
are knocked down wiib the tmelli. If yo« nsu alonj the middle of 
the tuect, you arc harried out of breath ; if on one nde, yon nuul 
pick your way no Icia caalioaily. Paria i* a ta«t pile of tall and 
diny alley*, of ttaughtcThou»ei and barbem' iihop*— 4n imtnense 
Mborb hoddlcd togetJier within the vallt to cloie, that you cannot 
Mc the loftinea* of the buildtngi for t he narrowncu of the tuteta, ud 
where all that i* 61 to fi«« b, and beit worth lotting at, it tsmed twt 
upon Uie quayi, the boulevatda, and their inunediate vicinity. 

Pact*, where you can get a *i^t of it, m really fine. Tbe view 
from the bridgea ii even more impoaing and piciurccque than onn, 
iboajrii the bridge* thcmaclvct and the river arc not to compare with 
tbe ThflRKs, or with the bridge* that crow it. The maM of public 
building! and houiea, a* «een from the Pont Ncttf, rLwt aiooad yon on 
enher liu)d, wbciber you look up or down tbe river, lo huge, aspiring, 
toftuoua ridgM, and prodiacet a aolidity of imptcuioo and a fantatdc 
confntioo not ea*y (o reconcile. The cleameii of the air, the glitter- 
ing tunahine, and the cool ihadowa add to the encbantmeM of the 
Kcne. In a bright day, it daizlca the eye tike a Red mirror. The 
view of I.ODdon i« more open and extensive ; it lie* lower, and 
ttrctche« out in a lengiheoed line of dtuky magnificence. Aitcr all, 
it ia an ordinary town, a place of tndc and buiincM. Parii it a 
•plendid viaion, a fabric dug out of the eanb, and banging over it. 
The nately, old-faahioncd abape* and jutting angle* <»' the bowes 
give it tbe t-cncrable appearance of antiquity, while theii texture and 
colour clothe it in a rocv of modem tplcndour. It look* like a col- 
tection of palace*, or of ruin*! They have, however, no aingle 
building that towel* above and crowns the whole, tike St. Paul's, 
(the Pantheon i* a stiff, utgoittUii man to it) — nor is Nvire-Damt at 
all to be compared to West rainitet- Abbey with it* Poets' Corner, thai 

1S6 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 




urn full of noble English aihu, wKere Lord Byroe vm uhamed to 
lie. The Chamber of Di'putiea (formedy the rcitd«ncc of ibc Duke* 
of fiouibon) prctcDU 4 bciUimt frontiipiccc, buc ti U a kind of 
archiicciurai abttrtciion, itanding apart, uid uaconnccicd with cray 
iluQg else, not burrowing, like ouc Houm; of Coniniont (that uuc and 
original model of a RrprcM-Dtativf Aticnibly Hou^r ! } aJmoit uodci- 
ground, nod loat unonD the raiifr uf ttiteta. The TuiUtie* in .dtu 3 
very Dublv pile of biulaiiix^> '^ lut u suix-'ib piece of uchitccturc. It 
is a little lK.-:iiy jud monotonoui, a habitation far the bodici tir for 
the mindt uf King*, buc it goci on in a laudable jog-trot, right-lined 
repetition of iiwlf, without much worth or Bcnsc in asy ninglc part ( like 
the accumuUrion of grcatne*» in an hereditary dyoMtyJ. At least it 
ought to be linisbed (for (he omcn't take), to make the concatenation 
of ideas inviolable and complete ! The Luxeniboui)i, the Ho>iutiil 
of Invalidn, the Hull of Justice, and innumerable other building!, 
wlictlicr public or pricutc, are far superior to any of the kind we have 
in London, except Whitehall, on which Inigo Jonr* laid hin graceful 
handi; or Newgate, where we fCnglinh shine equally in architecture, 
morals, and legislation. Our palaces (wiibin t^c bills of morulity) 
arc dog-holes, or rcccutaclcs for superannuated Abigails, and tabNca 
of citlier species. Windsor (whow airy heights art placed beyond 
ibeni} is, indeed, u iKiloce for a king to inliabit, or a iioei lu describe, 
or to turn the hcau of a pro>e-writcr. (Sec Gny^s Ode, and the 
famoui passage in Burke about it.) Buonaparte's Pillar, in the Place 
Vendnme, cut in bron^ and with excdlcni scidpturci, made of ibe 
cannon tiiken from the Allies in ihcir long march 10 Pari*, is a line 
copy of the antique. A white flag flaps over ii. I should like to 
write these lines at the bottom of it. Probably, Mr. Jeidao will 
know where 10 find tlwin. 



■ The paiofiJ wwiior, famouMd for li^ ht 
After ■ dioutuid vieiorin once foiled. 
Is fiDm the book of honour rued quilr, 

And »ll the re« forgot, for which he toiled.* 

The new itreett and tquares b this neighbourhood ate also on an 
improved plan — there is a double tide-plh to walk on, the shop* arc 
more loomy and richer, and you can stop to look at them in nfety. 
This is as it should be — .ill we ask is common scnic. Without this 

Eactical concession on their parti, in the dispute whether Parit is not 
Iter than London, It wrotdd seem to remain aquestton, whether it is 
better to walk on a rliII or in a gutter, whether airy space is preferable 
to fftid confinement, or whether solidity and show together are not 

'J7 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

better than mere ^ippery ^ Bm for a real W(« Ead, (tx ■ (olkl 
■ntewtul £M iBto the bein of a metropolu, aNUMDi) me to tiw 
Mrecn and t^narct on each tide of die up of Oxfbcd-iucet — with 
GrmnwBor asd Porunaa loaarc* at <nc cult aid Cavcoditli and 
HaooTcr «i tlic otlicr, Kokcd ngetber bjr firaoB, SoBcb-Audley, and 
a bndred other fiw old •ifteta, with a brood lirjr pavemcnc, a <btpby 
of camibrt, of wealth, of taitet atid rank aD about you, each boote 
•eeminjt to hare been the reaidence of wcne rerpectable M [^nglith 
&Riily for half a ccntuir paat, xod with Partialis place lookii^ Qui 
toward) HampMcad and rfighgau, with ihcit hutpng garden* and 
lofiy icrraccn, and PrimrcMc-hitI nestling beneath them, in grecD, 
MAoral Inxiiry, the delight of the Cockney, the avcrtkn of Sir 
Walter and hia merrymcn f My farountc walk in Porit i« to the 
C^dcM of the TuiJcnc*. Paru differ* from l.^)odoii in ihit respect, 
that it haa no subuibi. The rooRieat yon are bemad the bafricra, you 
aic in the cowotry to all intetiu and pwpoae*. Von have aot to wade 
ibroagh ten miles of tiraeclii^ honae* to get a breath of freah air, or a 
peen at aaturc. It ■* a blcstn^ to conaterhalaoce the in co nrci u epcea 
of larje diiet bniti within walla, that they do WK extend far beyond 
ihem. The superflnon* population is pared off, like the pie-crust by 
the circBinfercDCe of the diih — e«en on the court side, not a hundred 
yaid* from the barrier of Neuilly, you tee an old shepherd tending 
bii Hock, with hi> dog and his crook and sheep-«km doak, just as if it 
were a hundred mile* off, or a hnndred yean ago. It was so twenty 
years ago. I went again to sec if it was the saine yMterdsy. The old 
man was gone i bat there was his Dock by the road-side, and a dog 
"■d a boy, grioDisg with while heahhy teeth, like one of Mntillo'* 
beggar-boys. It was a bright frosty noon ; lod the air was, in ■ 
imancr, viimai, from iu clearseas, its L-oolsieis, and hardness to the 
Atltng. The road 1 speak of, frequented by English jockeys and 
French nuiket -women, riding between panniers, leads down to the 
Dois de Boulogne on the Icit, a delicious retreat, covered with copse- 
wood for (iieJ, and intersected by green-sward paths and thadj alleys, 
running lor mites in opposite directions, and terminating in a point of 
incooccifable brightness. Some of the woods on the boraers of 
Wiluhirc and Hampshire present exactly the same appearance, with 
the same dcli^tfnl sylvan paths through them, and are covered in 
rammer with hyacbth* and primroses, iweetcniog the air, enamdliog 
the ground, and with nightingales loading every bough with rich 
muiic. it was winter when I used to wander through the Boas de 
Boulogne foinicrly, dreaming of fabled truth and good. Somehow 
my thoughts and feet Still take ihetr old direction, ihoDgh hailed by 
no friendly gretiitigs ; — 

i;8 



THROUGH FHANCE AND ITALY 

' Whai (hough ihc radiance which was once m bright. 

Be now for ever vaniibcJ trom mjf tight; 
Though nothing can bring back tht hour 
Of gloiy ill the grau — of Kplcnduur in the flower i * — 

yet the Tcvcr and the agony of hope in over too, ' the burijcti and the 
mystery;' the pa« circles my hrnd, like a golden dream ; it it a 
iine fragment oi an unfinished poem or history ; and the • worst,' at 
Shaksprare »ays, ' rciuins to good ! ' I cannoi say 1 am at all 
innoyed (aa I expected] ai seeing tlie bourbon court-carriagcii issuing 
out with a flouruJi of trumpets and a troop of horse. It looka likt- u 
fantOGCtn: piocc(»iuo, a State mockery. The line moraJ leison, the 
Eoul of grcaineii, i> wanting. The Icgitimalc posuctoorii of royal 
power Rcrm to he playing at Miitt-B<&eve ; the upsiarU and impostors 
aj-e llic true Sinton Vurei and genuine rcalitiet. Bonapaiie mounted 
a throne from the top of the pillar of Victory. Feoplc ask who 
Chark'D \. is ? But to return from chta digresaion. 

Through the arch-way of the Tuilerics, at the end of the Champn 
E^lyhl-cii, you ICC the Barrier of Ncuiily, like a thing of ait, diminished 
by a fairy perspective. The effect it exquisitely light and magical. 
You pass through the arch-way, and are in the gardenH ihentsclTCS. 
Milioo ahould hare written those lines abroad, and id tUa rcry ijfOl — 

' And bring with thee rciind Leiture, 
That in trim gardeiu take* hit pleaiure.* 



True art it ' nature to adtantagc drctc ; ' it ii here a powder*^ beau. 
The prodigality of littlcnets, the exccu of ornament, the superficial 
gloM, the studied neatness, arc carried to a pitch of the ronuntic. 
The Luxembourg gardens are more extensive, and command a finer 
vii-w; but are not kept in the same order, arc dilapidatnl and 
desultory. This la an encloBurt of all sweet sights and smclli, a 
concentration of elegance. The rest of the world is barbarous to 
this ' paradise of dainty devices,' where the imagination b spell-bound. 
It isa perfectly-finished miniature let in brilliants. It it a toilette ibr 
nature to dicss itscifi where every flower acems a narcissus t The 
smooth gravel-walks, the bastn of water, the swans (they might be of 
wax), the golden lislies, the beds of flowers, chincastcrs, larkspur, 
geraniums, bright marigolds, mignoQetie ('the Frenchman's daxling ') 
scenting the air with a faint luscious perfume, the rows of orangc- 
Itces in boxes, blooming verdute and icgctuble gold, the gleaming 
Itatuet, the raited terraces, the stately avenues of treei, and the gray 
cumbrous towers of the Tuileries overlooking the whole, giic an 
tSta of eochantnicnt to the scene- This and the man ia black by 



NOTES OP A JOUKNKY 

lllian, in the Louvre juM by (whoK feature* {otia i mmirr giODdaM 
to the gay ^iieriL'i^) arc (he (wo thing* is Pari* I like bnt> I 
vliould nvvn tite of walking to the oatt of of lookiox u tJie otiier. 
Y«t no two thing* can be more opponte.* Tbe one » ttie eMence of 
French, the other of luiian urt. By follawinjt the windings of the 
rbcr in thia direction, you come to Piiiiy — a delightful filluge, half* 
way to St. Cloud, which in situated on a tich eminence that look* 
down OD I'aii* and the •Seine, .ind no on lo VcfMillea, where the 
Ifnglish rcMdc> 1 hsve ttot been to aec them, nor ihcy me. The 
whole road ia iatcnipcned with villas, and lined with row* of uees. 
This Uwt i* a common feature iu fuiei^o iccner y. Whctbet from the 
general lore of pleasuralile neniation*, or from the greiier warmth of 
(outhcm climnici making the nheiier from tbe heat of the *un more 
DcccHary, or from the cloicnni of the citie* making a promenade 
round ihcn) more de»irablc, the approach to almost aU the principal 
towns abroad is indicated by shady plancauoDS aod the nciglibourbood 
is 3 succeftuOD of groves and arbour*. 

I^ie Champ de Marl (the French Kunoytncdc) is on (he opwtite 
»idc of the ritt-r, a little abure tbe Champ* Elytfe«. It IB an oolong 
»quarc piece nf ground immediately in front of the l^cole Militairci, 
covered with und and gravel, itod bare of trees or any other oroaiiKM. 
It it Ictt a blank, at it should be. In going to and returning from it, 
you pM* the fine old Ininlid Hospital, with it* immennc gilded 
cupola and outer-walls overgrown with vinca, and meet the crippled 
veteran* who have lost an arm or leg, faghting the battles <h ihe 
Revolution, with a bit of white ribbon nickinjt in their button-holes, 
which moBt ;rDaw into their mhiIb wome thui the wound* in their 
flesh, if Frenchmen did not alike disregard tbe wound* both of their 
bodien and minds. 

The Jardin de* PtaiKo, nituaied at the other extremity of Paris, 
00 the *3nie side of the river, is well worth the walk there. Ii it 
delightfully laid out, with that mixture of art and nature, of the 
useful and ornamental, in which the French excel all i)ie world, 
livery plant of eTe:y quarter of the globe i» here, growing in the 
open air t and Labelled with its conmion and its scientific name on it- 
A prodigious number of animal*, wild and tame, arc endtucd in 
separate diritions, feeding on the graas or shrub*, and Icadii^ a life 
of teamed leisure. At lenn, they hove at good a title to thii ironical 
coraplimcDt as most members of collcces and seminaries of learning ; 
for they grow fat and aleck on it. They have a great variety of the 
^immu tribe. Is this neceuary b France? Tbe collectioa of wild 
beatt* it not eqtial to our Exeter-'Chaage i nor ore they cooGned in 

' Thty vt u iiStnot t» Mr. Moarc'l ivttc> 'u<l an epic fuem. 
i6o 



THUOUGII FRANCE AND ITALY 

iroD etgca out of doors uodcr th« Uinde of thdr utJTC tr««« (as I wm 
totd), but abut up io a range of very ncatly-constnictec! and very 
ill-aiic<l apartment*. 

I have already mcationed the Pirt la Cbai»e — the Catacombs I 
hnve not teen, nor have I the kut witih. But I have been to the top 
of Mont-Mariri-, and intend to vinit it again. The air there u cnily 
vivifying, and the view icmpiriag. Paris tpreod* out under your feet 
on one «idr, ' with glintering spires and pinnacles adorned,* and 
appears lo fill the intermediate space, to the very edge of' the horizon, 
with a sea of hazy or sparkling magnificence. All the ditlerent 
»trikiDf> points .ire m.irk(.-d as on a map. London nowhere pteienti 
the name extent or integrity uf appearance. This is either because 
there in no place to near to London that looks down upon it from the 
same deration, or because Paris i* belter calculated for s panoramic 
view from ihc loftier height and azure tone of its buildings. Its 
form also approaches nearer to a regular square. London, seen 
cither from Highjjaic and Hampstead, or from the Dulwich sidei 
looks like a long black wcc.ith of smoke, with the dome of St. Paul** 
Hoatinji in it. The view on the other side Moiit-Mattre is aino fine, 
and an extraordinary contrast to the Paris side-it is clear, brown, 
flat, distant, completely rustic, full of ' low farms and pelting villages.' 
You see St. Dcnii, where the Kingn of France lie buried, and can 
fancy you tec Montmorenci, where Rousseau lived, whose pen was 
DGtr bans as fatal to their race as the scythe of death. On this 
^Ctumqne site, which so near London would be enriched with noble 
mansions, there are only a few paltry I odj;ing- houses and tottering 
wiad-niills. So little prone ate the Parisians to extricate themselves 
from the jty of LpituruB ; so fond of ciiHaiii of locitiy, of playing at 
dominoes in the irofTee-housei, and of ptactiiing the art i/e hiUer danj 
It/ Salanj ; to fond arc they of this, that even when the Allies were 
at Mont-Maitrc, they ran back to be the first to give an imposing 
account of the attack, to finish the game of the Rerolution, and make 
the rlogf of the new order of things. They shew you the place 
where the alTair witli the Prussians happened, as — a brilliant exploit. 
When will they be no longer liable to such intrusions as these, or ui 
such a result from them I When they get rid of that eternal smile 
tipuD their countenances, or of that need It -and- thread face, that is 
twisted into any shape by every circumatsncc that happens,' or when 

^ The Frtnch phyiioKnomy n likt i tclti^pliie michlor, rndf to shiA ud 
form n«w combinatiiirK tvrry moment. It !• eommoaty loo light ■n'l vstjabte 
for rrpoK J il ii rriTrlm, in^litferFni, tpiil not fiink in m^otrnc^, nor wciJiJH tu 
eiw ! u on the mild bin-!, tt li rcMlcai, lipid, cmivBginl, without ileplh or 
forte II il not (he mom wllb their fetliagi, vihicb ire illlu inapsbk of > hibil 
VOL. 11. ! t. i6i 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

ibey cam write mdi linea u the (bltovinib or etea uBdentud thai 
metmB^ tbeir force <x bcaocy, u x charm to [)iu|e tlwtt wul of 
ilMJem fbn— tbcin ooliTt bccautc the conmon feea of duo! 

Bui lei dijr fpidcn ibai wck up dnr veaotn. 
And havj'pittd naAt, Uc m tbctf mjr; 
Doing MiBoy ai Kg to the l««t of them 
Tim with umipinc ilept do tmm^ thtet 
Yield ■tiagji^-aetUn to miat encnkt | 
And whm tht^ from th^ boMtn |ilack ■ flower, 
GiMnl it, I pntf (her, widi a Uitfcing (ddcr, 
Who*c doable toofne n*]r, with a motmI looch, 
Thnytr death apMi ifcjr faaRed tamaa.' 

No Parnan's ndei cm ' bean the beating of m> itroag a puaiott.' u 
(faeac bae* cootaiii ; nor have they it in them to ' endure to the end 
for UbtT^'t ttke.' They caa ne^cr hope to defend the political 
principle* which they Icamt rrom vt, till they ui>d«r«iaiMl our poetry, 
bodi of which originate b the amc cause, the urcn^ of oar Utcts 
aad the MoutncM of our hearts. 



CHAPTER XI 

Statvaky docs Mt sficct luc nice pabibg. I am ooi, I oltow, » 
&tr judgCi hariag M*d a great deal more attention to the one than to 
the other. Nor did I CTei think of tlie firtt aa a profeMioe ; and h 
t* that pcrfaap* which adds the ttiag, to our love of excellence, the 
hope of attaining it our*elrei in any paiticiiUr walk. We attain our 
(acnhief to the otmoit to conceive of what !■ nuM exqiutke in any 
art to which wc dcrocc ouriclvct, and arc doubly imsilivc to it when 
we Bcc it niiaincd. Knowledge may oiu-n hcgct inditfcrence, bat 
here it begets zeal. Our alfe^tioot kindled and projected forward by 
the atdour of puriuit, we come to the contempUtion of troth ana 
beauty with the ponitioate feeling of lovers; the examples of 
Kknowledsed cxccllence before tu are the itepa by which we scale 
the path of distinction, the spur which urges us on ; and the admira- 
tion which w« fondly cherish For them is the teed of liiture fune. 

ol ^itHtna, or of p trwvt i im ictinn nr piuinn ? It ircnu •« te mt, Tlxir 
frwiii from tmj %t»ttBej to flmnkrnnrH, to <n<iiil[t in iu dminy MBpor, or 
|We wsy to it* famr^th tt<t**n, toaknni by onil«(y ibc Kfoenl new or thdr 
chMSCitr. I 4o not brlnf iba u in iicaMUon i^liui them, I wh if ji i* not the 
fwt 1 asd U It win BM iccocnt for miny thia|S oturTSlli la than, fwi, bid, 
and tndiltcrtot T In i wncil, m^ilily wiiboul m amat wi autHn the whale ri'Mle 
ol thr Prrnch dnrsctCT. 
J63 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

No wond«r that iti« youthful tnidcot dwells with delight »d rapture 
on the liniiheU wurki of vt. when cliey ire to hU heuied fancy the 
pledge and forcuute of immortality ■ wlieo at every Auccctafu! stroke 
of ImiE^ion he is ready to cry out with Corrcggin — ' 1 .ilra am a 
|winict 1 ' — when erery heightening flush of his enthusiaim i* a ftc«h 
as*u(anco to him of congenial power* — and nhen ovcclookiog the 
million of failufc« filiat all the world have forgot) or oaniesof iniirrior 
note. Ruphai-I, Titian, Ouido, Salvator are each another self. Happy 
union of thoughts and dentinies, ioveiier than the hue* of the fAinbow ! 
Why can it not lait and tpan our brief date of life J 

One renson, however, why I prefer painting to <culpture in, thai 
painting is more like nature. It givea one entire and nnlitfactory 
i'kvi of an object at a particular moment of time, which sculpture 
never doca. It i« not the same in reality, I grant; but it is the tame 
in appearance, which ta all we are coDCemcd with. A picture wants 
Huiidiiy, a aiaiuF wants colour. But we are the want of colour ai a 
|);tlpably glaring defect, and we do not see the want of aohdity, the 
effects of which to the apectator are tupplied by light and shadow. 
A picture is as perfect an imitation of nature as i> conveyed by a 
looking-glasa ; which is all th.it the eye can require, for il is all it can 
take in for the time lieing. A fine picture reaemblcs a real living 
man i the finest statue lo the world can only resemble a man tutned 
to sloDc. The one h an image, the other a cold abstractioo of 
nature. It leaver out half the visible impression. There is therefore 
jomething a Uttle slioektng and ttpulsivt in this art to the common 
eye, that resjuirei habit and itudy to reconcile us completely to it, or 
to make it an object of enthuaiaatic devotion. It doc* nut amalgamate 
kindly and at once with our prcvjoua perceptions and assncialioDB. 
As to the comparative dil!iculty or ikill implied in the exercise of 
each art, I cannot pretend to judge: but I confess it appears to me 
that statuary must be the mo*i trying to the faculties. The idea of 
inouldiDg a limb iota shape, so as to be right from every point of 
view, fairly niakei my head turn round, and seems to mc to enhance 
the ditHculty to an inltntte degree. There is not only the extra- 
ordinary citcumtpection and preciaion re<]uired (enough to diairact 
the itrongeii mind, as I shotiln think), but if the chisel, working in 
such uniractabic mateiiala, goet a hair's-breadth heyond the filark, 
there it no remedying il. It is not as in painting, where you may 
make a thousand blots, and try a thousand experiments, efface them 
all one after the other, and begin anew : the hand .always trcmhlei on 
the brink of a precipice, and one step over is irrecoverable. There 
is a story told, however, of Hogarth and KoubiUiac, which, as far a> 
it goes, may he thought lo warrant a contrary inference. These 

163 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

m$u dificrtd about the diftcoln of their (cvenJ vtt, ud tgnei to 
decide it by exduagtng the im^roMiu of thctr profeMioo with each 
4Xber, lod Meiag which ciwld do bcit without aaj rc][Blu prejara- 
tioB. Hofiarth took a piFCr of cby, uml Bueceedeil in monlduig a 
nty lolcrabJc bun of hii frimd t W when Koubilliac, iido]; fumiihed 
with painti vuid bnube^t attempted to dmb a ItkcncH o( » btonan 
Tacc, he couU ouke abtolntclv nothing out, and wa« obliged to nwo 
hiiRtdf defeated. Yet Roubiftiac wm a nam of lalnit. Had do mean 
artist. It wa» he whOi oa reiuriuag from Rome where he had 
Ktudted the worki of Bernini and thr aati({ut', and oo goinj to fee hit 
own perfonc^incei in WestminMer Abb^v, exclaiined, that 'they 
looked like tobacco-pipesr by G — d ! ' Wlui lin had thi* man or 
hit patent* oommttted, thut be thould forfeit tbe nalifiwhle birth> 
fidtt of cwty Frenchman — impenitrbable, inriociUe (elftutficieocy ? 
'Htic mo*t plewing and lutural ippliicttion of sculpture it, perhap*. to 
the cmbcllithnicBi of churchct and the coaimemoratioii of the dead. 
I don't know whether tlicy were Rovbilibc's or oot. but I remeonber 
seetDg many year* a|[0 in WettmuMtcr Abbey (in titc puic that i» u 
ptcMct khut up) two Gftuie* of ai^el* bcoding oicr a tomb, that 
aHectcd me much in il>c aame manner that theic line* of Lofd 
Byroo't h»re dooe «iacc— 

* And wbtn I think that hb iiDmurtal wingi 
Shall one day hoitr o'er the npukhtr 
Ofihe poor rhild of clay that w adorrd him 
A< he Mon* the hlgheu. Death betxunei 
LcM tttrible * ~ 

II Appears to mc that Kulptuc. though not proper to expreu 
health or life or motion, accorda adnun^y with the repote ul the 
tomb; and that it caonot be better employed than in arretting the 
fleeting; dual in impetiibablc formt, and in embodying a lifdeot 
■hiduw. Painting, on the contrary, from what I luvc seen of it in 
Catholic countries, seemi to be out of its place on tlie walb of 
churche* ! it hu a ftu and flimsy elfect cootratied with the solidity 
of the building, and its rich fiaunting colours harnM>oij;e but ifl with 
the solemnity and gloom of the sutrounding sceor. 

1 would go a pilgrimage to we the St. Peter Mnttyt, or the 
Jacob'* Dream by Reiubrand:, or Raphael's Cartoons, or <ome of 
daudc'* Uniivcapesi — but 1 would not go far out of my way to ace 
the Apollo, or the Vcnut, or the I.aocoao. 1 never cared for them 
much ) nor, till t «aw ih« F.lgio Marbleo, could ] tell why, except 
for the reaMn just giTrn, which docs not apply to these particalor 
statues, but lo statuary in geucral. These arc still to be found in 

i(>4 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Childc Harold'f Pilgrimnge, with appropriate dcKriptiTC •unia* 
appended to ihcm ; ' but they arc no longer to be found in the Loum, 
not do the French teem to know they ever wrrv thctc. 0«i «/ tight, 
oat of atmJ, in a Ii3i>py ruotto. Whst it Dot FrcDchi either at 
done by thcm»el»e«, or a« belonK'nf; to iliem, is of courie oot worili 
thinking about. Be thii u it nuy, the place ia fairly emptied out. 
Hardly a trace tcmaint of the old Collcciion ti> remind ynu of what 
i* gone. A (hoii lin include* all of ditlinguithcd excellence — the 
admirable bu)t of V'itclliun, ihc tine fragment of Inopus, a clothed 
■tatuc of Augustus, the full-zoned Venus, and the Diana and Fawn, 
whose light, airy grace lecnii to havt: niockcd removal. A few more 
are 'llilnly K-attered lo make up a shew,' but the bulk, the main 
body of the Grecian mythology, wilh the flower of their warrior* 
and heroes, were carried off by the Chevajiet Canota on hi» 
nhoulctcrii, a toad for Herculct ! The French iculptorit have nothing 
of their own to shew for it to fill up ihr gap, I. ike their painters, 
their style is either literal and rigid, or affected and burlesque. Their 
merit is chiedy con^ncd to the academic figure and anatomical skill ; 
if they go beyond this, and wander Into the rcfjions of cxpreHioa, 
beauty, or grace, they arc apt to loie tbemicNe*. The real geniui 
of French sculpture ii to be teen in the curled wi^n and swelliog 
folds of the drapcrie* in the ilalucs of the age of Louii xir. There 
they shone unrivalled and alone. They arc the bent man-millineri 
xad/riiivrt in ancient or modero l^urope. That praise cannot be 
denied them ; but it should alarm them for tlieir other pretension*. 
1 recollect an essay tn the Maniteur some years a|^ (vc^y playful and 
very well written) to prore that a great faairdresaer was a greater 
character than Michael Angdo or Phidiai i that hi« art waa more 

' Lt^rtd Byron hai tntnly Ulun up iht cnrnmint out of (iMinuiMrunhip, 
inflatlDi U with hypirbotiol loit fu-ftlchtil ruloilti at hii own — not priaivinK 
that lb< Apollo vit tonuwhst of ■ coicomb, the Vonui unicwhit iniif iH, Ma 
(hat the cipnaion in the laotaon It more of phyilciJ ihin of menial a(ony. The 
fii«i of ihe boy» ate, howcnr, •uperliiivc1j> line. They ii« convulml with pila, 
yci ([ju):ht with f«TliD{. He hst n»<le i better hit in iateiprcliof (be dooncul 
[uuk u( ibc Djri^ Cltiia»r, as litncting hit inMnaibiUly to the noiac tad buiUc 
irj^uitJ htm i^ 

* Ht heafil il, hul he h«ileil onl — !iii cj«l 
Were vlih hi* h^irt, annl Ihjit wst far %wij j 
Ht fetk'rt not nf ihf lifr he [an, our pti«, 
Bui where hii rude hul by thr Danube lay, 
Titrt were hti youog hirhiriiDa ill it pUy, 
Tiirt wu ibcif D^CMO mother— he, tlwir ore, 
Butcher'il lu nulu i Kuniiii huly^liy — 
Ail Ihii mbM wiih hit blood — ihill he expire 
Anri onjwni'JJ — Ariat I jt Cothi md (lut your If* !" 

i6S 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



an invention, mure 4 cmtioo out of nuthingi and Iciu a M^rvile copy i 
of .tny thing !n nnturi;. Thccc was a great dcaJ of ingenuity in the 
reasoning, itmi I lutpcct mote sincerity than the writer waa 3W;itc of. 
It exprcisci, I vmly believe, the firm conTiction of ncry true I 
Ftenchmnn. In whatever relates to the liuiier and caprice of I 
fishiun, where tbcie ii do impulse but vuiiiy, do limit but cxirava- 
gu[ice, no rule but want of meaning, they are in their elenient, and 
()utte at home. Ikyond that, they have no style of their own, and 
arc a nation of lecood-hanil ^tttitts, poeta, and pliilusophcr*. Never- ^^ 
ihclci*, they have Voltaire, La Fantiiioe, Le Sage, MnliM.') ^M 
Kabclaii, and Montaigne — good men and true, under whatever cUh ^^ 
they come. They have also Very and Vciitri». This is granted. 
[» it not enough ^ [ thould like to know the thing on the face of 
God'i earth tn whidi they allow other nations to excel them. Nor 
need their tculptors be afraid of turnin;; their laJcDia to account | 
while they can execute pieces of devotion for ilif shrines of Saints, 
and d.-iEsical equivayuei for the saloons of the old or new UoUrite. 

I'hc foregoing remarks are general. I ihall proceed to metitton 
a few exceptions to, or confirmations of ihcm in ihcir F.itpoii ' of the 

ftcscnt year. The Olhryadai viovaiitd (No. 1K70}, by Legentlrc 
Ictal, is, I think, the least mansirtdt MdA most natural. It is a 
huge ligure, powerful and somewhat clumsy (with the calves of the 
legs as if they had gaiters on), but it has great power and repose ia ' 
it. It seem* as if, without any effort, a blow from it would crush 
any antagoniti, and reminds one of Virgil's combat of Dares and 
Entetlus. The form of the head is characteristic, and there is a , 
fioc mixture of sterancss and languor in the exprension of the fcaiutct. 
The sculptor appears to have had an eye to (he countenance of the] 
Dying Gladiator ; and the ligurc, front its ease .tod massincss, baa] 
some resemblance to the lilgin Marbles. It is a work of great 
merit. The statue of Olhryadai ctkur^ iht Trnphy to Hi Cempanioiu 
(No. 1 774) is IcM inipresBive, and aimt at hvlay, more so. It comes 
under the head of ihtairkal art, that is of French art pnper. They 
cannot long keep out of thii. They cannot resiat an attitude, a 
signiticant ctFect. They do not consider that the dcfinitJoo of 
Sculpture is, 01 ought to bC) Dearly like their own celebrated odc 

' Why flu ihe Frrnch ccjnfcmnil llic ivonil r^hliirht and fx^anrt Oar Qf 
which ciprciici what i« ticilitiblr, anrf ihe iillitt whit it rfisjriMfnl. It H that 
the KHH of vinily absoibi tvrry olhtr caniMtrii Ion, turn iag th* Mnsr ft ihanw, 
in («K of expoiutc, into ■ imitn of trinmph, inii the conicious tia(lia( fnliDf of 
ostnutlon in > <!IipUy «f talent into ■ flaRnni imptcpricn F I do not Ity much 
tircM on ikit woril.citching, which 1) ■ fingtilc moilr e( German ciiliciim. We 
iB]r, foe inalance, iadiicrlntlnsltlj, ibtt *t thing ndottuli 10 one cic<lil oi out 
dJBj[racc.' 
166 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



of Diaih — an ttetoal rcpow ! ThiR fault may in lomc measure be 
found with the Hrrxulrt rrcovrrinji iht hoily of latriu frcn iht S*i 
(No. >90])i by Raj£/.i. Tbc body of Icuctu cao liardly be »id to 
have found a icsting-place. Oihetwine, the (i}{uie is tiiicly dcsif.iieil, 
and the lace it one of cunsidernble beauty und cxpreuioo. The 
Hcrculct i« a man-mountiin. From the li/c -lad arrangement of 
this grou[>, it secrnn more like a ptceipiee falling on one's head, than 
a piece of sculpture. The elfcci in not flo fjir pltns-ini. If a 
complaint lies against ihin statue on the (core of unwieldy and 
enormuus liic, it is relieied by No. 1 77 J, yf Zrphyr t&ioarfinj; ihi 
hvtt o/a Saifrrfy anJ a Roit, Boyer. Here French art i« on iw 
leg! ugain, und in the true vignette atyle. A Zephyr, a ButierJIyi 
and a Rose, all in one group — Charming ! In such caKi (he light- 
ness, the preitincst, the flutter, ;tnd the nflectation are extreme, and 
luch a» no one but themselves wiil think of rivalling. One of their 
ereAteet and moet succetsful attempts is the Gra<r atix Pru^nrnm. 
No. 180Z, by David. Is it not the Kmft-^nnder of the ancients, 
thrown into a more heroic altitude, and with an impassioned expres- 
■ion ? However ibis may be, there is real boldneis in the dwign, 
and animation in the countenance, a Iceling of dinintcrcated gencrotity 
contending with the agonies of death. I cannot give much praise 
to their rellgioui subjccti> in general. The French of the ptc*eni 
day ate not bigots, but sceptics in such nmiiecs; and the cold, formal 
indilTerence of their artists appears in thetr works. The Ctritl 
nn/aunding iht incrnluHly of Si. Tbamai (by Jacquot} is not calculated 
lo produce this effect on anybody else. They treat clattica] nibjecu 
much more fon osjorr ; but the mixture of the Chriitian Faith and of 
Pagan supetiiitiont is at least as tepreheniible in the present Collection 
ai in Milton's Paradise Lost. Among piecea of devotion, Tht 
yirgia and Child, and ihc St. Cathtr'mc of Cortol (Nos. i;9i-il) 
struck mc as the he«t. There is a certain delicacy of finishing and 
graceful womanhood about both, which must make them very 
acceptable accompaniments to Catholic 2.eal. The French excel 
genmlly in emblematic subjects, or in whatever depends oti accuracy 
and invention in costume, of which there are several examples here. 
What I liked best, however, were some of their studies of Ibc naked 
figure, which have great simplicity and ease, such as a Nymfh maiing 
a Gar/and i>f FfoiPfrt, No, 1HK8 (Parmentier), and a Touifr geing 10 
bathe. No. 1 1^3 ■ { Gspercieux }■ This last ligute, in particular, 
appears to be really sliding down into the hath. Cnfid urmmliax tht 
Soul (after Cbaudet) is a very clever and spirited design, to bronie. 
Their butts, in general, are not cxcelleni. There arc, however, a 

few exceptions, one especially of a Mademoiselle Hermlic de F , 

167 



NOTES OF A JOUBNEY 



by Gajrrard, wliich b » perfect repreteDtatiuti of nature. It ii an 
unafFected, admirable portrait, with good humour and good krm 
playio^ over crcty feature of the face. 

In hne, I suspect there i* nothing in the French Saloon of Sculpture 
greatly to siaggct or entirely to ovcrect the opioioD of those who 
have a prejudice uj^iinvi ilie higher preunaiooa of Freoch art. They 
have no niaiiterpiccea equal to Chantry's butu, nor to Flaxman'o 
learned outlines, nor to the polithed eleganct- of Canova ; lu lay 
nothing of the exi^uiiiitc beauty and *ymmetty of the a[iii<|uc, nor of 
the F.lgin Mirblei, among which the ThcKu* lit* in form like a 
dcmi'god, backing on a golden cloud. If ever there were models 
of the Fine Arts fitted to give an impulse to living genius, these arc 
iliey.i With enough to teach the truest, highcn «yle in an, they 
are not in sulGcieni ounibers or preservatiuEi to diattact or discourage 
emulation. With theec and Nature for our guide*, we might do 
Komcthing in iculpiure, if we were not indolent and unapt. The 
French, whatever may be their defect*, cannot be charged with want 
of labour .ind nudy. The only charge againxt them [a heavy one, 
if true) is w^mi of u*tc and genius. 

' tl trrrr tn be «-iilic<t thai iht Ffmch Kulplon tiovU comt over in<i look )( 
the Elfin Mirbl'Ti, m ibcy ut trrtage-t with peU cirr ind lome pomp id ihc 
Hrlliih Muitum, Th»y mjiy imile lo He ihai vc iic willinf to remove worki o( 
irt tram (hcii □ii|ii»l ploui of ■ba<!e. tbi)U)[b we will nut tllcrir ailicit lo do m>, 
TbeM ncbic rncnicnli uf mliquitjr Rii):lit ttirlli nur Litidioua nci))hbnur> > litlls 
at Aral frnni Ihrir rmie <tp(e Ind thrir iimpUcily, bul I ihiiik Ibcy wouH fain 
tipnn them by 'tr^rret, anil cnivinee thrir undrrtliR'lin^t, if they dui itcjt ibbcfuc 
ihcii iflrctioni. They *r< in^lnd in cnunllr inilrucllvr lomn mil ur»niK«*ble 
rrbuke to ibrm in-l lo u*-^Id Ihem 'or ihinkmjz lEul Tiiiiihinji rvcry 
p«it */(*( ii pRffCtioo, mil 10 u< "ho imiijine th»i lo Itive tvtry put alike 
unliniiheil it gnui'leur. They *re ■• ttmou ((nni fiiiicitnun •■ gioHiicu, sad 
conibinc tbc juili with the whole in the ininner thnt iiiturr dntt. Every put 
ii {{ivcn, but Tiol oiEFntntioittly, imi only a» il wimlil nfpnt in the i:ircuniBUnc(i. 
Tbere it ah -ihrrniir action an^t rrjvke. If one miiii'Ir i< ftrjm^ci, imbiber it 
proputiionabl)' rebieil. If one limb i> in itlion idiI molJicr it rrii, they comit 
under a dillrreni law, ■O'l the muicle* iie nai broui^I out nor tile ikin [ighunait 
in the one >■ in ihe other. There ji ■ flexibility mil iw ly of ihe limbi larf af the 
wbnie body. The Heth bji ihe loflneti ind tetture of tleih, not the unoothiieu 
or atlllnett ot atonr. There it xn unclublifm anil ji liquid How i>n the titr^ce, a> 
Ihe brrath of ^eniul niiived thr mighty mnia ; they ire Ibr (it\ett (ulila to the 
mom alnlcing atlihiiict, nnd with ^i^cry [hing in itt place, pnij^iiriinn, anti 'iegrn, 
unliinit the eaie, truth, ftiice, ami dclicxy of Nntuie. They (hew oolhing bet 
the ittitl't ihoioufh eomprehcniion of, and entire ilocility to ihai grrit teacher. 
There ii no ftor-naurntif, no peilaniiy, no attempt it a diipliy i>f icience, or *l 
forcing the pant intu an aililiciil lymmeliy, but it ii like cutting • human body 
out afn block of nxarblc, and luviiiH it lo act for ilirif with all llie tanic iptiDt''i 
lever*, and inlcmal machinery, ft wat ttid of Shakaprarc'i dratiui, that tliey 
were the i^frir af fMitiiim i ami ii may be ilHrined of the El^in Marblrt, thai they 
«( iht lii£it t/fo'mf—One |Hrt beini; jci'^ti, another ctanoi be otherwiii ihaa il 

168 



< 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



CHAPTER Xn 



Thc French thcmeclvcs ihiok Ini about their miuic than any other 
of theii {iKtentioDS. Ii a almost a sore subject with ibcm ; for il 
intcriupts their talking, and they Iiad tathcr htu nothing abgut h, 
except IB an aceonipapimeni to a jig. Their ejttii are, in this respect, 
in iteir heeh, and it i» only the light and giddy that they at all endure. 
They hate no idcn of eaJeiKe in any of ihc artt — of the rive and fall 
of the pasitioni — of the derations or deprcationt of hope or fear in 
poetry — of alternate light or »haiJe in pictures — all is reduced (a* 
nearly as possible) in their minds to the level of petty, vapid sell*- 
satUfacttoD, or to dry und systematic prosing for the bcoelit of others. 
But they must be more particularly at a loss b music, which rci^mtev 
the deepeit feeling, and ailniiti the least of the impertincace of 
explanation, which mount* on its own raptures and ia dJMoltcd in 
i« own tendctncss ; which hsu no wiineii or »ouch<T» but the inward 
sense of delight, and rests its fakh on the speechleM eloquence, the 
rich, circling intoxication of inarticulate but hean-fell sounds. The 
Frencii have therefore no lutional music, except a few meagre 
thantmii, and their only idea of musical excellence it dthcr rafndity 
or toudoesa of execution. You perceive the effect of thii want of 
enthusiasm even in the sirecu, — they have neither l>arrd-organs nor 
blind fiddler* u with us, who arc willing to pay for the encourage- 
meat of the arts, however indifferently we may pfactise them ; not 
doe* the national ipirii break out tioni every strolling pviy of village 
eraup, as it ti said to do in Italy. A Fcench senant'girl, while tbc 
I* cleaning out a room, lays down her brush to dance — she taket it 
up to Ijnish her work, and lays it down again to d:ince, impelled by 
tlie lightoeu of her head and of ber heels. But you seldom bear ber 
sing at her work, and never, if there ii any one within hearing to talk 
to. — Tbc French Opera is a splendid, but a compajaiivcly empty 
theatre. It is nearly as large (1 should think) as the King's Theatre 
in the Hay-market, and is in a semi-circular form- The pit (the 

il. Then it 1 muniil un^ltntiindiDg ind rc-Klion throughout the whole frame. 
Tht Apollo mil oih" ■flilqut* vt nut eqmlly liniclt lod teveit. The limbs 
hive too much ui sppcsrtnce at being cued in mtrblc, of inikinK s illtpliy at 
every vecoadttc bcAulj', and of baUncin^ tnd ijuwcrrng lo one another, lilu the 
ihynic* in vcne. Tlu El|in Miibiri art harmoniou), An»-iii(, -m'lr.i fiait. In 
■ woril, ihcy lie tiks cistS kfttt the <in<tt nsiurr. Any atx from niiurt, how- 
evri inftrioi, it in the now nylt. Let (he Fieoth id<I En^liib fculpiori ciikc 
CMU cantmoilly. The «ne will Kt in Uum the puti ewtgnrhere given — tht 
ocbtr will Mc them every *her( given ia •ubordiaMioa tu, uniJ u forntloi; mauriiU 
for • whole. 

169 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

rrenng I »u tiicn) wm i^MM baU foil of men, ia thdr bbck, 
diBgy ttkij-tettrng drcnca; sad there were a frw pbJuly-dreHed 
<wea bi the boxn. Btit whcte wit tKxi blue of bcantjr and 
btUoo, oJ* i^Uiati cotnjikzkMt aad bright cyn, thit luesin* like 
» Iflixxy {torn the boxci of oat Operi-faooM— like a Heaven of 
lonliscM let half-way down npoo the etttb, and chanuiag 'the 
nptnnwd eye* of wooderiog mottaJt,' before which the thtillinn 
•oond* liix circle throi^h ibc Honae teem to tremble with detijjbt 
and drink in new npture front iu coiucioat pretence, and to which 
the ninic Love* and Grace* are pcood lo py titeii dinam, Hniling 
homage? Cenaialy it wat not here ; nor do 1 know whcfc ibe tun 
of bcantj hide* rtielf ia Fraac«. I have teco but three rayi of ii 
MDce I ome, gilding a dark and mtcfay cloud t It wa« aot lo to 
RouMeaa') ttine, for these *ery 2.^J were lillcd with (he nuMt 
beautiful women of the Court, who came lo icc hit Drvin dn yiBage, 
sod wbom be heard mumwriH arouDd him in the sofictt acceoit — 
< 7W tit im) la v0Bi am «Mr ! The change u, I nippctc, owing 
to the Reioluioa t bat whatever it ia omag to, the monkt have not, 
by their return, bujihcd thit conrentual gloam from tfaeii thcMtea; 
nor it there any of that airy, flauatmg, florid, butterfly, gauzy, 
variegMcd appearance to be fooad in them that they have with ut. 
ThcM gentlemen (till keep up the farce of refining acton biuial in 
cooaecraled ground ; the mob pelt thcro, and ihc critic* are even with 
tbcm by going to aee ibe rcprcteniation of the TartulTc ! 

I fovmJ but litilc at the Royal Academy of Motic (u it it 
■dirctcdly called) to carry off thit general dulocta of effect, either 
through th« excellence or novelty of the perfonnancct, A Madc- 
moiacllc Noel (who ieetnt to be a favourite) nude her tUuf b 
Dido. Though there wa* nothing very ttriking, there wat iMthing 
offetuive in her rgprcK OU tiom of die character. For any thing that 
appeared in her *iyle of tinging or acting, the might be a vcrv pleating, 
modcM, URafTecicd l^oglith gitl performing on an Hngli^ fKc 
There wu not a tia^lc irtit of I-rcoch iravura or grimace. Her 
execution, howeier, i«ldon] roK hip,hi.'i than an agreeable nvediocrity ; 
and with contiderable latic and feeling, her powers teemed to be 
limited. She produced her chief effect in the latter and mote 
pathetic tcenct, and aicended the funeral pile with dif^ity and 
conipoturc. It it not ttrangc (if coniradiciiont and hany capiccK 
taken up at mndom, and tnid down at laws, were Rtraagc in ihit centre 
of tattc and relinemeni) that the French tliould raiae tuch an outcry 
Bgaintt our aeuulta at armt and executions on the tiage, and yet tec a 
young and beautiful female t>repxre to give hertelf die faul blow, 
widiout maniftiting the imailett repugnance or ditiaiiiJactioo f — 

170 



THKOUGH FRANCE ANl> ITALY 



^□ca« nod laibas were t«pre»cn(cd by Mctsn. Mounitt and Dcri*ik. 
The fimt wub insipid, the lau a perfect Sceator. He spoke uc nuog 
ill through with an unmitigitcd ferocity of purpote uiid nunoer, and 
with lungt that seemed to b»ve been forged cxprculy far the occiuion. 
Ten bulls could not bellow louder, nor a whole »ireet-fu!l of froicn- 
out gardeners at Chriatma*. His b;irbarou9 tunic and accouircineDta 
put one Btiongly in mind of Kobinuin Ctusoc, while the niodcat 
demeanour and pinced complexion of the pioun ji^ne-js bore 3 con' 
aidcntble anuloKy to the lubmitvivv udtance and roiy clieelts of lliat 
[uuaI accompaniment of Ein^ligh ttavelling, who uihen himnclf into the 
room at inlcrvulr, with awkward bows, and hie hat twirled round in 
hit hands, * to hope you 'li remember the coachman.' The .fEneai 
of the jioct, however, was a shabby fellow, and bad but juttice done 
him. 

1 h^ leisure during this otiaii pcrfotmarice 10 look around me, and 
as ' it i» my vice lo spy into abunes,' the IJtM ihinfi thai ulrucit me 
wan the prompter. Any Frenchman who has that sum at hi» 
disposal, should give ten thounnd tVanci a year for thin situation. It 
man be a source of ecstasy to him. For not an instant was he 
quiet — tossing his hands in the air, darling them to the other side of the 
score which he held before him in front of the stage, soappiog hi* 
&ngctH, nodding his head, beating time with his feet j and this not 
mechanically, ur an if ic were 1 drudgery he was forced to go throughi 
and would be glad to haie done with, but with unimpaired glee and 
vehemence of gesture, jerking, twisting, fidgeting, wriggling, starting, 
(lamping, ac if the inceuanl motion had fairly turned his head, and 
every muscle in his frame were saturated with the spirit of tjuick- 
■ilvcr. To be in continual mouon for four hour*, and to direct the 
motions of others by the wagging of a finger, to be not only an object 
of important attention to the stage and orchestra, but (in his own 
imagination) to pit, boxes, and gallery, aJi the pivot on which tlie 
whole grand machinery of that grandest of aU machinei, the French 
Opera, turn* — thia i« indeed, for a Patiiiao, the acme of felicity ! 
Every nerve must thrill with electrical latiafaction, and every pore 
into which Tjjiity can creep tingle with self-conceit ! Not far from 
thia restless automaton (as if extremes met, or the volatility of youth 
subsided into a sort of superannuated still-life] sat an old gentleman io 
front of the pit, with his back to iiic, a white powdered head, the 
cutis Btick-ing out behind, and a coat of the finest black, ThU was 
all 1 saw of him for some time — be did not once turn his head or 
(hift hi* position, any more than a wig and coat stuck upon a barber's 
block — till I suddenly missed him, and soon attet saw him vcated on 
the opposite side of the house, his face as yellow and hard 1* a piece 

171 



NOTES OP A JOI7KNET 



NoAb 
at jK. Hia 
Ui daaciDC^m wm lit«B,Hd had Ut duB' 
tUi B«n e( a Freodi iDKlnnaB of iIk otd 



da BriMMMTi bat VXbOdt 

thr Udkn/dbowi oorifar 

ftU&aC f Wrff 

AmIow, iIm an 

nqpiw bdHO^ A F r arii M n fan ao object a life bw ta talk awf ' 

■a«e «jik itt^ vd vIkii he cenei id da oAer. be hs* ao ban lo 

del Mn tlnn^ DcpfiKd ot bm vtvactt^F^ bi* 

SMBal ififiti* fcc b cc M MW 4 piece of eoMmact a 

M cahniiknd ccMi. a pair of Jwc bnrfclra, a gold cao^er « 

b«. Dwaed rf were aimi id rfAdrymd&l blood. iW 

dd Mb*« «BB Gke tlw iboMa of die fiHae CMa, «d lai>« noacof 
tbcir OMjmeiMaj E ocrcsBwimat of tcasaf oflKMttBcaa* i can 
baldly c u D c c M c of i yoong Fi«)cbxnMhM% oor of aa oldocKwho 
i* other wu c. 7^ bna come np to my idiW of tfan cbaneter, cat, 
aa it vefCf ovt of paiCnttards ntowd oo FfaiD0^ aBeoaUe to f ui m a^ 
crimped aed n"f*^ Ske 3, crarai, wnboot a mgle tan ebd]iiia«i or 
*ali>aiaiy laoiioa. Soate of thna nuj be tees ai pRMnt gli^ag 
aloaj ihc araUi of tbe Tutlcriet. and tbr ^bt of ibcm ia good lor 
ton CfM. Tbey vc al>o ihialjr tpriaklcd ibrough tbe plaj-lwoact 
for tbe dranu xod tbe Uta-ittlra nrr in their tttnt tbe 
tad the prtritqe of the Cont, aod tbe cootrait of tbetr 
Imi*^* and pole £acei makM the nti of tbe andioice apncar 
of yrny, iayod eet naethanic*. A pFeachmaa ia notbiag 
powder, >a Kti^ttmnm m aodMBg wMi it. The dmaocsaf iJte 
ooe b anifidal, thai of lfa« otbtr amnnl. Tbe wookea of Praooe do 
Mt Nbait 10 tbe ngohr approacbe* tad dM aoUr dMc^liae of «fa ■ 
a* wtO ta tbe aia. I bad ratber be in c oaipaa y with m old Fraadb 
gtaritiain tfam a yoaog one ; I fnfa a yooog Frettcbvomao to an 
a4d one. They aggrarate the cncroachnetiCt of *ge by cooteediag 
■ritb tfaeni, ind irutcad of dujilipng the tutaral gracct aad Tenerable 
anrka of thai period of life, paint aod j>atcb their wrinUed &ces, 
aad U fa Mid ccr] tbetr griuM iKkt, till they look tike Friciliad 
bcM, aad are a caricature aad barieo^ of theaHetro. TheoU 
woaKii ia Fraaee ibac figare ai tbe tbeaue or etaevbcre, have WJ"' 
■neb the appearance of ^*ii^ kept a taTcra or a booth ai a fair, or 
of kaving been mutrcaaea of a place of anotber deactipcioo, for the 
peater pan of their lire*. A laiiaii/l bardcacd look aod cbaracter 
«rTi*ct the vrrck of bcawiy and of (eaiale delicscy. 

Of all ttunga thai 1 lec here, it mrpriaea ne tbe mm that tbe 
Fmd> abovld fiuicy tbey can daixc. To dance ia to aiove with 
gtaee and barmociy to mwic. Bnt the French, wfacdMr laea or 
women, bate oo idea of dtDCiBg but that of moriog widi apfity, and 
of djaiontiq their linibe in every poaaibk any, till they rcaDy ahcr 

<7* 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



the nnKiiirc of the htmuui form. By grace I imdertUiKl Uk utural 
movemcnta of the hunun body, heightened into dignity or toAtScd 
into eawt each po«turc ot (ccp blending harmonioiuly into the ttM. 
There i> grace in ilic waving of tlie braacfa of a tr(« or in the 
boundin;! of a lUg, bccaiuc tlvre i* frccdun) and unity of mgiion. 
But the French Opttnianccrs think it grscfful to iitaiid on one lea 
or on tbe iwinu ol their toei, or with one le^ utrctched out behind 
ibcm, as il they were going to be thod, or to ruiie one foot at right 
angin with their hodin, and twirl thcmnelve* round like a U-lotum, 
(o we how long ihry can Bpin, and then «op fchort nil of a sudden j 
or to *kiin along the gtouod, flat>fooiod, like a spider running along a 
cobweb, or lo jiop up and down like a pea on a tobacco-pipe, or to 
stick in their back) till another part project* out lioliiod conmr ilei 
vohils, and to »trut about like peacocVi with inrirm, vain-gloiious 
ttep>, or to turn out their toei till their feet resemble apc>, or to 
raitc one foot above their headi, and turn twiftly round upon the 
other, till the pctticoata of tbe female dancer* (for I have beeo think- 
ing of them) rise shove their ganert, and display s pair of ipindle- 
shankt, like the wooden ones of a wax-dollt just as shapctcM and a« 
tempting. There is neither lotuptuoumcu nor gtace in a single 
attitude or raoveincot, hut a very itudioua and lucceisfui attempt to 
thew in what a numbet of uneasy and dilliculc potition* the human 
body can be put with the greatest rapidity of cvoliitioiL It ii Dot 
that they do all thii with much more to redeem it, but tbcy do all 
thin, and do nothing et«e. It would be very well a« an exhibition of 
tumbler*! tricki,or » ropc^ancing (wluehwe<ialynwaMtosuq>riK), 
but it » bad a* Opcra-daacing, if opcf«-daaciDg tipirca to be one of 
the EHnc Atu, of even a handmaid to them ; that it, to combine 
with mechanical dexterity % senoe of the beautiful in form and 
motion, ami a ceitain uialoKy to tCDtiment. *7*he common people,* 
tayi the Author of Waveruy, 'alwaya preler exertion and agility to 
grace.* I* that the u»e alto with the most relined people upon 
earth \ Theic antic* and vagarie*, thin kicking of hecli and shaking 
of feet ai if they would come orf, might be excuaabic in the men, for 
they (hew a certain strength and muscular activity ; but in the female 
dancers tliey are unpordoiiable. Wliat is taid of poetry might be 
applied to the aex. Neit /a*f«] ttt fulthra punattta eue, duifia ttinlo. 
So women who appear io public, ahould be soft and lovely as well as 
■kitful and active, or they ought not to appear at all. They owe it to 
■hemielvci and others. As to some of the ridiculous extravngances 
of thii thmtre, luch as turning out their toes uid holding back their 
shoulders, one would have thought the Greek statues might have 
taught their scientilic profesaor* better — if French artists did not tee 

'73 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

every thiag with Fmdi eja, and bmnil lU thai difim from their 
eMabliihcd ptKticc u a dcputare from the line of bcavtj. They 
are totty thit the Vcnui doe* not hold op facf head Gke ■ boudin^ 
tchool min — 

' And frould ttk the Apollo to dance ! * 

In three HioMhi' ptuuce, aitd with proper taJtioa, Greek form 
«K)«U be French, and they woaU be perfect! — MadenoiMOca 
Puin aod Noblei. I kiw foor haodt ; b« I btve do pardon to beg 
of NuduM Le GiUoia, for >be looked like a lady (very tightly 
l^ced) in the ballet, and played like a heroine in the paMomiiDe part 
of La FtOt far jtmour. TiKre «at u Tiolcai Eurt at the firtt 
indicatioii of her madncfs, that alarmed me > litUe, but all that 
followed waa natural, modeil, and aflecting in a high degree. The 
French turn their Open-stage into a nud-houae; they ram their 
mad-houic* (at Intt they hare one conxructed oa thi* principtc) 
iato thcsirct of gaiety, where il>cy reheane ballcu, operiw, and iJaya> 
If daacing were an antidote to madncu, one would think the French 
would be alwayi in their right tenw*. 

I wu told I ought 10 see Nam, or La FdUpar Amvnr at the Salle 
Loavois, or Italian Theatre. If I went for that pttrpo«e, it wuuld 
be rather with a with than from any hope of teeing it better done. I 
went howcier : 

• Oh far ■ bcalcer full of (he warm SouU r 

It waa to we the Gossj Ladra, The hoiue was full, the erening 
uiliry, a hurry and buade ii> tbc lobbies, an cJigcmrK in the looks of 
tbe MMflihlcd crowd. The audience tremcd to be tn rarocu, and to 
have imbibed an iniercR from (he ploce. On the «ia}>c there were 
rich drcfse* and Toice*, the tones od paiaon, caae, nature, anmatioa ; 
in short, tlie Kenc had a muI in it. One wondered how one was to 
Pali*, with their jnuebourd nup« of the jiamons, aod thinnkimied, 
dry'lipped humour. Signora Mombelli played (he humble, but 
tnteremng heroiac charmingly, with truth, simplicity, and feeling. 
Her Toice it oeitbcr rich nor ivcet, but it ii dear m a bell. Stgnor 
Pellegrini played the intriguing Magitirute, with a tolcmnity and 
farcical drollery, that I would not swear \t moch inferior to Limm. 
But I fwear, that Bninet (whom I law the other night, and had Men 
befere witbtygt knowing it) a not e^wal to Liiton. Yet he Is a 
fiwUe, qnatni diminMite w thai orictnal. He vqueaki sad gibber* 
oddly cixMgh M tbc TttJtre del yaritM, like a moatc in the hoDow 
of ■ noHty cheete, hi) onall eye* peering ooi, and hii (harp teeth 
nibbling at the reraniD* of •omr faded joke. The Frettcb people of 
'7* 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

quality go 10 chr ItalUn Opera, but they do not attend to it. The 
labbiti of the Court are ubbie* Kill ; and took no notice of what wa* 
pastiof; on the Bia^e on this occasion, till the tolling of (be bell nude 
a louder and more disagrtable noise (ban ihrm«clvci> ; thit they 
■eemed to like. They behave well ai their own theatre*, but it 
would be 3. breach of etiquette to do «o anywhere else. A girl io 
the gallery (an Italian by her complexion, and from her intercu ta 
the part) tvH> crying bitterly at the ttory of the MaiJ and tbi Afag^, 
while three Frenchmen, in the Tniiiime Logc, were laughing at he» 
(he whole time. I >sid to one of them, * It wnn not a thing to laugh 
at, but to admire.' He turned away, as if the remark did not come 
within his notions of sentiment. I'hrs did not aiaf;};cr me in my 
theory of thi- French chLitacter i and when one is (wssesscd of nothing 
but a theory, one ti glad, not itorry to keep it, ihouith at the expense 
of other*.' 




CHAPTER XI n 

We left Pari* io ihe Diligence, and arrirrd at Foniainblcau Ae 
first night. The accommodation* at the inn were inditferrnt, ud 
not chefip. The palace is a low straggling mast of very old 
buildings, hariog been erected by St. Louis in the i«h ccoiury, 
whence he used to date his Rescripts, 'From niy Deserti of Foo- 
tainbleau ! ' It puts one in mind of Monkisli legends, of fjded 
splendour, of the leaden spouts and uncouth alone-cherubim of a 
country church-yard. It is empty or g-iudy within, niff and heavy 
without. Henry it. figures on the walls with the fair Gabrielle, 
like the Tutelary Satyr of the place, keeping up ihe remembrance 
of old-fashioned royalty and gallantry. I'hcy here <liew you the 
table (a plain round piece of rnaho^aoy) on which Buonaparte in 
1 8 1 4 signed ibr ahJiciiAon of the human rate, in favour if ihe bereit- 
ilary profirielart of the ipraes. We walked forward a mile or two 
before the coach the next dny on the road to Montargis. It preient* 
a long, broad, and stately avenue without a turning, ai far as the eye 
can re.ich, and i* skirted on each side by a wild, woody, rocky 
scenery. The birch-irccs, with their grey stems and light glittering 
branchea, silvered over the darker back -ground, and afforded a 
sirikin;' conirnst (o the brown earth and green moss beneath. There 
was a stillness in the woods, which affcci* the mind the more in 

> fot some aceoaal of Msrfsme PoU'i icting In Nka, I tske the libmy to 
rurs to ■ mlume of TAitt'TAu, just poUisbcil. 

'7S 



NOTES or A JOURNEY 

6hjteu wkotK •cry motMa ia gaakaem. The i^ wm doll, but 
mtc mU, UMOgb IB the naiOt of Jmmij. Tbe niuatioa of 
PoQlMBbJuu t> rnUifllT iitfefntinff md fine* It ffai>T4i tQ Hw niii^it 
of HI extcotivc fbrcM, iMcfMCied with cnggy precnncc* and ragged 
fiBfcs of hillt i and the niioc) road* kadiag lo or from h ire cat oat 
•fa vtldcmnt, which a hermit tniglit ialubtu Ttw ^firooch to iht 
diffncM towai ia Praace hn, in ifak ropcct. the adtastage over 
0«n ; for, from bwai^g wood bate*] of coal, they muK hare Urge 
wood* io the neigUMMiiood. wfaicfa clothe the eoontiy rtiw^ them, 
and afford, a« Pope expreaiei it, 

' In cunnner diadc, is winter fiit.' 

We d>x out fvt\ out of the bowcU of the earth, and hare a grt^tcr 
ponkw of iu lur&ce left at oar dnponlt whidi we tJerote ooi to 
omament, but me. A copae-wood or ao avenue of tree* however, 
makes a greater additkxi to the beutjr of a town tfaao a coalpit or 
s Mon-cttg^ie io h* vicinity. 

Wlien the DiKgencc ame up, sad we took our mta in the tmpe 
(wlikk it that patt of a Preach atagr-coach which ictemble* an old 
•hattcred pon-<bMM, ptacod in front of the nmo body of'ti') we found 
a FnnA hdy occ«pyin| tbe third place in it, wbMe delight as our 
cntraitce wa* aa greai at tf we bad joionl her oo come dncri idand, 
and wboae mortiticaiioa waa diatre«iag wbcn >hc leami wc were oot 
going the whole wajr with her. Sbe complaioed of the cold of tbe 
night air; but thit the teemed to dread lew than the wanr of 
company. She taid the had Ixxn deceived, for the hid been told 
the coach wat full, and was in dctpair that she thould oot hare a 
aoal to ipeak to all the way to Lyooi. We got oot, notwith- 
nandiag, at the i&n at Moaurgtt, wlicte we met with a very 
loleraUe reception, aad were waited on at tapper by ooe of tbo«e 
l4ari(omete< that perfectly aitoniih an EngUth traml«r. Her joy 
at OOT aitii;il wai at extreruc at if her whole forianc depended oa 
it. She laughed, danced, tung, fairly iprung into the air, bounced 
into the room, nearly ovcrtet ihr uble, hallooed and talked 
aa load m if abe h^ beea altcmaidy o«lcf and chamber-maid. 
She wu M roagh and boisKToat aa any eo«ury bampMa at a wake 
or itatute-fair ; and yet to full of rude health aod animal tpirits, that 
yon were pleated inttcad of beinK offended. In England, a girl 
with nich booriih m;tnocn would not be borne ; bat her good* 
hBtnoiti kept pace with her coaricnen, and the waa at incapable of 
giving I* of feeling pin. There it something in the air ia Frxnce 
that carries off the Nat itreili I 

The mUirttt of the ion, howereTi was a little peakbg, |nntng 

176 




THROUGH PRANCE AND ITALY 

woman, wiiii her f»ee wt*ppcd up in llanoel, and noi (juttc to 
inacccuiiilc lo ncrroUK tmnrc*iiiQn* ; tad when I askol tlic girl, 
' Whai made her *pfak «o loud ? ' »hc Atitwercd for her, ' To mjike 
people deaf! ' Thia «ide-rcproof did doc ifi the lean moderate rhr 
brazco toDO of her helpmate, but rather gave a new fillip to hcf 
ipiritt : though At was Icsa on the alert than the night before, and 
appeared to the full na much bent on arranging her curia in the 
looking-glata wbcn the came into the rooin, a* on artangiilg the 
breoktan thing* on the tea- board. 

We itaid here till one o'clock on Sunday (the lAih,) waiting the 
arriTa! of the Lyonnais, in which we had taken our pbcct forward, 
and which 1 thought would Qever arrive. Let no man crust to a 
placard aiuck on the wails of Paris, adveitUing the cheapest and 
most expeditious mode of conveyance to all part» of the world. 
It may be no better than a mare to the unwary. The Lyonnais, 
I thought from the advertiscmeni, was the Stvifl-rure of Diligence*. 
It wu to irrivc ten hour* before any other Diligenec; it wa* the 
most compact, the most rlegnnt of niodern trhicle*. From the 
description and the print of it, it i>cc7iied ' .t thing of Tifc,' a minion 
of the fancy. To »ce it stand in a state of diseocumbercd abnraciion, 
it appeared a tclf-imix'llin^ machine ; or if it needed aid, was horsed, 
nnluie your Paris Diligence), by nimble, uiry Pegasusee. To took 
at the fac-iimilt of it that was put into your hand, you would 
say it might run or fly — might tra»er« the earth, or whirl you 
through the air, without let or impediment, >o light tvat it to 
outward appearance in ttruclutc ■ fit lor (peed *uccincl ' — a chariot 
for Puti or jlrifl to ride in ! This was the account I had (or tome- 
thing like it) from Me««ieur» the Proprietors a< the Caur dti Fonlamti, 
' Mark how a plain tale ihatl put them down.' Those gentlemen 
came to nic after I had paid fur two places as far as Nevers, to ask 
me to resign them in favour of two LngHshnien, who wished to go 
the whole way, and to re-engage them for the following evening. 
I said I could not do that ; but as I had a dinjike to tiaTclUng at 
night, I would go on to Montargis by uomc other conveyance, and 
proceed by the Lyonnaii, which would arrire there at eight or 
nine on Sunday morning, as far as 1 could that night. I set out on 
the faith of this undentacding. 1 had tame diiliculcy in finding the 
Office jur la ptacr, to which I had been directed, and which was 
something between a stable, a kitchen, and a eook-ihop. I was led 
(o it by a shabby JouMe or counterpart of the Lyonnais, which itood 
before the door, empty, diny, bare of luggage, waiting the Pari* 
one, which had not yet arrived. It drove into town four boori 
afcerwardo, witb three foundered iath, with the pontilion and 
m. iz.; H 177 



NOTES OP A JOURNEY 

Ctrntlmtinir tot it* ccoifleaMU of pm aig m , the Ittn ocoapytng the 
left hand coriMT of the nmfi m fouary Mtr, with ■ wUip of itnw 
ihruM (hrougk ■ broken jnac of om of ibc from wiodowi, and « 
tdiwl of blue jutd fdlow friitge hiajpog ou of ttie other ; and villi 
that mixMre of dapondency and font in bb face, wbich loi>{[ and 
BiuDlerru[Acd paoderuig on the ttatc of the wajr-Ull luturally 
produce* io mch citcumnaDcet. He leizcd upon me and my 
misk* M taarfuJ prize ; he afterward* insiited on my goiBg fofwird 
in th« middle of the sight to L-yoot, (comrary to my agreement,) 
and 1 wu obli|cd to comply, or to deep vpoo tniHc* of nraw ia 
3 kiod of out-boKK. We qiurrollcd inc«isuiily, but I couJd not 
help Uiightojt, fot he sonwtiiac* looked like my old ^gamtancr. 

Or. S., mA tooNlimes like my friend, A H , of 

[Edinburgh. He uld we •boukl reach Lyona the next everting 
and wc £Qt ibctc iweaty-four howi after the time. He told me 
for my comfort, the reaaoo of hit being to Uce wai, that two of hi* 
hot*ct liad ftUcD down dead on the roid. He hid to rtiw rebyt 
of bone* ail the way, m if we were travelling through a boadle 
coontry; t^uarrdled with all the pottilioai about » ^tcmeot of 
a few MU : and onoe our bortct were arreMtd io the middle of the 
o^bt by a farmer who refused to tnitt him; and be had to go 
before the Mayor, ai coon a* day broke. We were qtiiucd by the 
poM^boys, the ian-kecpcts, the peuanu all atoog the road, u i 
•habby coocern j out CviJattmr bore it atlf like aoothet CanStk, 
We ma^ifeA at all the worn ion* in the outakin* of the town*, 
where iMUiing wa* ready ; or when it was, wm not eatable. The 
**cond moniing we were to breakfast at Moulin* ; when we 
aligbied, oar gnide told tu it wai eiercD : the clock in the kitchen 
pointed to three. A* he laughed io my face when I complaiBnl 
of Ilia misleading me, I told him that he wu •■•• mtudemt^ and thia 
epithet lobeied him the rot of the way. A) we left MouUna, the 
criiMon clouds of creniog itteakcd the wot, and I had time to 
think of Sterne's Maria. Thr people at the inn, I aotpect, htd 
octrcr heard of her. 'Ilierc wa« no trace of roiiuncc about the 
houie. Certainly, nune was not a Sentimenial -loamey. I« it not 
ptovokiog to come to a place, that has been conaecraitd by ' £imou* 
poet's pea,' a* a breath, a name, a fairy-scene, and liad it a dtdl, 
diriy town ' Let u« Ica«e the realities to vliifi for themaelre*, and 
think only of thoac bright tract* that have been reclaimed for ii> by 
the hacy, where ihc perfume, the sound, the vision, and the )oy 
atiil linger, like the Mft light of evening *kic« ! U the «tory of 
Maria w w<ir»e, became I am trswlling a dirty road in a rascally 
Diligence? Or it it nn injury dooc us by the avtbor to have 
17S 





THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

invented for u what wc ahould not have met with ia leality? 
Hi* it not been read with pte;i»urr by thoiuands of iciidctt, 
though the pvopic at the laa had never heard of it i Ycf 
iSicrnc would have been lexed ut lind that the (luac of hi* 
Mitia had ne»cr ttached the little town of Moulina. Wc jtc 
alwnyt ditutisfied with the good wc b;ive, and :j)wayi punished for 
our unreasonoblcneM. 

At Paliucau (the road i> rich io mclo-dramatic tecollectioiul il 
became (Hich-dark ; you coold not see your hand ; f entreated to 
have the lamp lighted; oui Condticirur said it was broken (taitf). 
With much pcrtuaaion, and the ordering a bottle of their best wine, 
which went round among the people at the inn, we ROi a lantern with 
i) niihlight in it, but the wind iooa blew tt out, and wc went on oui 
woy darkling ; the road lay over a high hill, with a Iuo»c muddy 
bottom between two hedges, and at wc did not altemjit to trot or 
gallop, wc came safe to ihc level ground on the other side. We 
hieakfasted at Rouane, where we were first ahcwn Into the kitchen, 
while ihey were heating a. Buffocattng alovc in a squalid laUr a 
mangrr. There, while I was sitting half dead with cold and fatigue, 
a boy came and scraped a wooden dreiser clone at my ear, with a 
noite to iplit one'a brain, and with true French nanthalanit ; and a 
portly landlady, who had ii>en juac as we had done hrcakfanting, 
uahered us to our carriage with the airs and gtaccR of a Madame 
Matntenon. In France you meet with the court addrevs in a 
ttablc-yard. In other countries you may llod grace in a cottage or 
a wilderncta ; but it t» simple, unconscious grace, without the full- 
blown pride and siiut of maimerrJ conlidence and pmumptioD. 
A woman in France it graceful by ^oing out of her sphere; oot 
by keeping within it. — In ctotang the bridge at Rouanc, the iuq 
shone brightly an the river and thipping, which had a buiy cheerfiil 
aipect; and we began to aiccmi the Bourbonnois under more 
Haltering auapices. Wc got out and walked slowly up the sounding 
road. I found that the morning air refreshed and braced my spirits i 
and that even the continued fatigue of the journey, which 1 had 
dreaded as a hazardous experiment, was a kind of aeaBoning to mc> 
I WW IciS exhauated than the first day. I will venture to tay, 
that for an inralid, sitting up all night ii better than lying in bed 
all day. Hardship*, however dreadful to nervouK apprehensions, 
by degree* give u* Bircngth and resolution to endure ihcm: whcreu 
ciTeminacy softens and renders us less .^nd lesN capable of encountering 
pain or difficulty. It is the love of indulgence, or the shock of the 
first privation or cffon, thai confirms almott all the weikneBsea of 
body or niiad. As we tmtercd up the long, winding ascent of die 

'79 



NOTES OF A JOCBXEY 



mdbOTi ffaiwi, ■« 
Ammc OBExitty niica v^b ^^^^^ mot i&s uducw ne nhiiE vubi^ 
^■Mentt^ t^J **"^**"t vniclt n id uMCLUdOB MoCBed tiv wy 
^MJB ^ ^ <i« »! g»lnl ■■iifciih 111 I rf h& wUcb 
w i Iw I m I the w^yiMhig w> TW Buwb ui u ii ■ the faw 
■fgc dxK o( Ub pNsa aae *f iaoAKf* iM exBeoaiDg n^v 
bcTwd nogc (fcn t<m cone to oa tfac tnnr » icil^ joti tint 
oc c Bpy t wid^ffiMi umuIQv nvc a iiih w j coo^vvroVt win < Bi fa n p 

^H IpOVW^ DRiipiBCSBOf • TO tAOiV VQO kW GSMRJT WW 

dacoK OB dM «fcer tide bko Tsnn m nnce *■£&» i^ Aagaxma i 

tbr md fac— ny m^ b* obc of ihoK fine, hnmd, ' 
umU with sAn ad Me», ««K& ba^nk M Mcc dte I 
kaarf Am tvmd tfcaa. Tann ii i km fatfe tova* &bb«b fat ifae 

yM>B » J aa botf* «nui| fat §ali harm ; sd m «c iri in tbr 
MMliB ifcii hdplw ititfc, the booei tifc^ a^ the i^ •baonig ja, 
3ad ike vnd Heto^ tafOHyn cvcfy MJiatj p or tke hnw^ panei and 



p tiK |wri h <w i CMMe ap and dtfaw aa M to uow 
if W€ wtn Ea^ifc, » tfaerr avrv t«o EagU gndcoMa win 
waald be ^ad to we na- 1 rxcBMd myactf ma gMMag o«, bat 
■id 1 Aoald b* bipfT n ip^t lo tboL AwuftBigl), s^ 
■HnBJBt BecsoocQ to a ' 

Bife &Mte io a Mate flf jouom rTTWfwina. aod who i 
tbe Macb-Jpor aid, he f i e au me J we wcsc ftom hamAem,md that 
he bad takes tbe BteRf to faj bk lOfMcta to ■. Hw tnead. ha 
■H^ who vaa Aajiug with afB^ om in id bed^ ar he wtauu hsvK 
Jdoa timtdf the ^t pie mar. Tli hi I lai i (wii nf ■iiwliii i l ii 4 i . 
tsatd ay Md laiBMd at the toet m ibc awoaer of the cowtn 
(wbkh be uraMiililii W ae m mM te cfi^n« ik hflh tf 
ever I tboald cane iMO tbaae fBu) wra wonted mmmhw mi had 
a tntBt pMee^ MtrtriDf atpect. 1 expected navy ttoMcst he 
waald teii nefaMaanK or hamteaii bat al I katot ana that he aad 
AM inBBD bhI Dcra bcfc "*'** TTiMiy^ md tkst Ibcv cous doc cd 
any till ^ra^ tfa" there were no *''"'iU''***'^'i tkA tnde to 
BM| Asd UM tne rcvncn wuawd to fliv s wr iiifcrfiK pfoytr froa 
the E^bb. The &ct i*. be fbaad bawdf tppu at > ioat 
tfmmdk ceaacTT-towB. aad had no other t t aa u ict or way of : 
Waad^thaa bf lookiag oai ibr the UitgEaca aa thty i 
ti|ia|^ Co aav aewa traai Eapaad* Ha vcooo at na aandooCp aad 
waved Bi band with a BaMfiBDly av at wv tad^ byi sb ao oooa t 

liD 



4 



I 



n a 



THROUGH FRAKCE AND ITALY 

iMtmlljF went up fiain to commanicite to bu Hck friend, that ht 
had CODVer»rd with two Rngliih people. 

Our deliy m 'Vumt had dcpriscd u» of nearly an hour of day- 
lijthi ; :iiiii, besides, tlic iuiserit)lc fouodcrcd jadre of boriK's, (hat 
we had to get oa witli io this paragon of Diligences, were quite 
unequal to the usk of drag;riaf[ it up tad down the hiUa on the road 
to Lyoni, which waa $tiU twenty miles di»tact. The night waa 
dark, and we had no light. I found ii wat quite hopcleEi when we 
should reach our journey's end (if we did not break our necks by 
the way) and that both were matlers of very great indifference to 
Mons. /< Candueleur, who was only bent on saving the pockets of 
McNJcurs his employers, and who had no wish, like me, to sec the 
Vaticaal He alfvcied lu make jjarj^atos for hoiscs, which always 
failed and added to our delay ; and lighted his lantern once or twicct 
but it always went out. At last I a^jid that I had intended to give 
him a certam *um for himself, but that if we did not arrive in Lyons 
hy tec o'clock at night, he might depend upon it I would not give 
him a single fatthing. This had the desired effect. He got out 
at tlie next village we came to, and three Mout horses were faslcncd 
to the harness. He also procured a large piece of candle (with a 
mem of another piece of equal length and thickoeas in his iantem) 
and held it in his hand the whole way, only sbiftiog it from one 
hand to the other, as he grew tired, and biting hb lip* and making 
wry laoc« at this new office of a tiuttUabrum, which had been thrust 
u]>on him much against his will. I was aot sorry, for he wat one of 
the most disagreeable Frenchmen I ever met with, having all 
ihe indifference and Mlf-sutliciency of his countrymen with none of 
their usual obligingness. He seemed to mc a person out of his place 
(a tiling you rarely discover in Fraocel- — ;i bioken-down tradesman, 
or * one that had had mi«foriune»,' and who neither liked nor was 
lit for his present lituation of Condudrur to a Diligence without 
funds, without horses, and without passengers. We arrived in safety 
at Lyons at eleven o'clock al night, .ind were conducted to the ffottl 
4ei Leuritrt, where we, with some difficulty, procured a lodging and 
a Duppcr, and were attended by a brown, greasy, dark-haired, good- 
humoured, awkward gypscy of a wench from the south of France, 
who seenied just caught ; stared and laughed, and forgot every thing 
she went for ( could not help exclaiming every moment — ' Que 
Madame a le peon 6laiK .' ' from the contrast to her own dingy com. 
plexion and ditty skin, took n large hrnss-pan of scalding milk, came 
and sat down hy me on a bundle of wood, and drank it ; said she had 
had no supper, for her head ached, and declared the L^nglish were 
' trat>ft xent, :ind lliat the Uourhons were iont m/anr, )tnrted up to 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



look chiDugh thr k«y-hoIc, and whispered through her brOHil ttroog- 
Mt ttcth, that a lioe Madam was (jetccndmjt the aturcaie, who had 
been to dine with a great gentlenun, oCcred to take away the nuppct 
ihtngE, left them, 4iid called lu the next morning with her head and ' 
tcotn in a »taic of even greater conhiaion than ihcy were ovcr-ntght. : 
The fatniliaritjr of common wrrants in France surprise* the Englixh J 
at firm i bat it hag nothing o^enuve in it, any more i.han the good 
natored gambols and freedoms of a Newfoundland dog. It it i]i»te 
natural. 

Lyons i* a line, dirty town. The ttrecti arc good, but to hi(>h 
.tnit n.irmw, that they look hkc sink* of iilth and gloom. The thopa 
arc mere dungeonn. Yet two oohlc rtvrri water the city, the Rbooei 
and the Saonc — the one hroarl and mnjentic, the other more confined 
and impetuous in its course, and join a little below the town to pour 
their friendly streams into (he Mediterranean- 1*he square if spacioui i 
and handsome, and the heights of St, Jusi, that overlook tt, commaiul ' 
a fine »iew of thetown, the bridjtei, botli rivers, the hills of ProvencCa 
■he toad to Chanibery, and the AIp«, with their snowy tops proppio]( 
the cloudt. The sight of them dfcciually deterred me from attempt- 
ing to go by Geneva anil the Simplon ; and we were contented (tw 
this lime) with the humhler pasMge of Mount Cenis- Here is the 
ffwl lit Nolrf Datnr df Pitir, which is shewn you as the inn where 
Rousseau stopped on his way to Paris, when he went to ovcrtutn the 
French Monarchy hy the force of style. 1 tlioughi of him, as we 
came down the mount-iin of Tarare, in his oold-Iaced hat, and with 
hit jti tPeau playing. If they could but have Known who was coming, 
how many battalioni would have been «cnt out to meet htm ; what 
a ringing of .-ilarm •bells, what a beating of drum*, whit rising of 
drawhridgci, what herring of gate's, what exuminaiion of [at^iM, 
what prooestioD* of fne»u, what meetings of magisirstct, what 
confttton in the towns, what a panic through the couniry, what 
telegraphic despatches to the Coun of Vetaailles, what couriers 
pootini; to all parts of Europe, wh.ii nianife«toei from armies, what 
a hubbub of Holy Alliances, and all for what ! To prevent one 
man from speaking what he and every other nun felt, and whose 
only fault wai that the henttngs of the human heart had feund an 
echo in his pen! Ai Lyons 1 saw this inscription over a door; 
/rr on Irauve & ml tt unijae tSepat dt reiurt lani parnl ti mt«tn^Ue — 
which appeared to me to contain the whole secret of French poetry, 
I went into a shop to buy M- Marline's Deallt ef Secraln, which I 
nw in the window, but they would neither let me have that copy iwr 
get me another. The French arc not ' a nation of shopkeepen.* 
They had quite as liere see you walk out of their shops a* come into 
181 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Acm. While I w»% waiting for in aonvcr, a French tcrruu lA 
Uftry brought in four vulumct of the Hhfory of a FoamX^y m 
improved iiatialaiinn, in which it wns said the morciaax omitted 
by M. dc la FUcc wctc rcitored. I wat pleiied to «ec my old 
acauaiotance Tom .'ones, with hin French coat on. The poetry 
of M. Atphonsc Marline and of M. CsHmir de \a Vignc circuifltci 
in ihe province* and in Italy, through (he merit of the auihori and 
the favour of the crtiics. L. M. idl» mc that ihc tatter i» a great 
Bnnapartisi, and talks of 'the tomlw of the brare,' He wid 1 might 
form iome idea of M. Martine'* attempts to be great and tinfrmchtftd 
by ihc frontispiece to one of hia poenu, in which a young gentleman 
in )in heroic attitude is pointing to the sea in a storm, with his other 
hand round a pretty girl's waist. I told H, this poet had lately 
married a lady of fortune. He said, 'That's the girl.' He also 
taid very well, I thought, that 'the French seenied bom to puzzle 
the GetmanB.* Why are there not s.ih-spoons in France? In 
England it is a piece of barbarism to put your knife into a salt-cellar 
with .-mother. But in France the disiinction between giossness and 
refincracni is done away. Every thing there is refined ! 



CHAPTER XIV 

Thr*! wa> a Diligence next day lor Turin over Mount Ceiu*, which 
went only twice a week (stopping at night) and I was gbd lo secure 
[as 1 ihoughi) two places in the interior at seventy francs a sear, for 
ti,a mile«. I'he fare from Paris to Lyon*, .i distance of jfio milea, 
was only lifty franc* cachi which is iour times .is cheap ; hui the 
diirerence was accounted for to mc, from there beinf> no other convey- 
ancci which w.is an arbitrary rcavon, and from the number and expentc 
of hor>e« nccwsary to drag a htavy double coach over niouniainous 
roads. Besides, it was a Royiil Mcisagcrir, .ind I was given lo 
utMJeriitand ih:it Messrs. Itonnafoux paid the King of Sardinia a 
ihousnnd crowns a year for permission to nm a Diligence through 
his territories. The knave of a waiter (I found] had cheated me; 
and that from Chamhcry tliere was only one place in the interior and 
one in the ttnpt, which turned out to be a cabriolet, a place in from 
with a leathern apron and curtains, which in winter time, and in 
travelling over snowy mountains and through icy valleys, was not a 
situation * devoutly to be wished.' I h.id no other resource, however, 
having paid my four pounds in .idvance at the over-pressing instances 
of the O'liryon, but lo call him a raquta, (which being a Milanese was 

>83 



NOTES OF A JOUBNEY 

not ipiae nfr) to ihrow om braod toMM (i fAt^m) of a nrflwTtflii 
be t wwa ban wmI die OCce, Mid to at x of e at well at I coold with 
the Ccajueuta; thai I isd njr feUow-tRvcBer dioald not be ^epgatad. 
1 wouM idTuc all Eagfiifa P'op'^ tntdUng •broad u uike tfanr owa 
pbeet « caacb«fteca,''aad not to mn to wwcn, who will nuke » 
faiu of triduag dmn, boUi m a priaci^ Md pattuK i and funlio 
to pntcutt uut itM w c o fW P Mft datiOB (id caf On ouagrecablf acodnvta 
OS the raodj (or h wat a kaowledjte of tbi* kiad, nnaelf , tbat I bad 
a btur of introdiicticMi to ooc of the Prafe«ora of tbe CoU^e h 
LyoM, that procarad me nea tfac trifling eoao eu ia n abom-BCBtioaed, 
tl^ovgh tbc mfloencc wbich ihc bndWy of liic Hoirl bad with the 
CtmtitHtart otbcfwitc, inifnd of bdog Ruck ia tfar ctbriolct, I 
nigbt bive moufitcd on the impetial, and any rigM of texatioa or 
iip a ti wice I imi;hi have exhibiud, would hi«c been cvMtrued into 
cboDkioiu of tl>c catioiut characiert aad a vaai of MnMnw in 
Mooseur I'AcKlai*. Tbe Frencb, and foreijttien b ecatnl, (as 
fxr ai J hat<c *cca) arc ciTil, polite, cacy-tcmpcred, oUipngj but 
dte an of kMpiag onpUnablc a|^arance* Rand* ibcm in lieu of 
<lowDn^ bootaiT. Tbey think thry hair a tight to cheat you if 
tbn caa (a coatpuncm, a dnl bow, a thrug, i* worth ibr noncy ! ) 
and the iaataM i«a Snd oat the im[KiMtioo or bc^ to comptain, they 
tarn amy from jtnt at a disagreeable or wroag-beadtd penoo, aad 
foo cm get no redrest but if ram (ant. It it not the original 
tramerestor, but he who decbrei he it aggrieved, that it conaidcrcd 
at gnilty of a breach of good maaocra, and a diiturber of the tocial 
compact. I think one i> morr irritated at the frconent inpoMlioiM 
thai arc practited OD one abroMl, becaote the novelty of the Keoe, 
ooc'a ignorance of (he <myi of the wotld, and the mommmty cxciie- 
nwM of the tpiiitt nod of tbe flush of hope, have a tendency to renew 
ia one'a toind the unKii{«<iieg timplidty and credulity of youth t and 
the peuy trickt and ihuiHing behaviour we meet with on tbe road 
are a greater baulk to our wum, ixngntoe, buoyant, tiavelfiag 
ioifnltet. 

Aiiooyed ai the unfair wny in which yn had been treated, and at 
the idea of Ixiog trii to the mercy of the ConJiKUBr, whote 'honeat, 
aofUde, bawtont lace' had, howcrer, no more of the fox in it than 
implied an eye lo hit own intereit, nod niifilii be tdroed to our own 
advantage, we took out teau numeiicilty in the Royal Oil^ence of 
Italy, at lereti in tbe ereninj; (Jjiouury lo) and for tome time wlTeretl 
the cxtrene pcmltiet of a Frencb iiagc-coach — not indeed * the icy 
Aug and muon** difTetcncc,' bm a very purgatorj' of heat, cloaeneaa, 
confinnnent, and bad sinclU. Nothing can tuirau it but the tectjon 
of a ttavc-ihip, or ihe Bbck-hotr of Calcutta. Mr. Theodore Huok 

184 




r 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

or Mr. CrokcT thould lake an airing in ihia mjr oa the ConUDCDt, 
ID order to g^rc them a notion of, and I *houUl think, a diautie for 
the blniJDgt of the Middle Puuee. Not only were the tix placci 
in th« interior all uken, xad »IJ full, but ihcy had nispcoded a wicker 
basket (like n ben-coop) from the tup of the coach. uuiTcd with fur- 
capi, batt, o*eraUt, a^d dilfeieot parcels, »o as to make it imposfiUe 
to move one way or otlieii and to Hop every tcmaiiuni; breath of air> 
A negaci.ial at my right-hand corner, who wai inclined to piece out a 
lengthened recitfti with a parte qur and a dt lartc que at erery word, 
hming got U])on ticklish ground, without cccing hi* audience, wat cut 
«hort in the Hower of hi« oratory, by .isterting chxi Barcelona and 
St. Sebasuan's in Spain were contiguous lo each other. 'They were 
at opposite sides of the country,' exclaimed in the tame breath ■ 
French >DMin and .i Sgiaoiard, wlio sat on thi- other side of the 
coach, and whom he wai ri-fiilinji with the gallant advcntutea of a 
friend of hi* in the Pcninnila, and not finding the umuI excuse — 
' Ctii egM' — applicable to a blunder in geography, was contented to 
fall into the rear of the discourw for the rest of the journey. At 
midnight we found that we bad gone only nine miles in live hours, 
as wc had been clintbing a gradual ascent from the time we set out, 
which w3* our first cway in mountain-scenery, and gave us some 
idea of the scale of the country we were beginning to traverse. The 
beat became less insupportable at the ooinc and darkncu lubsidcd ; 
and as the morning dawned, wc were anxious to remove that veil of 
unceftaioty and prejudice which the obscurity of night throw* over a 
number of passengers whom accident hat huddkd together in a stage- 
coach. I think one seldom lindi one'McIf aei down in a party of 
this kind wiiliout a strong feeling of repugnance and distaite, and one 
seldom quits it at laai witliout some degree of regret. It was the 
case in the prcient instance. At day-bmk, the plea»3nt farm*, the 
thatched cotiagei, and sloping valleys of Savoy atlraclrd our notice, 
and I wa> struck with the resemblance to f^ngland (to tome part* of 
Devonnhire .ind Someisctthirc in jarticular) a discovery which I 
imparted to my fellow-travellers with a more lively enthusiasm dm 
it was received. An Unglisliman thinks he has only to communscate 
his feelings to others to meet with sympathy, and is not a little 
disconcerttrd if (after this amazing act of condencension) he is at all 
rcpuUed. How shoult! wc laugh at a Frenchman who expected o* 
to be delighted with his finding out a likeness of some part of 
England to Fruicef We English are a nation of egotists, *.iy what 
wr will ; and m> much w, that we expect others to swallow the bait 
oi our self-love. 

At Pont Beau-Voitiis the frontier town of the King of Sardinb'i 

.85 



THROUGH FHANCE AND ITALY 

nme queationable matter enough— but no notice was Ukeo. My box 
w>* incrwardt corded and ItadeJ with equal RUT'ty and potUem-^s. 
uid it wa< not till I airifcd it Turin chat I fuund it wat » pritoaei of 
emt, and would hr forwarded lo mc ;inywhctc I chciie to mention, 
out of his SArdinijn MnjcMy'R daniinions. 1 wns lUrtled to lind 
mytelf within cite smooth polished gr^ of legitimate power, without 
au>i|)ectinji it; ind was glad to recover my irunk at Florence, with 
no other inconvenience than the expense of its carriage acrost the 
country.' 

It WM noon 39 we returned to the inn, and we fitn caught i fiill 

' At Mil>D, 1 •faorl lime igo, > (enllemjin hsil » Hornet, in Crack »ail Llim, 
amt^ng hit book*. He wa« Burlily aikciS tc> ctplain urluL it mcknt. tiptrti di>ia|r 
10, the Inipcctot thook hi> hoA rionbtinil)', inii Hiil, 'it tnitht pin thia litnc^' 
bat ailvlic<l him In bcu-art of a wconH. ■ Ikri, now, ii ■ work,' he cnntinueit, 

pointing to 'i Livea of iht Popra, eoniiininj; all the Qbominjliont (public anil 

private) of their histary, * You ihouM bnnc lueb hcokl at Ihii with you t' Thia 
It one ipecimen of that IcurncJ contpiucy loi the tuppiemon of ti(:ht jn.l letter*, 
of whitfi i*r ire tlrrpin^ parinera ■il'l hfinoravy nftiocialri. The Aliiea complaitl 
■I prnent of Mr. CtnninK t 'fiithliunru.' Ob ! that he wouH indecl pUy then 
hut inil earn hit title of 'tlipfcry George I' Faithful to snythiaif he tannot be — 
(■ilblna ID ihcm would be lotnetliine. The Auattiunt, it i) laiH, have lately 
itlcin|ite<l to ittike the name of ttaty out of the map), that thai (ounTiy may 
neither have ■ name, t boily, or ji loul left to iT, and even to rupprrH the publiea- 
tion of itt fioeti hittoriini, ihit ii may (ufKci it evet hai] one. Co on. obli|rin|[ 
creilunri I Blot the li(;ht nut uf heaven, tirniih the blue ilty with the bli^hi tni[ 
fOE of 'leipotittn, <ttfacv and trample on the icreen earth \ fur while uac traee of 
what it fair or lovely it left in the earth under nur feel, ot the tky over out 
hei'li, at in th( mind of man that li within ni, it trill remain tu mock yusi 
Impoienie ani) deformity, and to reflect batk laallni hatred and contempt upnn 
you. Why iloci not our Eton icholar, our claiiic Staceimin, lugtnt to the Alliet 
» inCeUifiblc hml of the piopriety of iotcriblng the name of Italy once more m 
the map, 

* Liki that CR tin Ku inert flower inieribeii leilh woe' — 

of takinj off (he ptobihition nn the Hiitoiici of Cuicciorriini an-l Davilit Oe 
why io not ibc Enf;lith people — the Rnjfliih Kuuie of Commoni, iukkhi It IB 
himf [t there luch ■ thiOf; M the Rncliih peojile— «t an EnglAb Home of 
Commont 1 Their influence it not felt *t prttent in Furope, at ent it wai, to Ita 
■hort-liveil hope, bought with flat ilctpnir. The reaton it, the cante of the people 
of EuFcipf hm no echo in the bruilt of the Btitith pnblie. The onae of Kinp 
hii'I an echrj in the breiti of a Britiih Munateh — that of ForeiKn Governmenta ia 
the brraiti of Btitilh Miniitm I Tlicre tre at preieBI no fewer than Aftceo 
honffred of the Italian nobility of the Brtt familjet prnacribetl from their toontry, 
or pininj in dunirtiin*. For whit f For tryini tn ifivr to their eountry inde- 
pendence and a ConttituiiDnal Cavcrnment, like En|[land I What ityt the 
kngliib Houte of Lorilt to that > What if the Rniiiani were to cnmc and apply 
to 01 and 10 them the benctia and the principlet of the Holy Alliance — the 
bayonet an J the thumbacfewF Lord Bathutat laya, "l.ct them come \' — an.) they 
will come whrn we have ■ aavile people, dead to liberty, and la irbUiaty Kovtm- 
nwnl, batinK ind ready lo bnraf it t 

187 




NOTES Of A JOCBNEY 





THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

■he Grin<l Chunrcutc, waving to the tight in Military tiaiF and air- 
clad brightncM. — li was a kccdc Haziliog, cochaMing, and that 
statnpcd the long^chcrithcd dteaiM o( (he tmagiDatJon upon th« 
8Fntc». BeiwMD tho«c four crystal peakt stood the ancient monattciy 
of that name, hid front the tighit revealed to thought, half-way 
between earth and heaven, enshrined in its cerulean aimo»|>hcrc, 
lifting the (oul to iti native home, and purifying it front martal 
erofNieM. I cannot wonder at the pikrimagc* that ftre made to it, 
lU cnhn rcpoc^ iit vowi monaiiic. Life muti (here aecm a noiaclet* 
drctun; — Death a near irAniilfltion lo the tkics! Winter waa even 
ait advaniagc to this scene. The binck foreits, the dark side4 of the 
rock< gave additional and inconceivable biightuesi lo the glittering 
BunimitB i>f the lofiy ntouniaicB, and received a deeper tone and a 
more noleinn jiloom from them ; while in the open spaces the unvaried 
sheets of snow fatigue the eye, which re<{tiireB ilie contrast of the 
green tints or luxuriant foliaf.e of summer or of spring. This was 
more particularly pcrccptihte as the day closed, when rlie golden 
sunRcl itrenmed in vain over frozen valleys that imbibed no liclinesi 
from it, and repelled its smile from their polislitd nurble surface. 
Hut in the more gloomy and desert regions, the dilTetence is less 
teniarkable between sumnier and winter, except in the beginning of 
spring, when the summit* of the hoary rocks are covered with snow, 
and the clefi[s] in their sides .ire filled with fragrant shrubs and 
flowers. I hope to sec this miracle when I return. 

We came to Eehelles, where we changed horses with great 
formality and preparation, m if setting out on some fbrniid.-ible 
cxpcdiiioD. Six large Ktiong>boncd horses with hip,h haunches (used 
to aKcnd and descend mountains) were put lo, the rope-tackle was 
exmincd and repaired, and our two pustilioas mounted and dis- 
mounted more than oocc, before tliey veemed willing to set off, which 
they did ai last at a hand-gallop, that was continued for some miles. 
U IS nothing to see English blood-horses get over the ground with 
such prodigious llccincsK and >pirii, but it is re-ally curious to see the 
huge cnrl-horscs, that they use for Diligence* abroad, lumbering along 
and making the miles diupjiear behind them with their pondcroiw 
strength and persevering activity. I'he road for some way rattled 
under ihrir heavy hoofs and the heavy wheels that they dragged or 
whirled along at a thundering pace : the postilions cracked their 
whips, and the one in front (a dark, swarthy, shon-scl fellow) 
flourished his, shouted and hallooed, and turned hack to vociferate his 
instructions to his companion with the robust energy and wildaett of 
expression of a smuggler or a leader of banditti, canyiagoff a rich 
booty from a troop of soldiers. There was aomething in the scenery 

189 



NOTES OF A JOCR>'£Y 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



P 



map. Tbey are a tea or an entire kingdom of mounuin*. It took 
UE three days tu travciBc ihem id [his, which i) the nioai practicable 
direction, and trutcUiDg at a good round pace. Wc fusicil aa ai far 
aa eye could tee, and ttiU we appeared lo have made liule wajr- 
Still wc were in the thadow of the aame enormoua maia of tack and 
■now. by the tide of the tame creeping itrcatn. Lofty mouniaina 
reared themselit* in front of uii — horrid ahytsci were icoopcd out 
under our liret. Sometimet the road wound along the iridc of a ttcep 
hill, overlooking lonie village-apirc or hamlet, and aa wc ascended it, 
it only gate u» a view of remoter scenes, ' where Alpt o'er Alw 
ariae,* totsint; about their billowy tow, and luinbliDj; their uowichly 
ahapci in ku direction* — a world of wonder* t — Any one, who m 
much of an egotist, ought not to travel through thete diitricu ; hii 
vanity will not find ili account in them j it will be chilled, mottilied, 
«hrunk Up : but they are a noble treat to thote who feel cheni*elvc« 
raiscil in their own thoughta and in the acalc of being by tho 
immentity a( other things, and who can aggtaodise and piece out 
their periooal intignificance by the grandeur and eternal forma of 
natuEc! It giret one a vast idea of Buonaparte to think of him in 
thcac situations. He alone (the Rub Roy of the nccnc) teemed a 
match for the eirmcntt, and able to master ' ihii fotlrcts, built by 
nature for herself.' Neither impeded nor turned aside by immoveable 
barriers, be tnioie the mountains with his iron glaive, and made them 
malleable i cut roada through them ; transported armies over their 
ridgy atcepB : and the rockt ' nodded to him, and did him courtcue* I ' 

We arrived at St. Michelle at nightfall (after pausing through beds 
of ice and ilie infernal regions of cold], where we met with a truly 
hocpitable reception, with wood-floors in the English fashion, and 
where they told us the King of England bad stopped. This made 
so »on of difference to me, 

Wc breakfasted the next day (being Sunday) at Lana-le-Bourg, where 
I observed my friend the Spaniard buay with his labtct, taking down the 
name of the place. The landlady was a little.roond, fat, good-humoured 
black-cyed Italian or Savoyard, t-iym^ a number of good things to all 
her guests, but sparing of ihem otherwise. We were now at the foot of 
Mount Cenis, and after breakfast we set out on fool before the Diligence, 
which was to follow us in half an hour, Wc jaiicd a melancholy- 
looking inn at the end of the town, profcuing to be kept by an l:\nglisb- 
woman ; but there ajipearcd to be nobody about the houac, I.'lngliah, 
French, or Italian. The miitiew of it (a young woman who had 
married an Italian) had, in fact, died a &hon time before of pure chagrin 
and disappointment in thia solitary place, after having told her tale of 
dittress to every one, till it fairly wore her out. Wc had leinire to look 

'9' 




XOTES OF A JOUBSEY 




'bnksaMllMgkiAotrk. Smm^gGaf 
a ffoa bdgPM. mi mmOm 

the "mwi. were mc* ■■ the fc tcnoa of ifce wcy tint we were 
MttoDC* Fife ul STOMn vcn vuflcM* ^^pHlriT puea or oun 
covered vies sov^ vitB uam oc nnv^ctees or s tooi'pnh occucin 
flat, md in tbe iinw ii mi i ef wUdi oo JtaMJua w faMwtf was ^«de 
by ow xfarMciig « rccedt^ We niacd oo tke w—tilB by ■ 
bnMOf triDuBg imd liME cooCMHtt^^ oovslni nd nou oovd uij oo 
tbepoiat fran vAcaecyan xaned Mf an bov bdere. Soncaww 
bidUiaintfar Moni^bMkwwMv tehcba^ckady. We 

HMnn tVO Of ttff HMWWHIcn MllOWVft|| oof CStVBffci Mki tney 

KKM ifeef OfCitoolE M> 'l~bey mn boot Ffcscli> We au t ic e u i 
of tfac fiatam of tbe acciicTyi aad « loft; bSI eppMte to at I 
KO O f M out tato m bed v ■MiVg villi two nagn o 
|Ko kci M K (noMdnqg Ktx tm am chaii) oo cadt ode. * Fmlit' 
aid the jamftt md more vobiilr of oor coofaaiDaiv '^c m> trmmr, 
ff & <w^ Mf ta gi m rt ! ' — A whRc dood ladcod ncMchd in an** 
top. I caai|£ioem«d btai oa the ^afpatm of Ui aBaMa* aad wA 
tut Hadane waa pkaaed with tbe exactaev of the imiiililiaii 
He tbm tamed to tbe nOey. and aid, * (Tttt im tentaM.' TUi ic 
tbe height to which the tm^ i aMi oo of a Fmichsian itwxj* woKn, 
aod it oa lOAr oo hi2hc> Aaj thJM that it oot om ia tbii 
obrioat, tfo«BiBOO-pbce raonU, thj< hid bcca awd ■ rb o wti ad tinea 
bdoR widi ipplmr, tbey tfaiak buhoroo^ aad at they pbrMe it, 
a r jJMin . No fanhtr notkc wa« lakce of the Kcatry, mj won 
tfatt if we had been talking oo the Boakvard* w Tm,taA By 
yoioH Fteachnaa talfcfd of otbcf thtacti landed, Moci aod tinaked 
a cipff with a nncty aad ufbtatM Of besft tntt I caviod* ' W|nt na> 
bccooie^' Md uie ddcr of the Prenduneo, * of Moaneor VUtpapKA i 
He does BOtcaaly quit hiiKU) be ttta in ooe coraer, aerer look* ooo, 
or if yoo point to «ay objrct, a3u* do ootice of it ; and when «ao 
coaie to the cad of ifcc (Ugc, kij*—" Whn i* the unc of that pboe 
we piiwd hjlattV take* oai hb pocket-book, aad mtkcs a Bote of 
■L **That ■■ itiAL"' And what made it oiorc to, it taracd oot 
that oar Spaaidt frieitd wa* ■ paiwer. trafallatg to Rome to mdy 
tbe Fine Art* I AD the wiy u we aKcndcd, there «ne red poats 
placed at the edge of the road, leti or tarelte fret in bctgbt, to poiat 
OBI the diiec ti oo of tbe toad in caKof a bearr fall of mow, and with 
aotchca cat to ibew the depth of the drtA*. There arere alao 
f CWw ad w oacho ul i, erected a* mtiooi for the Gtmt ^armtt, who 
I9t 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

wcEc soinctinwa Idi hen for MTrral dxjt lOjtcilwr aftn » teverc 
8iiow-<torni, withoui bciog ajiproachcd by a mtfft human being. 
One of these ttood near the top of the mouotaii), anil at wc were liml 
of the walk (which hid occupied two hourx^ and of ihc unirormity 
of the riew, wc npecd to wait hcTC for the Diligence to OTenakc ut. 
We were cordially wckomrd in by a ycrong peatjnt (a ftoldiet'} 
wife) wiih a complexion an fresh ac rhe wirda, aod an cxpreuion as 
pure M the mounts in -snows. The floor of thii rude teoemeoi con- 
listed of tlio eolid rock ; nod a ihrec-Ie^ed table «tood on it, on 
which were placed thrte e.irihen bowls filled with iparkling wine, 
heated on u stove with lugar. The woman ftood by, and did the 
honours of thtt cheerful lepant with a rumic simplicity and a panoral 
Brace that might have called forth the powers of Hemakirk and 
Raphael. I shall not noon forget the rich ruby colour oj the wine, 
is the nun alione upon it through » low gbzcd window that looked 
out on the boundless wabies around, nor its grateful spicy tmell as 
we Mt round it. I waa complaining of the trick that had been 
played by the waiter at Lyons in the taking of our placet, when I 
was lold by the youn;> Ftenchman, that, in caxe I returned to Lyons, 
I ought to go to the Hotel de I'Furope, or to the Hotel du Notd, 
' in which latter ease he should have the honour of scrting me.' I 
thanked him for his information, and we set out to finish the ascent 
of Mount Cenis, which wc did in another half-hour's march. The 
traiirur of the Hotel du Notd and I had Rot into a brisk theatrical 
discuBMon on the comparative merits of Keao and Talma, he assert- 
ing that there was something in French acting which an English 
understanding could not appreciate ; and I insisting loudly on borM* 
of panion as the forte of Talma, which was a language common to 
human nature ; that in his (Hiliput, for instance, it was not a French- 
man or an Englishman be had to represent — * Mah t'eii un bonaiu, 
t'tti (EiSpe' — when our cautious Spauiard brushed by ut, determined 
to shew he could descend the mountain, if he would not atccnd it m 
foot. His figtire was characteristic enough, hit motions smart and 
lively, and his dress composed of alt the colours of the Tatabow. He 
strutted on before us in the snow, like a flnmiogo or some tropical 
bird of variegated plumage ; his dark purple cloak Iluttered in the air, 
hii Montero cap, »« a little on one side, was of fawn colour ; his 
waistcoat a bright scarlet, his coat a cedtlish brown, his Irowsers a 
pea-green, aikl bia boot* a perfect yellow. He saluted us with a 
national poUteaets m he itassed, and seemed bent on redeeming the 

[•edentary sluggiihncss of his character by one bold and dcspcrsic 
tifort of locomotion. 
The coach shortly ilier ovcnook os. We descended a long and 
VOL. II.: » 19} 



t 




NOTES OF A JOtJ&NEY 

MBtf liccliTitj, vitk tbc bJ^wK POBt of UowK Com on am left, 
and a hkt to At right, like a landiBg-fijce tat gccic. Brtwmi the 
tvo was a low, white wao a tun, aad tiir banicr whov we luJ <mr 
paiipoiti tsipcclcii, and tbni went forwanl with onl; two KMB bone* 
mad oae xida. Tbe mow oa ikia ndc of the iw o u Bn i n wai Be«rh 
foac. I M fWMcd ajadf &c Mme bbc Badf on lerel (rowid* t^ 
«c one » Tin* of •evoal bbcfcdama or aaecp mioea ta tbe aids 
of ^ wi wiai B fiMBg M. wiA wmct ocoiag Eras i^ aad avm rtiiw^ 
HBK ja&nn, thai i^ aaaKjr tWBt-fBkn but lognfacr by t&idt c«k 
of atraog tiaber, gnanfiag tbc road-aide^ a Ktpca£cal« fw ci^at a 
buow, aod otber fawnca bcjfmii dii ft iaiwwd n a ttarf pcnptcxn^ 
and ill ir rial jar * Mb caotiaoa bute aad pddy cobibm,* and witii 

'*'——•* ftem tbc ha^ wbere «e wen. Tbe nea aad hone* whb 
cana. that wen Lbouiii^ af ilie |atb m tbe luJJow below, tbvwcd 
Eike crow* or ftiea. Tbr road we had to pas via ofa» niaiedaaiel* 
ooder thai we were poaung, and cat fraen the ade of wbaa araa aO 
bat a pteciiace out of the aolkl nek by tbe broad, fim ataater-baad 
that traced and executed thU aufhtjr work. 7^ thare that an haa 
ia tbe acese ta aa unalling ai the accae ittelf — the Mroog nauhj 
wf^iff diMeff as ■■*M***** aa tbe dauer iiKlf* Near the tamiaft oi 
oae of the 6m galleriei U a be aaaf al waterialE, which at thia tine 
waa frozen mto a tbcct of green peodaat ice— -a magical 1 1 iiafm lai 
tioB. LoDg after wc cnetiaaed to dcNcad, aoiw £uttf aad aav 
dower, aad casie at Icogth to a aoMB rUtft m dke boBaoi of a 
a a maa g Kne of road, where tbe boaaea aeeaed fke doee-cotta wkli 
«k» BKMiBlai&'a ^*»^ reatad F ftf a vadl frfhari thfittg aad wlncli 1 
■Imm Iu ttu «»i ^i| n tiim nf ««t* jfWTuy Bm beic tbc woodcr asd thc 
fflMum btgut I for, adnnaag thro^h a grorc of ileDda tret* to 
asMbn Meat of ibe road, ve caught a acw view of tbc lofty tniw.,^mim 
wovlttt. Il Kood ia front of oi, with iia bead ia the ikic*,eo«CTcd 
widt taow, and kt bare aidca atittchiag far away into a v^ey thu 
inwoed at ila ftn, and o*er wbkh we lecmed anpeodcd ia aiid aii. 
The height, the m^aiiade, the imBiOTeahkaeta ot tbe objects, tfaa 
wild conttut, the deep tonea, the dance and play of the '■■ •* ' • ij i 
from the chany of onr dircctian aad the tntirrpoiwioa of nilwi 
Wifciag abjtca, the c o a tkued r e ca aieoee of tbe awae hqge aaiaea, 
Bke |ban followiDg » with aoatca «ridc«, laianBd ibe aaaae Gka a 
blow, aad yet nre the Jmigaariow wcafA to coatad widi a foroa 
that andtcd tt« xiere HnncaHnbie coiaanaa ot ttd dii n gjvtttc 
tlMlTcd from tbe aw aa t al a'* (idea; here thev were co rcted aad 
ttaioed with lime and other afamb* ; here a chalky cfif ahewed a fir- 
grove cliaibiBg ita tall tide*, aad that iiactf looked at a diWaacr like a 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

buM^ bnnchtng pinr-tree { beyond wM a duk, {irojectiDg knoll) or 
Ull^ promontoryt Out iKtesUcncd to bousd tbe pcnpectiic^ — but, oa 
drawing ntuet to it, the cloudy npoor that ifaroodcd it (u it wnc) 
tctiicd, and opeaed anoilier viiU ttcjood, that, in its own unfatkomed 
depth, iaA in the gradtul obtcunty of twilighi, retrmbled the 
uncertain gloom of the back-ground of tome line picture. At the 
bottom of tfaia nAej crept a di^ah urcam, aad a ntoaattery oi low 
[«aKle uood upon iu buka. The cdcct wai altogether grander ihao 
I had anj coiiceptiao of. It wa« not the idea of height or ckvatiod 
that wu obtrod«d upon the ntiod and Maggrred it, but we leenied to 
tbt Jaictndiii^ into ilie bowcU of the eanh — iu fiwadationi teemed to 
rfe laid bwe lo ilic centre : and aby*> after abyw, a ratt, Uiadowy, 
iucrminable ipacc, opened to recdiv m. We aaw the bmlding im 
and frame-work o( the world— iu limbs, it« poaderoai maiatt, and 
mi^tjr pcoponinoi, raiicd EUge upon ftage, and we misbt be uid to 
have paatcd into an unknowD iphcre, and beyood mortal limiu. Aa 
we rode down our winding, circujioot path, our bogg^, (which had 
been taken oS^ moved on before u«; a grey bone that bad got looec 
from the aiahle followed it, and ai we whtikd round ibe difletcDt 
taraingi in thia rapid, mechanical flight, at the atmc rate and the 
nme diitance from <acb other, there teemed aoniethtag tike witch* 
oafi in the kcoc and in out progrcti ihroogh it. The moon had then, 
and threw iu giranu acrou the fading twil^ht ; the uiowy top* of 
the iWMBlain* were blended with the cloadt and data i their udet 
««tt •brooded in myitcrious £toom, and it waa not till wr entered 
Sao* with its fine dd drawbridge aad cuwOated walla, that we ibond 
oandvce on tirrajlma, or bretthcd common air again. At the inn 
at Saia, we firet perceived the difletcncc of Italian mionen; and the 
next day arrived at Turin, after pataing over ihirtv milea of the 
firaightcit, ftaiicd, and dullevt road in the world. Here we «topprd 
two dayi to rccmit oat iircogiii and look about ua. 



CHAPTER XV 

My arrival at Turin wa* the £tn and only moment of intoxication I 
have found in July. It i« a city of palace*. After a change of 
drcae fwhich, at the cod of a long journey, it a great luxury) 1 
wslked OM, and travetting levcral clean, »pacio«M tircett, came to a 
promrnndc ouuide tbe town, fiom which I aaw the chaiB of Alpt we 
lad leti behiod at, tiling like a range of marUe pilhn io the evening 
iky. Monte Vito and Mowu Cenit retcmUed two pointed coeca of 

'95 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



ice. shooting up abore ill the fc*E. I cQuId dininguith ihc broad 
and rapid Po, wmdiog along ai the other extremity of the wallc, 
through vineyard* tad meadow groutids. The trees hid un that 
deep Mil foliage, which laket a mellower uage from being prolonged 
into the midst of wicter, and which I hud onlv neen in nicturet. 
A Monk wan walking in a toMarj grove x: a litJc diEUnce Froni the 
common paib. The air wat toft and hulmy, and I felt transpoiied 
to another climate^-another earth— anoihet sky. Tlie winter wai 
tuddenly changtsl to upring. Ii vru a« if I had to begin my life 
anew. Several young Italian women were walking on tlie terrace, in 
RngUih dresses and with gficeruldowncatt looks, in which you might 
fancy ih»t yira read the Mtu of the Decameron. It vnn a (:ne, Kriou* 
grace, etjoally remote fioro Picnch levity and Engltth sullefiMn, 
bat it waa the last I taw of it. I have run the gauntlet of vulgar 
shape* and horrid facn erer *bce. The womco in tuly («o far as t 
have leen hitherto) arc detestably ugly. They arc not even dark 
and nvsnhy, but a mixtuic of brown and led, coan«, marked with 
the tmaU pox, with pug-foauires, awkward, ill-made, (ierce, dirty, lazy, 
neither attempting nor hoping to please. Italian beauty (if there is, 
M I am credibly informed, luch a thing) ii retired, conventual, denied to 
the common gaze. It waa and it remain* a drcnm to me, a vision of 
the brain ! f returned to the inn (the Ptntmt Snuu) in high spitiui, 
and made a most luxuriant dinner. Wc bad a wild duck ecjual to 
what we had in Paris, and the gra]:>es were the finett I ever taMed. 
Afterwards we went to tlieOpeta.and saw a la/iet ^ atrian (aal-hciod- 
ing Herod) with all ilie exifivafrince of inceiunl dural>-ibow and 
DOicCt the glittering of armour, the burning of caitlet, the ctniicring 
of hor*c* on and oft* the atage, and hcrojoei like futiet in hysterica. 
Nothing at Bartholomew Fair wa« ever io worse la*tc, noisier, or 
finer. It wu a* if a whole people hnd buried their undentandiogi, 
tbeii imaginations, and their hearts in their sea»ct ; and a* if the latter 
were so jaded and worn out, that they rcauircd to be inflamed, 
dazzled, and urged almost to a kind of Iteoxy-tever, to feel any thiog. 
The houBc wai crowded to excess, and dark, all but the stage, which 
shed a dim, ghastly light on the gilt boxc* and the audience. 
Milton might catily have taken hit idea of Pandemonium from the 
inude of an Italian Theaitc, ii4 heni, it* gorgcousness, and iti gloom. 
Wc were at the back of the pit, in which there wan only itwiding 
room, and leaned against the lir« row of boxcH. full of the Piedmnotcse 
Nobility, who talked fatt and loud in their hanh gutiuml dialect, in 
«pitc 01 the repeated adnionitiuot of 'a gentle usher, Authority by 
name,' who every five seconds hitaed some lady of quality and hi; 
breeding whose voice w.is beard with an tetfH won all the rest. No 
196 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



Dotic« whatever wu tikcn of the aciiag or Uic cinging (which wa« 
any thinx bat Italian, unless lulian at pre»rnt incana a bad imitation 
of the French) till a comic daoet- attracted ail eyti, and drew forth 
burets of enlhuniastic approbation. 1 do not koow (he perfoirnerB' 
name*, bat » shore, tquat fellow (a kind of /w/bri/ of the fjiecn-room) 
dressed in a brown linscy-woolteif doublet and hone, wiih round head, 
round shoutdcn, «hort ttrmR and short Icgi, made Iotc to n 6ne •Ar- 
duioy lady, dressed up in the hoops, lappets and furbelows of the la»i 
age, aod stumped, oodded, pulled ind tupped at liia misircts wttli 
laudable peneverante, and in determined oppowtioo to the awkward, 
mawkiih giAce* of xn Adonii of a rival, with flowing locka, pink 
ribbann, yellow kerseymere brccchcK, and an iotipid exptc»ion ot the 
utmost distress. Ii was nn admirable grotemiue and fanustic piece of 
paniomime humour. The little fellow who played the Clown, 
certainly eotercd into the part with inlinite adroitness and spirit. He 
merited the ims ei roiundas of the poet. He bounded over the stage 
like a foot-ball, rolled himself up like a hedge-hu|;, iluck his arm* in 
hja aidci like Una, rolled hU rye* in his head like bullet* — and the 
inrolunlary plaudits of the audience witne»ed the lucccst of hia 
efforts at once to electrify and Hulltfy them ! The only annoyance 
I found at Turin was the number of beggars who are stuck against 
the walls like tixtutea, and expose their diteased, distorted limb«, with 
no more remor»e or feeling than if they did not belong to them, 
deafening you with one wcariiome cry the whole day long. 

We were fortunate enough to find a voiture going from Geneva to 
Florence, with an F.nglith lady and her niece — I bargaii>ed for the 
■wo remaining places for ten guioea*, and the journey totncd out 
pleatantly, I believe, to all parties; I am sore it did so to us. We 
were to be eight days on the road, and to stop two day; to rest, once 
at Parma, and once at Bologna, to see the pictures. Having made 
this arrangement, I was proceeding o*er the bridge towards the 
Observatory that comm.andi) a view of the town and the whole 
surrounding country, and had quite forgotten that I had such a thing 
u a paifport to take with me. I found, however, 1 had no fewcf 
than four tignanires to procure, besides the mx that were already 
tAcked (o my passport, before I could proceed, and which I had tome 
dil^culty in obtaining in time to act out on the following morning. 
The huny I waa thrown into by this circumstance prevented roe from 
Meing some fine Rembrandu, Spognolcitos and Caraccis, which 1 was 
told arc to be found in the Pftlace of Prince Carignani and elsewhere. 
I received this piece of informaiior) from my friend the Spaniard, 
who called on me to inquire my proposed route, and to ' testify,' as 
be said, ' his respect for the En^iih character.' Shall I own it ? I 

«9J 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



vlioSo^ nilw, and coomnB tbe En^kh, wMmorepleMeil with this 
cowpliwow pud lo IDC in 11^ notianal dancut, dun with idt I ctct 
rvMiTtd on the kok of pcnosal cmlity. M; fcilow-cnTcllrr vaa 
lor GcBoa and Mtlu ; I (or Ftoititec : bnt «r ucr« (o mcvt it Rome 
Tbe Dcx*. mocninf; wu clw and froaty. aad the *un tbonc bright 
bu the witiilowa of the vohurt, m wc tfh Turin, and pracccdnl 
br MMiie Biile* at a gentle pace alonft the banks of the Po^ Tbe 
road waa lerel aad exceDest, and «c met a camber of mtf ket people 
wilb nnilM md yoke* oi oxca. There were uiioc hiili crowned 
withriHaa; tout bit* of iradiiKMnl luluDBcctKryDovaivl thcs; bat 
ia generaj ym would not koow but that jou were ia Hagiaad, exct^ 
fnHD the greaier cicameu aad iijtfanwia of tbe air. Wc bncakflMtcd 
U the 6nt town we came (u, ia two tepuaie Eaeluh sro<i|i«, and I 
coold not help beiajt itrtick whb the msnoer of our reccptMa aX ma 
Italian bin, which had an air of tndifiereDce, inioleace, aod boUow 
J about h, a* nrach ai to aay, > Well, what do yon think of 
IttliaM^ Whatetcf you ihink, wc caie very littie aboia tbe 
Tbr French are a politer people than tbe liiliina tin 
Eogliah are boneuer ; hot I may m w^ poetpone tbeie ctMuymmmt 
lOI my reium. Tbe room ainoked, and the wattet iiMUttd on harioft 
die windowa and the door open, in tpU of my remoaatraoce* to tbe 
conlrajy. He ftuag m and oat of tbe room aa if be bad a great 
opnioB of bimtel^ and wided to expreat it by a IraggaJtaa nr. 
The panridgM, coitcc chccte and grape*, on which wr bruk&iwd 
A Ufimrtittu, were, however, exccUcnt. I aaid *o, bu the acknow- 
IcdtmcM fcemed to be conridered m tvpetflxm by oor attendant. 
wbo receited tive fnscs for hit nutter, aad one for himielf, with an 
■ir of cmdeaccDdtojt patronage. In eomnjuence of wiinethtiiK being 
mid about our paxportt, be relaxed in the aolemBity of hit dcport- 
ncM, and obaerwd that • he had been once ik» tiring citgagnl a* 
valet to an Hngliih gcntlcRun, at Oncnd ; ifaai he had but three 
bour« to procuie hii panpon, but whUe be wa* getting it, the *hip 
tmEcd, and he lou hit niuatioo.' Such wai my firtt imprctatoa M 
InUan ioni and waiteri, ud I h^re seen (iiHhiD|[ tince nutcrially to 
alter it. They receire you with a mixttire of famiUatity and fierce- 
neaa, and inttead of expecting any great civility from them, tlwy 
excite that *ott of uncomfortable lenmtion aa to dte footing yon are 

Xn, that you ue glad to £ct away wiihom nMctiog with nome 
Mt. There i« cither a ftwniDg •Icekaea*. which look* like 
dengn, or an inw^nce, which looka a* if ihey had you in their 
tmrer. In SwttzcrUnd and Suroy yen arc waited on by women ; in 
Italy by men. I camot ny I like the exciunge. From Turin to 
Florence, only one girl entered tbe room, and the (not to meod the 
198 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 




I 



mancr) wm ■ vrry prcRy od«. — [ wu toM at [be office of Me«rt. 
Bonnafoux M Tune, diat travelling to Rome by a rcttcrino <ns 
hif^hly dan^ierous, and that tbetr Uiligrncc wat guarded by four 
cirabinwrt, to defrnd it from the banditti. I mw none, nor the 
appearance of any thini; that looked like a robber. excc)» a bare-foot 
finar, who tuddenly tpraofi out of a hedge by the road-aide, with a 
•omcwhot wild and haggard apjwurancc, which a little itartled me. 
IlUWad of finding a thief conce.-iled behind each btub, or a SaUator 
Rom (ice scowling from a mined hovel, or peeping from a juiiing 
crag at every turn, there n an exccllcnl tUTDplke-roe'id all the WJiy, 
tbtee-fourih* perfectly Ic»e!, skirted with hcdpei, corn^iidds, orchardt 
and Tineyardi, populouii with hanilels and vtila(<ea, with labourers at 
work in the fieldt, and with crowdK uf pe;i«:ims in f.ay, j)iciuie«iue 
Mtirc, and with hcahhy, cheerful, open, but m.inly countenancci, 
panring along, cither to or from the different market-towni. It was 
Carnival time; and an we travelled on, we were Btruck with the 
variety of rich dreMCf, red, yellow, and green, the high-plaited head- 
dresses of the women, tome in the shape of helmets, with pins stuck 
in them like ikewer«, with gold crosset at iheir bosonu, and Urge 
iBufFt on their band*, who poured from the principal towot along the 
bigh-road, or ttimed off towards tome village-spire in the distance, 
chequering the Imidiicape with their gaily-tinted groups. They often 
turned back and laugh»i w we drove by them, or passed thoughtfully 
on without noticing us, but assuredly showed no (igns of an intention 
to rob or murder us. I^vcn in the Apenntnea, though the ro«d n 
rugged and desolate, it is lined with farmhousei and towns at small 
distances ; and there is but one houne all die way that is stained by 
the recollection of a tragic catastrophe. How it any be farther 
■outh, 1 cannot lay ; but eo far, the rqwrrts to alarm straogeri are (to 
the best of my obeervation .ind conjecture) totally unfounded. 

We had left the Alps behind us, the while tops of which we itill 
saw scarcely distinguishable from ridgea of rolling cloudy and that 
seemed to follow us like a formidable enemy, and almost enclose us in 
a semicircle : and we had the ApeBOtoe) in front, that, gradually 
emerging from the horizon, opposed iheir undulating barrier to our 
future progress, with shadowy *hape> of danger and Covigliaijo 
lurking in the midst of them. All the space between these two, lor 
at least 150 mile* (I should inippose) is one level cultivated plain, 
one continuous garden. This became more remarkably the cai>e, as 
«c entered the territories of M.uia-Louisa (the little Slates of Parma 
and Ptaccntia) when, for two whole days, we literally travelled 
tbiwigh an uninterrupted succession of corn-fields, vineyards and 
orchartls, all In the highest state of cultivation, with the hedge* 

'99 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



aaiij clipped into a ktnd of Uclli»-worki and tbe Tines bangiog in 
(ettooo* horn tiee to im, or cUi^bg ' with nttrmgeablc arm* ' f otwd 
tbe braoclic* of excb regularly punted and friendly nijipOft. It waa 
Riorr like |aHiitg throogh a number of orchard-pJoa or nrden^groonda 
in the od^bonrbood of totnc great city (aacfa a« London) than 
Wikiftg a Jowacy through a wide and cxicuivc tract of country. 
Not a conioioa came in tight, nor a uoglc foot of waste or indilTcrmt 
ground. It became lediow at lut from tbe Hcboets, tbc oeatoeta, 
and the uniformity ; fot tbe whole was wotkcd uji lo on <d«al model, 
and K> exactly a countcrpaii of ittelf, that it wai like looking out of 
a irindow at tbc umc idenucal Fpot, initead of pauing on to new 
objtcta every uuiaDi. Wc were uioratcd eren with beauty and 
camfoR, and were dispo»ed to rcpc«t ibc wish— 

*To-KM>m>nr to fmli fieUs and paHum new.' 

A white M}uai« lilla, or better tort of farm-hou»e, someiiiQCS atarcd 
OB n from the end of a too^ Mrait amuc of po^an, luodiag in 
OMcntatroui, unadorned nake^ieo, and la a •liAi ineagrc^ and very 
•ingular tutc. What it the caotc of the predilection of the Italians 
for ntaight linea and unsheltered wolU i I* it fot the Kike of iccurity 
or fanity? The dc«irc of lecing eTcrything or of bcicg tcca by 
«fttTy one ? The only thin; that broke tbc snilbrmity of the Ket>c, 
Of gave an appearance of wrctcbcdoes* or neglect to the conDiry, wsa 
tbe number of dry bed« of tbe torrent* of melted snow and ice that 
came down from the mouataini tn tbe breakiaji up of tbe winter^ and 
that nretcbed their wide, comJortlcM, unprofitable lenjith acro» tbe*c 
Talleyt in their progreu to tbe Adriuic. Some of ibem were half a 
mile io breadth, and bad timely bridge* OTcr tbcm, with ionumcraUe 
archc* — (tbc work, it Kcmn, of Mjiria L.ouiia) tome of which wc 
croucd ovcti others we rode ucdet> Wc approached the firct of 
thtm by moonli^htt and the dfect of tbe long, white, glimmctin^t, 
aepulcliral arches wai a« ghastly then ax it is dreary in tbc day-time. 
There in Hcimcthing almost prclL-coittuial in tbe aeotatioo tbey excite, 
p;irticuhrly when your ncrrct have been agitated and harassed during 
several duyn' journey, and you arc ditpaocd to startle at everything in 
a quctlinnabic tliapc. You do not know what to make of them. 
They Kcm like tlie skeletoot of bridges over the dry bonci and dusty 
relic" of rivers. It is as if Kome mighty concussion of the earth bad 
•wept away tbe water, and left the bridge standing in stiffened horror 
over it. It ia a new species of desolation, iii fiat, dull, ditheartentng, 
and hopelecs at can be imagined. Mr. Ccabbe should travel post to 
Itu]y on purpoce to dctcribc it, and to add it to bia list cf prociuc 
horrors. While hefe, he might alto try hie band upon an luliaa 



4 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



P 



vinugc, and if hr does not oque^zc tlie juice and (pirit out of it* and 
Icatc nothing but tlie hiak and tl;dki, I am much niiMaken. As wc 
groped out way under the nonjr ribs of the fiitt of these strvcium 
that we came to, one of the Hrchea within which ihc moonlight fell, 
presented a raomcnury appr^tancc of a woman in a while drcts and 
hood, stooping to gather stones. I with I had the prirific pencil of 
the ingenious artist above-naniedt that I might iinbody ibu fiitiiDg 
shadow io a pcrmaoeDt fona. 

ItW3> late 00 the fourth day (Saturday) before we reached Pamu. 
Our two black, gloniy, caiy-going horicE were tired of the tamcoeu 
or length of the way ; and our guide apprarrd to have forgotten it, 
for we entered (he capital of ihc Archduchy without his bcitij; aware 
of it. We went to the Peacock Ino, whcte we were shewn into a 
very Hne but fjded apartmcni, and where we stopped tht? whole of the 
next day. Here, tor the first time on our journey, we found a carpet, 
which, however, stuck to the tiled floor with din and a^e. There 
wii a lofty bed, with a crimhon »ilk canopy, a marble table, looking- 
^lasBci of all si/.es and in every direction,' and excellent coll'ce, fruit, 
game, bread and wine at a moderate rate — that n to say, our suiter 
the first night, our breakfast, dinner, and coifec the next day, and 
coffee the followiog mofniag, with lodging and Cie, came to iweoiy- 
threc francs. It would have cost more than double in England in the 
tame ctrcumstaaces. We h.td an exhilarating riew fiom our window 
of the street and great square. It was full of noiie and buDiIc. The 

Die were standing in lounging altitudes by thcmReliet, or talking 
in groups, and with great nnimjition. The cxprciHon of 
character seemed to be natural and unafi'ccted. Every one appeared 
to follow the bent of bis own humour and feelings (jjood or bid) and 
I did not perceive any of that uniirking giiniacc and larnish of 
affectation and icif- complacency, which gUlIcrs in the face and 
manners of every Frencliman, and make* them so many enemie*. If 
an individual is inordinately delighlcd with himself, do not others 
laugh at and take a dislike to him ! Mu*i it not be equally so 
with a nation enamoured of itsclfj — The women that t saw did 
not answer to my expectations. Tlicy had high shoulders, thick 

' Why hsv« they tDcb quintttiei of boklng-^bHa in Il'lr, uid nuDS in Scot- 
linrl i The pfiit ia «i<h rountryii equil ; the finrty not. Ntiliief in ScolUnil do 
they cill in the nil of the Fiae AtU, o( thr uphuiiirrir (n<l lapiuiir, la multiply 
the tmA^ct o' the totmtt in iquiUd iteL<irit^unt,incS t^ui thf^vt thai thr flcbs>«mml 
U moT^l ai yxU 41 pliyiiul. Tliey write up on cniiin pani oi Riimr * ImmuniJiib.' 
A Flortnlinf iikid why it wn rpl "rtitlen on the jHct pf Rome f An Engiiih- 
miD nii(h[ be t«nipltil to sik, why it ii not mtitlen on the |>lei of Caliii, to ktvc 
for the rMt of the Conlintnt I U (he people sod hoiua ia luly ue •• dirty at 
dirtier thu in Fnnee, ihe (treeu and tuwtu trc ke/* la iofiaitcly better otder. 

20I 




NOTEB OF A JOCKNBT 



T-m) 



mamtt aid ^—Miirri'rin. m ite avamdmi rinps. «ifi< 
mmt<n *itk tL Tfe ■» In^ bcoa. md I m 

mk) •fint. Tbe ftitaa fad mrr oT tben (both 

ia*MM. inA a jovial «M|>anan rf good taBBon- soil ^n 

iterM* tte twiobirf ibc ^mmmdfm^md dir pride oc tbrfam 
4mbS. U«r w» •■■ iIk wImIt vmxka^ket kmoA dura a* tfar 
tta««d by. Be% Chw«>I «mk, ht^ iom* «» o eMw a ted « t^ 
pranpol dMrthM. nd JIm* ■■ £aft wt pns m tkr Open w tte 
■ iiawiX Tbi d«)p bcfacc, a wr laiLud Fam la the daak, «e nv 
" >•-■>• a-aAiBn Hi MnboKE at v lii*"n^' . hucb acmuo a ^m^xil 
V1UUIIU an thm iMMd !■ |itmmii of tfae hi||beat qmfin s 




uAvotr lif 



• ■■nM^t an w ■HMOea tRsa 
l^mi GlEsdbi, is 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

first, it mif;hi be one of the abiiKs of the Ciniitil ; bat the CaminJ 
in over, and the windows are will lined with eyet md heads — that do 
not like the double of putting on a cap. 

We were told we could nee her Mjjeity it iiuatL, (>o her dutiful 
tubjccu cull the Archduchesi) ,-tnd we wcni to »ee the daughter of a 
tovereign, the itclf-de voted contort of one who only loit hnnccif by 
talcing u])oo him b degrading c(|Uiiliiv with Rmperon and Kingt. 
We had a Cicerone with us, who led us, withoot c^irmooy, to a 
pljcc in the ch*{>el, where we could conmiand a lull view of Maria 
Louisa, and which we made u»e of without much fCKrve. Sbe 
knelt, or Hood, in the middle of a small gallery, with attcndaats 
ni:dc and female, on eich lide of her. Wc (aw her diicinclly for 
•rvcrat minutes. Slic hm full fair feature*, not handsome, hut with 
a mild, un.isstiming expression, tinged with thoughifutncsii. She 
appears about tony ; she seemed to cast a wistftil look at us, being 
atnngert and I>!n|>lish people^ 

' Meihou^ht the lookcil at u« — 
Sn Fvcry one believes, thai i«s a nuchcu I ' — Olu PlaY. 

There ire some not very plraiant runioun circulated of her. She 
must have had something of the heroine of the Cid about her. 
She married the man who had conquered her &ther. She i« (aid to 
have leaned on the Duke of Wellington's arm. After thai, she 
might do whatever she pleased. Perhaps these stories are only 
cifcclated to degrade her ; or. prrbaptf a scheme may have been laid 
to <legrade her in reality, by the persons neateM lo her, and Riott 
intereiccd in, but most jealout of, her honour 1 We were invited to 
ttee the cradle of the lilile Napoleon, which I declined : and wc then 
rwent to tee the new gallery which the Archduchcii has built for ber 
piciurcf, in wliich tlicrc is a bust of henelf, by Canova. Here [ taw 
a number of pictures, and among others the Correggios and the 
^celebrated St. Jerome, which I bad kcb at Paris. 1 must have bocn 
out of lune ; for my di appointment and my conaenucm niortilication 
were extreme. I had never thou;[ht CoriegEio a God i but 1 had 
attributed thin to my own inexperience and want of taite, and I hoped 
by (his time to have ripened into that ftiU idolatry of him exprcticd 
by Mcngs and others. Instead of which, his fncture* {they *taod on 
the Krouod withoot frames, and in a bad tight] appenrnl to be core- 
parativdy meaa, fc«ble, and affected. There is tbe master-hand, no 
doubt, but tremdous wkb artificial air*~bcauty and grace carried to a 

E'tch of (jiiaintnes* and conceit — the expresnon of joy or woe, but 
«t in a doting contemplation of it* own cctiasy or agony, and after 
' being raised to the height of inch and nature, hurried over the brink 





JOURNEY 



uf fcliiMMivtu vua ctfnninacy, by a cnrmjt after impOMbdiues, ami 
mntan tUUuce wUh tbe iJm/. Corrtggio ba> pabted tbc wmihrd 
•Hiite oi twcvtnvM, but be don not itop till he tu« coatonod it into 
«Nc<:utt«n i be tuut exprmed the nttnoit dittrett and de^KtadeQcy of 
toul, hiu it ■• xiie wnknew of' niAcring wilbout the Kren^Ui. Hit 
pictMte^ tfe mt perirci and delicttt. iJiat *lhc mdw achM ai tbcm ;' 
<uh1 in bia ctfona after refiocraem, he h« worked hinuelf np into a 
Ualo oi laiijpiid, nervout intubtlilir, which ii rcdected back apoo the 
■INjClatw. The«e retnaiki appe;ired to me applicable in cbcir fvSl 
1dic« h> the St. Jrroroc, the 1 aking do-am from tbe Crow, and the 
Maitrydom of St. Placide, In whkh there is an cxcculioBcr with hi* 
thurk lurikrd, id a ttiaro-ttum of the ino«t inanclloaa ckartiew and 
IWiMty. In ail tbetc there b a warn of manly Gnnncn and nmplicitj. 
He migbl be auppoaed to have toucbedi at aome period of hie progrna, 
on th« bijtbest paiai of excellence, aixl then to have (polled all by a 
wiah to go farther, without knowing how ot why. Pcthapt modeaty, 
or an ignorance of what other* had done, or of what the an cutdd do, 
wai at the fouad^ttioo of (hit, and prevented him from knowing where 
to nop. Pvrltaps he had too rciintd and tender a suicepiibility, or 
idea* of unctity and iweetnew beyond tbe power of his art 10 
exnrcai ( and in the attempt to reconcile tlie mccbaoical iind it/eai, 
railed from as excet* of feeling! I taw nothinj; ejte to plcote met 
and I Wat sorry I had come (o far to baiv my faith in great came* 
and immortal work* misgive me. I wa* rnidy to csclaini, < Oh 
inbting ! I thought thee a dubsunce, and I luid ihee a «h^ow ! * 
Tliere was, however, a Crowim^ o/" lit fir^, a freaco (by 
Corrrggio) from the Church of St. Paul, which wat f«U of roajcsty, 
(««etnecs, and grace ; and in th!*, and tlie head* of boy* and fawn*, 
in tbe Clsut (fD'utna, there i« a freedom and breadth of exccntioo, 
owing 10 the mode in which they were painted, and which maJkea 
them term pure emanaiiont of ihe mind, withooi anyihing overdone, 
iinic&l, or little. Tbe cupola of St. Paul't, painted by Correg^o in 
fresco, is quite dcuruyed, 01 the iiguie* duller in idle iragtnenu frotti 
"ht walls. Moat of the other pictures in tbia church were in a 
iwdry, merelricioua style. I was beginning to think that painting 
wa« not calculated for churches, coloured nirlacct ooc agreeing with 
(olid pallara and mauet of architecture, and also that Italian an w>s 
lea* acverc, and more a puppci-(how bnBDes* than I had thought it. 
I was not a little liced of the painied shrine* and paltry images of tbe 
Virgin at every hundred yards as we rode along. Uut if my ihougbta 
were veering to this clieetlen. attenuated speculation of oothingneaa 
and vanity, they were called back by the sight of tbe FanicK 
Theatre— the ooblot and most striking monument I hare accn of 
JO4 




4 
I 



I 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 




tbe golden a^ of Italy. It was buill by one of tbe Farnoe family 
about the fifteenth or lixteenih century, and would bold eight thootand 
finectaiora. It i* cold, empty, nilcnc la liie recvpiicIcA of the dead. 
The walls, rool«, rafters, and rven wain, tcmaiti perfect ; but the tide 
of populaiton and of wealth, the pomp and pride of patrotiaje and 
power, Itemed to have turned anothi^r way, and (o hate left it a 
dcierted pile, that would, long ere ihia, buve mouldered into ruin and 
decay, but that its original Btrcn}>th and ran proponion* would not 
luAcr it — a laning proof of the magnilicrnce of a former age, and of 
the degeneracy of this ! The slreeu of Pantia are brauliftil, airy, 
clean, gpaciouE ; ihc churches elegant ; and the walla around it 
picturesque and delightful. The walls and rampart*, with the 
gardens and lincyatds close to them, have a most romantic effect j 
and we saw, on a flight of steps near one of the barrier*, a group of 
men, women, and children, that for exprexnion, composition, and 
colouring rivalled any thing in painting. We here al«o observed the 
extreme cicarncaa and brilliancy of the southern atmosphere: the line 
of hills in the western horizon was distinguished from the sVy by a 
tint so fine that it was barely perceptible. 

Bologna is even superior to Parma. If its atieels are lea* ttately, 
its public building* arc more picturesque and varied ; and in long 
arcade*, ita porticos, and silent walk* arc a perpetual fea«l to the eye 
and the imagination. At Parma (as well as TuriiiJ you see a whole 
street at once, and have a magical and imposing el!cct produced once 
fer all. Ac Bologna you meet with a number of surprises; tiew 
beauties unfold thentaelves, a pcrspcciive is gradually prolonged, or 
branches of! by some rctiri-d and casual opening, winding its hcedlets 
way — the rw in urie — where leisure might be supposed to dwell with 
learning. Here is the Falling Tower, and the Neptune of ,Iohn of 
Bologna, in the great square. Going along, wc met Professor 
Mcizofanii, who is said to understand ihirty-eight languages, (English 
among the rest. He was pointed out (o ns aa a prodigious curiosity 
by our guide, (Signor Catti) who has this pleasantry at his tongue s 
end, that * there is one RapliaeJ to paint, one Me/iofanti to under- 
stand languages, and one Signor Gaiii to explain everything ihcy 
wish to know to strangers.' Wc went under the guidance of this 
accomplished person, and in company of our fellow-travellers, to the 
Academy, and to the collection of the Marquis Zampieri. Id the 
last there is not a single picture worth seeing, except some old and 
curious ones of Giotto and Ghirlandaio. One canout took at thete 
j)erformances (imperfect as they are, with nothing but the high 
endeavour, tbe fixed purpose stamped on them, like the attempts of 
a deformed person ai grace) with suf!ideDt reaeraiioo, when one 

JOS 





fMNri^M*. Hs« >» tW Sc. C«^ <rf^ K^ 

««. Tom. Mrf IM Si. P«M Mam, (a I 
fiMi if TttM'*) • «— |i t i. H G^ (m i 

fl# ilw Odkry. Fflw m oT fiW of i^ 

' Tkrf Mil • M^ b IWi* W • «m1«7 M ife |«tfa *• 

MUil (at iW ■lirtiiiTiM trklu *ai fcain U if ■! nu; i 

(• IM MM IMW, vliM k maai ina tbr Dwiar, hJ bori kn nmd iW oMk 

111* lrt<wp> af vmMmjt I Imw mm ■• i 
IkiM ti— wwni l iw (rf Im-vakMc 

m6 




EfcLChB 
.■s4 fci 1 1 1 ik 






I 



m 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

MoDkith head* (crai their rery cowli ceon to think): ibe Dead 
CbtiR above Km ■ fine moDommtJ effect ; >nd the wbolc pianrr, 
compued with this maater't gcDcral uylc, ii like 'xht othedral'i 
glootn aad cboift' compwed with nina; n&ilc* ud the sbcphcrd't 
pipe ttpon ibe naoonUtM. 1 Idi thi« Gallery, once mon rtcoacUed 
to mj iitoatite srt. Guido aim gun* upon dk, becaiue I coDlimuUjF 
tec fioc picture* of hi*. * By their work* ye *biU know them,* it a 
lair lule for judging of paintcre or men. 

There » a ude p4vcnicni je Botogna, Mod<-na, uid mott of the 
other townt io Italy, 6o that you do not walk, a^ in Pane, in coBliainJ 
dft^id of being run over. The ibi^ have a neat appetfaocci lad tn 
well bupplioJ with the ordinary oeceuariea of Tat, frakt poakry, 
bread, oniuni or ];arlick, cheeie and auuges. The buichen' thop« 
look much at they do in Eoglaod. There ia a technical detcripttoo 
of the chief towiM in Italy, which tho*e who kam the Italian 
Grammar are io!d to get by hcui — Gtiaa ia nutria, Btitgna la 
dotu, RavtwM FaalicOt Firrnit ia itHa, Rema ia t/uUti. Some of 
tfacae I have feeo. and othert not i aed (bote that I hare doc ncd 
Mem to ine the fioctt. Doen uot thii lUt coovey aa good an idea of 
tbete placet at one can well have } It telectt tome one diitinct 
feature of them, and that the bett. Words may be uid, after all, to 
be the linctt things in the world. Thingi thcmselvvt ate but a 
lower Bpccies of wotdt, exhibiting the groncnducii and dctailt ol 
matter. Yet, if there be any country aniwcring lo the description 
or idea of it, it is Italy ; and to this theory, I must mUI, tlic Alps arc 
also I proud exccpiioiu 



CHAPTER XVI 




Wi left Bologna on our way to Florence in the afternoon, that we 
might croiH the Apeninr* the following day. High Mats had 
bcm celebrated at Bolof^a ; it waa a kind of gala day, and ibe road 
WM lined with flocki of country-people returning to their homes. At 
the fim village we came to among the hillii, we uw, talking to her 
companion* by the roatl-side, the only very haodtome Italian we haw 
yet teeo. It wat not the true Italian face neither, dark and oral, 
but more like the face of an F.nglidi peotant, with heightened grace 
and animation, with spurkling eye*, white tcctb, a conplMtioa 
breathing health, 

' And "hen »he tpaJce, 

BeEwixt At ptarli and rubiei taftly brake 

A silver tound. which lieavmly muuc leem'd to make.' 

J07 




KOTES OP A JOCB2CET 




wm hnkMa mr mm m mtmJbn ^ 

ami 

flBs pcttnM|iK w fc tt * A DfvoL DOWfld oovw toe 
frcopicc oa ffae re a d ■J p, « f iaM i rt or aoasiaMA bim mbb k, 
Md Acwadtbe *afleybdB« ia a man Aunt, arjr pewniiv ; ea 
IW poiM of 1 rocfc faaltway (!«■■ vm a rrrhrd tame nl^e-^arr or 
mined fanlmcM, vbitr liilrti mi bno^HMs acre Adurcd m 
ibv bMon of dtc rale fv b«lo« : * jm t ( o hm row ao tbe adca 
of the iwNnun above, ot a Utak tnct of bron hcsUi or tfark. 
ooraM a>u cootTMWd with die clear pcadj uau of tkc novy rid|e> 
aidialM|her diMaacc, alwie wUck KHoe mO lof&r pakadatcdthr 
Ay, tiapd witli a roty l>e)u — Sscli were aariy the fratarca of tlw 
bn jia y« til rooad, and & KTcnl mik* ; aod tbo^i we fwmul y 
Mcndad and dncMdcd ■ jttj viadiiig rood, and ex^i n obket 
MV in cooua witli oar pan of ilie kcdc, now girisg rciKl lo 
aaotfcer, at oae drae at a ceaadn^ife diRancc bcacath oar hct, aod 
MOB after Mttriog a* bif b above our bcadi, jrct tbe cleineaii of facautjr 
or of arildaeM atiaj^ the mnr, the taif J'mH, tbougb eonaiaatly 
daui^B^ waa aa o4t«> repeated, and «« at length grew tired of a 
■onery thai atitl aeeaica aootber and tbe ame. Ooe of our 
plaaanWK anpfoynctita wa* to remark tbe team* of oxeo and carta 
that wa had Wely |mtcd, winding dowo a dccliniy in oer rcox, or 
MHfwndtd on the odge ol a precipice, tbu on ibe ipot we had 
BiMaken far lerel groand. V\e had tome difBculty too with our 
driver, who bod talked i;>llamly oTcr-ai^t of hiring a couple of oxen 
tfl iltHW ui up (be niountaia ( but when it ramt to tht pate, his heart 
&iled htm, and hia Swita ecooomy prevailed. In addition tu hi* 
habiiaal cloieneu, the windfall of the ten guineaa, which waa bryoiKl 

lOS 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

fail cxpectaiioot, had whnccd hi* appetite for gRin, soil he »>i>«arcd 
deierminMl to make a ^otx! thio^ of hii ]irt«CDi joumey. He pn- 
tended to borgatn with Kieral of the owner*, but ftoni hit beating 
them down to the lowcit fraction, nothing erer came of it, and when 
from ihc thawing of the ice in the »un, the inconvcnirncc becune 
serious, to that we were ecrcnl lime* obliged lo gel out and walk, to 
enable the bories to proceed with the carriage, he said it wu too 
Ute. The country dow hivv/ wilder, and the day gloomy. It wai 
three o'clock before we wopi-cd at Pictra Mala to have our lugeage 
examined on entering the 'I uncan Statei ; and here we rciol»id to 
breakfast, instead of proceeding four tnilei farther to CoTigltaio, 
where, though we did not choose to pans the night, we had ^opowd 
10 regale our waking imaginations with a thrilling tecollectioo of the 
supcrstitioua terrori of the spot, at ease and in safety. Our recepiioo 
at Pictra Mala was frightftil enough ; tlie rooms were cold and empty, 
and we were met with a vacant ttare or with sullen frown*, in lieu of 
any better welcome. I have since thought that these were probably 
the consequence of the contempt and ill-humour shewn by other 
English travellers at the dcsoUtencss of the place, and the apparent 
want of accommodation ; for, as the fire of brushwood was lighted, 
and the eggs, bread, and coffee were brought in by degrw;*, and we 
expressed out tatiAfaciion in them, the cloud on the brow of our 
reluctant cntetuinert vanished, and melted into thankliil smile*. 
There was still an air of myctecy, of bunle, and inattention about 
the house ; persons of both »cxci, and of cTcry age, jiaucd and 
repassed ilirough our sitting room to an inner chamber with looks 
of anxiety and impottacice, and we learned at lengtli that the 
mistress of the inn had been, half an hour before, brought to bed 
of a fuic boy I 

W« had now to mount the longest and steepest asccot of the 
Apennine*] and Jaques, who began to be alarmed at the account* 
of the state of the road, and at the increasing gloom of the weather, 
by a great effort of magnanimity had a yoke of oxen put lo, and after- 
wards another horse, to drag us up the worst part ; but as toon as be 
could lind an excast be dismissed both, and we ctawled and iCumMcd 
on a* before. The hills were covered with a dense cloud of ilect 
and vapour driven before the blast, that wrapped us round, and hung 
like a blanket or {if the reader pleaiei) a dark curtain over the niorc 
distant range of mountains. On our right were high ledge* of tVown- 
ing rocks, ' cloud-clapt,' and the sunimiis iinpcfTioas to the sight — on 
our farthest left, an opening was made which showed a milder iky, 
evening clouds pillowed on rockn, aod a cb.iin of loftv peaks basking 
in the rays of the setting nut t between, and in the valley below, there 

VOL. IX. : o J09 









mr iIk *B7 np of tfe noHcaiiv 
tHMB^-TV ham njil ln«f kap tMr 

ltWiM«tiftkM«feb>nacd^flL Wcbl«a 

I lO BO) tfld WC dSKHIBd n^BIT oDVB ^B IBS 4KaCr 

■wtfi*. lo tm ptu ii S^K , fron ibc ant <«r Jraatfv^ m n 
alkd) ilM bud MdHfio cvwbpnl ■. Mi tW i^ief opeacd 

4M to Lii Mii thgre^ Juvinit ociycd hc oM^cn ucutcned ta uon 
pf ccnscn iBo robocn^ wn w^^v will a mbboobi uhucd c on rt ^yml 
ffftw^' n g to the IBB, wtwTC «c were owlj boiMed like a toA tt 
•facepfeUcd far the Mght. The ona «t L« Mwchcn b, Itke mamj 
at dit IBM !■ Italy, ■ Mt of wide dilipdawd faaAi^ wkhoa fnninac^ 
bn with qnaaiiija of old and bad pietiM^ y w m i u or hMtociBk 
The PMpk (iht snadaan ban ware ««■■») wctv oblipag «ai 
^ood'MMHMWdv tnni^D wv ca wa d procim agrtha i ^K* o^ woK win 
Mr coCa% )i« were compdQed to tne it Uiri. Wc mn puc iam 
a liuiiM-man with three bed* in it witboot canaiiii, at tber b^l on 
oiikcf with a fire-place diaRMved- aad ^ncbt with the co tcrb da like 
botM^loiha, and the Mraog aracHof the les*ea of lodun corn «itfa 
which Uicy were tradbd, farai^t to one's aiiad the idea of a tfarec- 
lullcd Mabtc. We were niGf«bcd, bowwtr, for w« ticpt fecDrdy ; 
aod wc catered opoo the Ian ttagt bttinaa the foUowiag day. leaa 
ariiaiKd tbaa wc bwl beat by the firti. We had left the aaiqiMHIied 
dwnialiwi and toibtoketi irrq>iiUrTty of the A penuine* behind tu t but 
ito 



THKOUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



we w«rc uUl occMionally treated with a rockjr clifi > pine-gro*Ci a 
raoantaia^orrcni ; while tbcrc ww no end of itopiBg hilU with otd 
niiiw or modcni vUIjs apo<n Uicnii of fanu-houtM buih io tbe Tiucw 
U9Kt of {Itding Mreami with briilgt* over tbem, of mndow-^ouixUi 
utd tbkic plantatioiw of olim ud cyprcHm by tbe road lidc. 

After being gndfied for some hour* with the cultimcd bnuty of 
the icene (reodered more nrikrng [>y contrast with our laie perih), 
wc came to tbe brow of the hill overlooking Florcrtcet which Uy 
under an, » ncenc of enchantmcoi, a city planted io a gaidnit and 
Tewmbliog a rich 2nd vnried luburb. The whole prewntcd a brillimt 
amphithettie of hill and vaJct uf hui!diii;;>, f;rove$, und teincc». The 
etrclin;; heigbti were crowned with iparklin}; Titlu ; the utrriDg 
LndiCape, above or below, waved in .in cndleu lucccsaion of oliTC- 
^roundn. The olive i> noi unlike the commoo willow in ihsp* or 
colour, and being still in leii, give to the middle of winter ihe appear- 
ance of a grey (umiucr. Io the midst, the Duomo and other churcbct 
raised their heads; vineyards and ofive-gtouod* chmbed the hilU 
opposite till they joined a toowy rtdgc of Apennines ridng above the 
lop of Fesole ; ooe pbatatioo or raw of tree* after another friBged 
the ground, like rich lace ; though you saw ii not, there Sowed the 
Amo; every thing was on ibc noblest scale, yet finislwd in tlie 
nunutex put — the perfection of nature and of art, populoua, »{>lendid, 
fiill of lite, yet simple, ai/y, embowered. I-'lorence in itself is inferior 
10 Bologna, and some otlier towot ; but the view of it and of the 
immediate aeighbauibood is superior Ut any I have seen. It is 
indeed, quite delicioui, and presents an endless variety of enchanting 
tralki. It it nut merely the number or the exqoiiitenets or admirable 
combination ul the objccta, their forms or colour, but every spot ia 
rich in jiisoaaiions .11 once tbe most classical and romaoiic. From 
rov &iend L. H.'s houw at Mmano, you sec at one riew the village 
01 flcliniano, belonging to Michael Angelo'a family, the bouse in 
which Macbiavel lived, and that where Boccaccio wrote, two ruined 

castJca, in whicli the rival families of the Gcrardeschi and the — 

carried on the most deadly strife, and which teem as though they 
might still rear their mouldering heads against each other ; and not 
far from this tbe FaHey ef Laiuei (the scene of Tht i^nrwomn], nod 
Fetole, with the mountains of Pciugia beyond. With a view like 
this, one may think one's sight 'enriched, in Bures's phrase. On 
the ascent towards Fesole is tlie house wlieie Galileo lived, and 
where he was imprisoocd after hi* release from tbe Inqubition, at the 
time Milton saw biro.' In tbe town itself arc Michael Angclo's 

' Uc WW cooaneil io the lDi|uisition tboul lii imki, when il i> nnoM-'f h( 
wispyllatbc Vatvaxt; far he luia sUinfc pins ia his liinbs>>nd boriily dmbilitiM 




p 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



of the Ka«on, and great good- will to be pleased, but a dearth of wit 
and invention. Nat meirly the uniformity of the mailt) gtvi tire- 
tome, hut the seeing an inflexible puicboant countenance moving 
about upon a living ixniy (and without any thing quaint or excntvagam 
in tlie actions of the person to justify a resort to *o gioteique a 
diii;;uiiie) shocked by its unmeaning incongruity. May-day In London 
ii a ftvourablc verMon of thr Carniifal here. The finely of the 
chimney-i weeper* in an ngteeiible and inielligtble conUait to their 
iifiul nquaiidneM. Their three dayt' license ha* tpiril, noite, and 
mirth in it ; whc(e»> the dull eccentricity and mechanical andct of 
ihc Carnival are drswlcd out till they are merged without any 
lioleot cfToK in the solemn farce of I<cDt. It had been a liae 
leaaon this yeaft and it is said that the dilference between a 
good leason and a bad one to the tradet-people is so great, that it 
pays the rent of their houtes. No one is allowed to wear a 
mask, after Lent commcnccit, and the priett* never maik. There 
is no need that they Bhnuld. There t« no ringing of bells here 
ai with us (triple bob*niajor« have not «cnt their cheering sound 
into the heart of Italy) i but during thr whole ten days or fort- 
night that the Carnival continues, there is a noise and jangling of 
betia, Rich an it made by the itile boys in a country town on 
out Shrove Tuesday. We could not tell exactly what to make 
of the striking of the clocks at fint : at eight they struck two ; at 
twelve six. We thought they were put back lo prevent the note 
of lime, or were thrown into confusion to accord with the license of 
the occasion. A day or two cleared up the mystery, and we found 
that the clocks here (at least those in our inunediatc neighbourhood) 
counted the hours by nxes. instead of goiog on to twelve — which 
method, when you are acquainted witli it, saves time and patience 
in telling the hour. I bare only heard of two masks titut seemed to 
have any point or humour in them ; and one of these was not a 
mask, but a person who went about with his face uncovered, but 
keeping it, in ipitc of every thing he saw or heard, in the same 
unmoved position as if it were a mask. The other was a person 
so oddly disguised* that you did not know what to make of him, 
whether he were man or woman, beast or bird, and who, pretending to 
be equally ai a loss himself, went about asking every one, if they could 
tell him what he was i A Neapolitan nobleman who was formerly 
in England (Count Acetto), carried the liberty of masking too fat. 
He went to the English Ambassador's in the disgui»e of a monk, 
carrying a bundle of wood at his back, with a woman's legs peeping 
out, and written on a large label, ' Provision for the Convent, The 
clergy, it is said, interfered, and he haa been exiled to Lucca. Lord 

SI3 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



Burehenh mnonRraicd loudly at th!s ttep, aa > violatioo of the 
dignity and privilege* of Ambanaiiort. The olfencc, whatever it 
wn*, wa« comrailird at his hounc, and the En^liih Ambundot't 
house ■• nippmcd to be in Fngland^ihc aiimtfii here were sianned, 
for at this rate nrno^cra might be wnt out of the town u an 
hour's notice for a jest. The Count called in jierMo on the Giaod 
Duke, who shook him kindly by the hand — the Countess Rinucciiu 
detnaiided an interview with the Grand Ducheaa — but the clcrf^y 
must be respected, and the CouDt ha» been scat away. There ha* 
been a good deal of talk and buiiilc about it — ask the opiainn of a dr^ 
Scotchman, who judges of every thing by precedent, and he will lell 
you, *Ii is just like our /lliia Bill.' (t I* a rjle here that s pricu 
is never brought upon the stage. How do tJiey contrive to act our 
Rtmta and JuRfl I Moliirc'a Taria^r is not a tiriest. but merely a 
saint. \V)ien this play was forbidden to be aciea a second time by 
the Archbishop of Paris, and the audience loudly demanded the 
renson of its being withdrawn, Mnli^rc came forward and caid, 
' Montimr PArthrvejut let vtut fm ya'il toiljmuF' This was a 
hundred and fifty years ago. With )>o much vm and scDse in the 
world one wonders that There are any TariufTrs left in it: but for the 
bst hundred and fifty years, it mutt be confea«ed, they have had but 
an uneasy life of it. 

I,cnt is not kept here very strictly. The streets, however, have 
rather a ' finhy fiime ' in conscqucticr of it ; and, generally speaking, 
the uw ofgarlick, tobscco, clove* and oil gives a medicated taint to 
the air. The number of pilgrims to Rome, at this seasoD, U 
diminished from 80 or 9O1OOO a century ago, to a few hundred* at 
present. We pasted two on the toad, with their staff and sciip and 
motley entire. T did not look at them with any prttcle of respect. 
The imprrsiioB veas, that they were cither knave* or fool*. The 
farther they come on this errand, ihc more you have a right to 
suspect their motives, not that 1 by any means suppose ihetc are 
always bad — but those who signalise theit zeal by such long marches 
obtain not only absolution for the past, but extraordinary inddgmcr 
(bf the future, so that tf a person meditate any baseness or mischief, 
a pilgrimage to Rome 1* his high road to it. The Popish religion is 
a convenient cloak iot crime, an embroidered robe for virtue. It 
make* the essence of good and ill to depend on reward* and punish- 
ments, and places the)e in the hands of the pHrsts, for the honour of 
God and the welfare of the church. Their path to Heaven i» a kind 
of gallery directly over the path to Hell 1 or, rather, it is the same 
road, only that at the end of it you kneel down, lift up your handl 
and eye*, and say you have gone wrong, and you are admitted into 

2' + 




p 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Uie right-hand ^att, instead of the left-hand one. Hell u ntJt in 
thc^ Hirun^ lodguagc of contro*enia] diiinity, to be < paved with good 
irnentionn,' Heaven, according 10 some fanatical creeds, it ' ]iaTtd 
with moclc-profcMion*.' Devotees and pTOMlyiGB are pt!«ed on tike 
wretched piiupcrs, with false ccrtilicatea of merit, by hypocritci and 
bigots, who cooaider subraiMion to their opinion* and power ai note 
than eouivalent to a conformity to tlie dicutet of rcanon or the will 
of GoJ. All this is charged with being a great piece of caot and 
imposture : ic is not more no than human nature itself. Popery is 
said to be a mahMimt religion : nun i» a malr-Miivf animal—^ 
ts never so truly himself a% whcD he \% acting a part ; he is ever at war 
with himself — ^his theory with )iis practice — what he would be (and 
therefore pieicods lo be) with what he in; and Popery in an 
admirable receipt to reconcile his higher and his lower nature in 
a beautiful ijuivoque or Jeuble-enUttdrt of forms and myncrics, — the 
palpablencus of >icn>c with the dim abstractions of taith, the in- 
dulgence of pamion with the atonement of cDnfc*sion and ahjcct 
repentance when the fit is over, the debasement of the actual with 
the elevation of the ideal part of man's nature, the Pagan with the 
Christian religion; to substitute lip-service, genuflections, adoration 
of imageS) counting of beads, repeating of /fvcs for useful works 
or pure intentions, and to get rid at once of all moral obligation, of 
all self-control and self-respect, by the proxy of maudlin mpcriiilion, 
by a tlaviih submistion to priests and sainu, by prosttating ourselves 
before ihem, and entmting them to uke our sins and weaknesses 
upon them, and mipptv us with a saving grace (at the expenc« of 
• routine of empty forms and words) ont of the abundance of 
their merits and imputed righteousnets. This religion suits the 
pride and weakness of man's intellect, the indolence of his 
will, the cowardliness of his fears, the vanity of his hopes, his 
disposition to reap the profiti of a good thin^ and leave the trouble 
to others, the magnificence of his pretensions with the meanness 
of his performance, the pampering of his passions, the ftiHing 
of his remorse, Ihc making sure of this world and the next, the 
s-iving of hi« soul and the comforting of his body. It is adapted 
equally to kings and people—to tliose who love power or dread it — 
who look up to others as Gods, or who would trample them under 
their feet as reptiles — to the devotees of show and sound, or the 
visionary and gloomy recluse — ^o the hypocrite and bigot — to saints 
or sinners — to fools or knaves — to men, women, and children. Id 
^■bort, its success is owing to (his 'bat it is a mixture of bitter sweets 
It it is a remedy that aooilies the di>n»e it aflects to cure^ 
that it is not an antidote, but a vent for the peccant humours, the 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

follk* and vice* of riiukiadi with ■ tairo ia favour of appraraacn, 
I rf*cnr« of loftier MpiTatioiu (wlKDCier it ii coovFnicnc to teson to 
them), and a formal cccognitiOD of Ecriaia ^eopral twiociplcc, ai a 
courtciy of (pc«cb, or a cocnproiniic between the ondeTtEanding and 
the paMioes! Oimw ttilii fmtlim. There it noihifig lo be said 
agninit it, but that it » comrerf to rcuoo and oORunoo woar ; and 
even were they to nrerul orer it, come otim absurdity woold atari 
up in iu Rend, not KM mischievous but less amusiaj i for roan can- 
ooc exist long without having tcope given to hit propenrity to the 
marvetlouD and contradictory. Meibodinn with w is only a banard 
kind of Popery, with which the rabble are intoxicated ; and to 
wliich cTen the mistresses of King* might resort (but for its 
vulgarity) to tepatr faded charms with divine graces, to exchange 
the B]tlu of pataon for the tears of a no 1cm iuxuritxis repentance, 
and to exert one more act of power by making prowlytet of tbetr 
royal patamuun ! 

The Popish calendar is but a trantpootioa of the Pajtu M)-thalogy. 
The images, shrines, and pictures of the Virgin Mary, thit we iDcct 
« the comer of every nreet or turning of a road, are not of raodccn 
date, but coeval with the old Greek and Rotnao suncrsritioBS. 
There were the same shrines and images formerly dedtcaied to Flora, 
or Cerei, or Foniooa, and the flowers and the urn still remain. The 
oaths of the common people arc to ihb day more Heutbcn than 
Catholic. Thev swear * By tlie countenance of Bacchus ' — * By the 
heart of Diana. A knavish innkeeper, if you complain of the bod- 
nens of hia wine, swears ' Per StKn e fier Dio,' ' By Bacchus and by 
God, thai it is ^ooA ! ' I wonder when the change in the forniB of 
image-worship took place in the old Rornan States, and what effect it 
bad. I used formerly to wonder how or when the people in the 
mountains of Cumbeiland and Westmoreland, and w)io live in solitudes 
to which the town of Keswick is iht fatiit weri/, and its lake * the 
Leman-l.ake,' first pataed from Popety to Protestant i»m, what 
diifetencc it made in them at the time, or has done to the present 
day ? The answer to this question would go a good way to shew 
how little the common people know vi or caie for a^y theory of 
religion, conudered n>ercly at such. Mr. Souihey is on liie vpot, and 
ntif^hi do something towards a «oluiion of llie dithculty I 

Customs come touod. I was lutptiscd to find, at liie Hotel of tbe 
Fear Mi/ienr, where we stopped the two firu days, that we coald 
have a pudding for dinner {a thing that is not to be bad in all PraiKe) { 
and 1 concluded this wns a luxury which the Italian* had been cont- 
pellcd to adopt from the influx of the English, ^nd the loudness of 
their demands for comfort. I understand it is more probable that 

216 



THROUGH FHANCE AND ITALY 

thU dith » indignoui rather than atturalized ( and that we got it 
from them in the time of Queen Elizabeth, when our intercoone with 
Italy was more frequent than it WM with France. We might hayc 
lemalQetl at ihc Four Nali«m ; for cighicca francs a day, living In 
X very lumptuoua manner ; but we hare remoTed to apartmeota fitted 
up in the Engliah faihion, for lea piaitrea (two guineas} a month, 
and where the whole of our expensei for boiled and roait, with 
Engliih cup* and lauccri and tteamed potatoet, doea not come to 
thirty shillings a week. Wc hnTc cTcry Kngliah comfort with 
clearer air and a liner country. It was exceedingly cold when we lir«t 
Camei and wc felt it the more from impatience and diuppointmcni. 
From the thinneat of the air there waa a feeling of nakedness about 
you ; you Kemed a« if placed in an empty receiver. Not a particle 
of warmth or feeling wan left in your whole body : it was jmt as if 
the «pirit of cold had penetrated every part; one might be >aid to be 
vitrifirJ. It ia now milder {Fek 13), and like April weather in 
England. There ia a balmy lighineia and veriml lievhnei!* in the 
air. Might [ once more aee the coming on of Spring aa erat in the 
■pring-ttme of my lite, it would be h«re ! I cannot apeak to the 
tubject of matioer* in this place, except ai to outward appearancet, 
which are the tame at in a country town in England. Judpng by 
the faihionablc icit on thit mbjcct, they mutt be very bad and 
deipcraic indeed ; for none of thai itrcim of prostitution flow* down 
the itreet*, that in (he Bittith metropoUa in soppoaed 10 puiily the 
morality of private families, and to carry olf every laiat of gtounem or 
ItccDtiousnets from the female heart. Ceciabetun atill prtvaik here, 
leta in the upper, mote in the lower chatea ; and may leric at a ai^jeci 
fiif the linsliih 10 vein Uieir (pleen and outngcoui love of virtue upon, 
Feiolc, that makei «o striking a point of view near Florence, waa 
one of the twelve old Tuican citiei that extttrd before the time of 
the Romani, and afterward* in a ttate of hostility to them. It ii 
■upponcd to have been otiginaliy founded by a Gieek colony that 
came over with Cccrops, and others go back to the time of Japhet or 
to Heaiod'i theogony. Florence wai out founded till long after. It 
is said to have occiuned the three ouoically-ihaped hilli which ttaad 
about three milea from Florence. Here waa fought the lait great 
battle between Catiline and the Senate ; and here the Romani 
bc»ieged and Btarred to death an army of the Goths. It i( a place 
of (be highest antiquity and renovm, but it does not bear the atamp 
of anything extraordinary upon iia face. You stand upon a bleak, 
locky bill, without tuijiccting it 10 have been the centre of a thronged 
population, the neat of battle* and of mighty erenu in eldest times. 
00 you pas* through dtie* and ctatejy palace*, and cannot be 

ai7 




NOTES OF A JOCBNEY 




. that, one daj, do mce a# than vtB 

^totiwbokof atfottd kagdi of ti 

cmkw fault ifc« oidwt pliieti mbh 

MO ran, ud dw 7«r1i Md t u w y of 

^eos inn itadf tp cm with dK men «f dtrumini lad decs^ 

Tht mammatau of tt^qiaty iffot to tmpj i WKOi tli »ge m the 

nMM of toC HBMBff U i CU BCIWi Cri ■MUM* II rT*1rl/IHirTli a. lie 

of tbe leaMOiilac* aot x mjr me aiU it* weight to iIk g^naa 
t tiyk y. Ii WM is lt>ly, 1 txtinv. tbtt Milma bad tkc 
b t»] M icy flf in^ntieB to wriir bi* Lttin toaaa <m tbe 
ida of dw vcbeiTpc of tlw world, whtfc he daoftrt ibc ikadowr 
awt m wtaeh '<lw(b Etcnttiy' (aMw ahnatar), >ad ndkalc* the 
wffnkeamim that Nanue cdoU n« ptm old, or 'tlnlK her ttnry 
MM wkb pak)r>' It Im faces well ulweiml , ifaat tbetc ia mofe of 
die germ m PrndiK Loct m the Htbor*! earijr Lm>b poen^ thm ia 
Ua csrif EB^h otm, whtch vc b a Mnin rather |lafial aad 
UidBT, dHB auuiy or lafaliaic. Ii ii uid dm ■neral of liKlttMi'i 
Pbll, vUch he wrote at ikii penod, are p%Hm i m wawaoipt ia 
dte I3)rarin ia Florence ; bat it it ^ratable that tf to, they are no 
atore diaa dn^kalM of thote alrndy kaowot wtncb he gare ts 
(neodi^ Hi« repntatiod here wa* high, ud ddi|jafid to think of; 
■nd a voUtme wa* dedicated to Mn by MoUtctta, a poet of the day, 
aod a friend of Redi^' To ilic ittgnvom lod Icaroeij yaaog En^iah- 
oMfli Jolia Miluo.' When one ihiaka of the poor 6ffm which ow 
w aauyimu oftco make abroad, aod al*0 of the Rppoacd mcnred haiiu 
Md [WTJtaaical Mxtmeat of ouf great Eaglidi Epic Poet, oae ia a little 
ia fain for hit recepdoo amoif for cig aer a and a at ptiicd at hia ncceaa, 
lor which, perhaps hi* other accompjiahiaept* (at hia tUU ia moatc) 
and hit peitond adtantagea, may, in tome mature, account. There 
it aaothn coiuldentiDn to be added, which it, ih» Milton did tiot 
laboor under the ditadvantagc of addrtitiag foreigncrt in thcii luiire 
tOBgae, bai convcritd with them on eqnal una* in Latia. That vat 
tarely tbe politr and eomble age of letten^ wbeo the learned tpohe a 
conunoD aod well-kncnrn tongue, inatead ef petty, hackitering. Gothic 
dialecit of different nattont ! Now, erery one who it not a French- 
naa, or who doc* not gabble French, b no better tb» a ttammcrer 
or a changeling out of hit own cooatry. I do not complain of tfab 
at a very great grievance ; but it cenaialy prevcou those far-lanMd 
mcetinH* between learned men of different natioot, which are recorded 
in hittory, at of Sir Thomas ^f oic with Eratmat, and of Milton whh 
llie phtloaopbcT* and poet* of Italy. 

' Sweet it the diaket of Anio'i vale i 
Tboq^ half ccauamtd. I gladly tm to bear.* 
«i8 



n 





t 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

So Dantt makes odc of his hcrom exclaim. It it pJeannl to hear 
or >[>c:ik onc'i natire tongnc whm abroad ( but poMoty the langnage 
of thai higher and adopted country, which was familiar to the Kholar 
of former times, tounded ervn awccter to the car of friendUiip w of 
genius. 





CHAPTER XVII 

Th£ liTfit thing you do when you get to a town ibrond is to go to tbe 
Pfwi-office in expcctatioo of letter*, which you are ture not to receive 
exucily in proportion as you arc anxioua to have them. Friends at 
a distance hate you at a disadvantace ; and ihcy let you Itoow it, if 
they will let you know eoihin){ cUr. There it in this a love ot 
power or of contradiaion, and at the same lime a want of imaginn- 
lion. They cannot change places witli you, or mppme how you 
can be m much at a lot* about what is so i^tious to tliem. It 
seems pulling them to unncceuniry trouble to transmit a self'Cvident 
truth (which it is upon the spot) n thousand miles (where it becomes 
a discovery). Yoo ha?c this comfort, however, under the delay of 
letter*, that they have no bad news to send you, or you would hear 
of it in an instant. 

When you are dtsappoinifd of your letters at the posMjffice at 
Florence, you turn round, and find yourself in the square of the 
Grand Duke, with the old Palace opposite to you, and a Dumber 
of colosKil Matues, bleached to the open air, in liont of it. They 
seem a species of huge sione.mBMDry. What is your surprise to 
lean, that they are the Hercules of Bandincllo, and the Darid of 
Micha«) Angelo 1 Not far from these, is the Prricus of Bcnvenuto 
Cellini, which he niaket such a /nii about in his Life.' It is of 
bronze. After a j[reat deal of cabal, before he was employed on 
this work, and great hostility and disagreeable obstacle* thrown in 
his way in the progrcM of it, he at length ^niiihed ilie mould, and 
prepared to cast the figure. He found that the copper which he 
had at first thrown in did not work kindly. After one or two 
risits to the ftirnace, he gnw impaiieni, and seizing on all the lead, 
iron, and brats he could lay his hands on in the hou»e, threw it 
fell.mell, and in a fit of desperation, into the melting maw, and 
retired to wait the result. After patsing an hour in the greatest 

' The Kwcllrt*' ibopt on the bri<lj!c, in one o( which ht wis branihl vp, iltll 
rcmsin. The Ripe d( the Sibioei, br John of BolMtis, UMr Btnvenato** Pvnsai, 
!• an siltniriblE gfoup ; nalhing csq ucmJ ttie Amuocm and softened rontapn «f 
the ftmile ISiiuk, teco ia t v ti y dircelioa. 

«I9 



SOIBB OF A JOrR5EZT 





i 



m » 



TWDBnrfkMC 



TW 



Bacckw iD dw GcDoy, bv die «ae anim, m ae faeOB. It 

wo*. ■ it mc, deat «te» ii* WW v«7 !*■>(: ■"^ <^' 
hvlMMd Md«|MMd, ad md « diC ip M M 
I k waa ponBMMd hp tbe ■■ Imii ti dK ^ ta fac j _, _ _ 
lo "7 '"'V ^ BMMLT i vtf w pcttnoed ne am {nscfe sc BBd 
farokca crif), nd chncd k m faii bvB) ta dK cM&Hia of !■§ 
adniwriri. Suit b tbe Mory ; nd ndcr tie Mfcgiid of tkw 
mdkiMi. k Im* piwtH, crtadMB-fnof. Tbcn uc m p i OM M 
hm amibaud to tkii nm mraai i oac ■■ tk GtDtij, aad MMtba- 
tfl tk Paboc f^ni, el Tit Ftta, whaA ire ihree «n^, dn* 
neaS'kiokiat oU wookb. I •baH bdi renn to Ait i^JKi nfl 
I |R CO the Vabcaa, aod tbn I hafe » teO a dUetm wary. 
Fiotkn^ Buvrp c^iti oee dow& aan to oiid an Mtcr dMflravtvnoB 
hctwccB the naliiy *od oae'a preriB — wrrrriia ia a nae of tUa 
• It l» Mia lin qT fciaiiiH, lattly n,*nMlt»** i/j TI— IUkm. K»^. 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 




kind, wbcB one hat bc«n broodiDg all ooc^t life orcf an idea of 
grcameM. If one ctxald weak off wiih one's diaappoaDUBcot in ooc't 
pocJtcti tad tay ooUung about it, or wbi»{>er it to ibe tetds, or bury 
h in a bole, ot throw jt into the rtTer (Anm), wbae do one would 
liili it npi it would not ngmfj ; b« to be obliged to note it to one'* 
common- place book, and publish it to all the world, 'm viUaioonal 
It M wdl MIC can turn from dlMcmable tbooghii like the*c to a 
bodscape of Titian'* (the H(^ fmHj at tb* Pitti Palace). A 
gnm bank in tbe fart-grooDd pmni* a poatoral accnc of ibeep and 
canle repoaiag ; tbea ;<m hare tbe deep green of tbe nuddle dtituKC, 
then tbe bine-ioffed hiUi, and tbe golden Ay beyond, with tbe red 
brascbea of an antvmn wood rinog into it ; and in the bee* of the 
bending gnwp yon kc the tintt of ibc evening iky reOected, and die 
fre*hneM of the landacape hrmhcd on their feMuic*. Tbe depth sod 
harmony of colouring in natural objtcu, relincd in paaung Uirongh 
tbe paintci'a mind, mellowed by the baod of time, tat ac<jutred the 
toftatt and thadowy brilHaacy of a dream, and while yon gaze at it, 
yott teem to be entranced ! But to take tkingi wmewhal more in 
onler. — 

One of the tttikmg thiogi in the Gallery at Florence {giten to 
the City by one of the Medici Family) ia the Collectioo of Anu^ar 
Btw*. Tbe Stataes of Cods arc ibe poetry of the an of that period. 
Tb* bwo of mrit hkI Wtnat haaded down to ua are the hiitory of 
the ipecief. Yon ate tbe bu«t* of Vitetliua {wbote UuoM aenni 
bwfting with 'the jowl' and a diah of latnprcyt), Galba, Trajaa, 
>An|Mtiu, Jolia. Fauatitta. McHalinai and you aik, were there real 
'ieingt Hke tbeae exi&liDg two thousand yean a^o? It ii an cxten- 
MOQ of the idea of h amanit y ; aod * even in death there it nmmvn 
too.' Hittory it ngae and abadowy, bu iculprare giret Kte aod 
body 10 it ; the namn and tetter* in time-worn book* Eiart up real 
people to rnaible, and you no longer doubt their identity with the 
preaent race. Nature pioduced forma then aa perfect at tbe doea 
now. — Forqrtb and othen have codeaioured to mralidate tbe aothen- 
ticity of tbete bnct*, and to «hew that few of tbem can be traced with 
cenatnty to tbe pcnoD) whote oamea they bear. That with me i« 
not the <]aeoion. The interefting point i« Dot to know v.<io they 
wetc, bat tiat they were. Tbcrc ia bo doubt that ibey arc buta of 
people linng two tbouaaad yeart ago, and that t* >U iliai ny moni 
dcoinda. At to tndiTtdua] eliaracier, it would be m well lonwtimes 
n find it ittTolred io obKurity ; for toroe of tbe pertOM are better 
looking tluii for tbe imth of pfcjiiognocny they trngbt to be. Nero 
it ai handiomc a gentleman as hit culogiit* could wiab birn to be. 
The irmh u, that what pIcMC* nte in tbcie boats asd others of tbe 

SI I 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



Mine kind that I bsvc Mcn u, thM thtj very mmeh mcrabic EaffiA 
people of tenM aad aJacation in ibe pf Mcat dsj, ooly witfa raotv 
regnlar (atput*. They are graTc, tlwigtitfal, maStacd. Tbov 
» not a face aouwg thesi that foa oonU muokc tor a Freacfa face. 
Tbne 6ae old hcada, n ihort. ooafmn odc in ihe idea of goKral 
Ituniaiuty : French ^et auggcr ooe'i ^ifa id the ipccict 1 

There are two long g^lleriet enrichKl with biMa and ttatue* of the 
motn intefeKiiig dettripBoti, vith a Mries of prodnctMXW of the tmrly 
Ftufca ii iie Khool, the r lying Mercury of John of Babgna, itc. t *tid 
ia ■ room but ttte centre (called the Tribune) Mand* the Vcmw of 
Madici. with tome other ttauc* sad picture* not uiwonhy to do bet 
hoHMge. I do aot kaow whM to My of the Vam, nor b it 
DeccMuy to ny mach where all the world hare ahtady fanned as 
opinion lor thesuclvct i yet, pcrfaapt, this opcoioa. which Menas the 
laoat Hurcnal, it the lea« to^ and the opmon tif all the worU mriai 
thM of no one indinduai in it. The end of criticiiai, however, i* 
rather to direct atteuioa to object* of tatte, than to dictate to ii. 
Bnidn, one hw Kcn the Veons to oficn and is m many (hspet, Uui 
cuMotn lia* Minded ooe e^oally Co iu merit* or defect*. Imtead of 
girtiig aa opiaioo, one i* di«po«td to turn round and ati, * What do 
jmr think of it f ' It i* like a eaauje in the ' f^e;;iJit Extract*,* 
which one ha* read and adfliircd, till one doe* cmt know what to 
nake of it, or how to aJHx any idea* to the wonU: beaoty and 
i w» ttan » Old in an anmeannig co m ai oiy laoe ! If 1 mi^fat, Docwitb- 
ttaadiog, hautd a byper-criticim, I aliosld aiy, that it u a liidc too 
much like mi ex<]w»iic marble dolL I should conjecture (for it t* 
only coDJcctnre where faaiitiarity ba* aeuttklized the capacity of 
jadgii^) that there I* a waat of ■naimeiH, of character, a balance 
of pretenmoo* a* well a* of stutndei a jood deal of ianptdiiy, and an 
over^geMifity. There n ae exptcMtoa of meatal rtfineniei K, nor 
WBch of eolnptuqna blandiahnient. Tbete i* great toftBe**, nreetoca*, 
■ymnMrtry, and tJoiid Rtacc — a ( a alt fat lamenca^ a negaurc perfcc 
lion. The Apollo Bciriderc » pondveiy bad, a theatrical coxcomb, 
and ill-nude: I mean compered with the Thcacu*. The ztKM 
objection to the Vean* i«, that the fonn haa not the true fennnine 
{NVpatioo* i it I* not wScienily targe in the lower Itnb*. but uper* 
too mudi to a point, lo that it want* fitnuxm and a tort of iodoient 
repoae (the proper attribute of woman), aod *eem* a* if the leaat 
ihiag would otertet it. In a word, the Venu* ii a fery beautiful 
WJ, but not the Goddet* of Lotc, or eirco of Beaoiy. It i* not the 
tone Pygmalioa fell in tore with ; nor did any nu ever with or 
boej hi* mtttrea* to be like it. There i* aotncthbg beyond it, both 
b tnn|{inatioa and ia oatste. Neither hate we a fima £nifa tn tbc 

laa 





THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

identity of llie Goddni ; it ia a nice point, wbetber any nich form 
evtr exiited. Now let ui My whut wc will of the iJaJ, it tHtoIit, 
wbcn cmbodii-d to the icni«i, to brar the sump of the most ftbtolvtc 
reality, for it is otily an image taken from nature, with every thing 
omitted that might coDtiadtct or disturb iti uniformity. The Vcne* 
is not a po^ical and abstract pcnonificatioo vf crrtain cjualities ; but 
an individual tnodd, that hai been aliricd aod taiupered with. It 
would have had a better elfect if executed Id iroty, with gold tandnl* 
and braceiett, like that of Pbidiaa (mcDtioncd by Pliny), to dctinc 
ita pretention* a< belonging to the claas of omamctiul ait; for it 
neither carries the mind into the regions of ancieni mythology, nor 
of ancient poetry, nor riM:t to an equality of style with inodern 
poetry or painiing. Raphael has figures of far greater grace, both 
mental and bodily. The Apollo of Medids, which ii in the Mme 
room, is a Tcry delightful tpecimea of Grecian an ; but it ha« the 
fault of being of that equivocal >ixe (I believe called jmall-lift) which 
luoki like diminutive nature, not nature diminished. 

Raphael's Fomarina (which is also in this high I yHrrobcl limbed 
cabinet of art) faces the Vcom, and is a downright, point-blank 
contrast to it. Assuredly no charge can be brou^t against it of 
mmmmi-^iafr affectatioD or thrinking delicacy. It is lobust, full 
to burstirtg, coarte, luxurious, hardened, but wroueht up to an inlinitc 
degree of exactness and beauty in the details. It is the perfection 
of vulgariiv and refinement together. The Fotnarioa it a bouncing, 
buxom, tullcn, saucy baker's daughter— but painicd, idolized, immor- 
talized by Raphael! Nothing can be more homely and repulsive 
than ihe original ; you nee her bosom swelling like the dough rincg 
in the OTcn ; the tighineu of ber skin puts you in mind of Trim's 
story of the sausage-maker's wife — nothing can he much mote 
MChtntiag thao the picture — tlian the care and delight with which 
the artist has seized the lurking glances of the eye, curred the 
comers of the mouth, tmoothed the forehead, dimpled the chin, 
rounded the neck, till by innumerable delicate Couches, and the 
* labour of Iotc,' he has conTetted a coarse, rude mass into a miracle 
of art. Raphael, in the height of his devotioD, and as it were to 
■odDuatc that nothing could be too line for this idot of his fancy 
(as Rouaseau prided himself in writing the letter* of Julia on the 
lintst paper with gilt edges) lias painted the chain oa the Fomariaa's 
neck with actual gold-leaf. Titiaa would never hare thought of such 
a thing i he eould nut have been guilty of such a solecism in painting, 
at to introduce a soUd substance without shadow. Hi^ty as 
Raphael hat laKxired this portrait, it siill Uiows his inferiority to 
Titian in the imitative pitt of painting. The colour on the cheeks 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



af die Foraitiat teemi hid od tbe tkiti t b ilic xirl by Tiuao at the 
Pkti Pab«i it it bccd through i(. Tbe one ajipan tanned by the 
■DO ; tbe otber to b«ve bcco out in ihe air, or ti like a Aowec * hut 
wubed in the dev.' Again, tbe tiuface of the llc«h !n Raphael ii 
M unooih, that jrou are tempted to touch it: ia 'Hiian, it retirca 
from tbe touch into » tfaadowy reccts. There w here i duplicate 
fraried) of liis Alulrm at btr Tmitttr fio be seen in the Louvre), 
oreMcd b a loow night-robe, ind wiib the botom nearly bate. It » 
rery carefully lintihedt und in a rich study of cotovrioj, expcesBioo, 
and n.ituml grace. Of the Titian Veniu i[with ber gouTemante ami 
chdt of clothct in the background) I cannot uy ranch. It i« very 
iikc the common print. The Eodynion by Guncino bat a divine 
cfUTMlCt of pentire toftneu, and youthful, manly grRce, and the 
imprCMioa nude by ibc |>icturc aotwcrs to that mjdc by the fable — 
an exccllcDt thing in history I It i» o»c of the lineit pictoree m 
Florence. 1 ahould never have done if I were to go isio tlie dctatla. 
I can only meotion a few of the principal. Neu tbe Foraarina u 
the Young St. John in the Wildernesi, by Raphael ; it i« very dark, 
very bard, and very line, like an admirable carving in wood. He 
hat here .^m two Holy Familie*, full of playliil swcetocM and mild 
repo«e. There arc nlto two by Correegio of the same nibject, and a 
line and bold ttody of the Head of a Boy. There is a spirit of joy 
and laughin;; r.race contained in tliit hud, m the jiuce of wine is in 
the pape. Coneu^io had a prodi^ou* raciDera and gntto, when he 
did not fritter them away b« falie rcfinefnent and a tart of faitidioaii 
hyprrcriticium upon himtrii. Hit skctchci>, I tu«peci, arc better 
than his finished works. One of the Holy Familici here is the very 
.icmc of the aBitueio and Delia Ciu»caa nylc of painting. The 
5gurc of the Madonna it like a ttudionkly-invoUed period or turn 
neoD vorda : the infant Christ on thi^ ground is a diminutive appella- 
ttOQ, a preidnet), a fairy-fancy. Certainly, it bcurs no proponion to 
the Mother, whoce haiids are bent back orcr it with admiration and 
delight, till grace become* a cramp, and her c)-c4ids droop and tjaiTcr 
over the Ducicring object of her 'strange child •worship,' .ilmott as if 
they were moied by metallic tractor*. Tl)c other Niadonna is per- 
fectly free from any taint of affectation. It it a plain rustic bcaiMy, 
bnoccDti inicicsiiDg, simple, without one contortion of body or of 
mind. It it sweetly painted. The Child ia alio a pure study after 
nature i the blood is tingling in his Teini, and hit face has an admir- 
able expression of carclctc infantine impatience. The old Man ai 
the side is a masterpiece, with all this p*inict's knowledge of fore> 
ihottcning, fHar^-jcvro, the managernent of drapciy, (cc. lierodiat's 
D.iughtcri by Luini, it an eJaborate and tuccetaful imitatioii of 
"4 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



Leonardo da VincL The Meduu** Head of the latter u hardly, 
I think, to fine at Barry'i detcnptton of it. It has nM quite the 
watery languor — the dim obtcurity. The eye» of the female are too 
much like the eyes of the snakct, red, cnitied, and edgy. I thall 
only notice one picture more in ihig collection — ihe I. sit Judgment, 
by firon^iino. It haa vast merit in the diawing and expr«Mion, bat 
its most remarkable quality n the amazing relief without any percetr- 
able ihadow, :md the utmoii clearness witli the smallect powible 
variety of tint. It looks like 4 Mosaic painting. The specimen* of 
the Dutch and other foreign schouin here are upon a >mnl! ic^c, and 
of inferior »alue. 

The PaUce Piiti was begun by one of the Strozzi, who boasted 
that he would build a palace with a court-yard in it, in which anotber 
palace might dance. He had nearly ruined himself by the expense, 
when one of the Medici took it olf hit hands and completed it. It 
ia at present the residence of the Grand Dtike. The view within 
over the court-yard to the terrac« and mount above it cuperb. Here 
is the VenuB of Canova, an elegant sylph-like figure; but Canova was 
more lo be admired for delicacy of (inching, than for cxprcei^ion or 
conception of general form. At the Gallery there is one room full 
of extraordinary pictures and sutucs : at the Palace Pitti there are 
six or eeten covered with some of the linent portraits and hittory. 
pieces in the world, and the w^illn are dark with beauty, and breathe 
an air of the htgheti art from them. It it one of the richest and 
moit original Coilcciionn I have teen. It it not lo tcmaikablc for 
variety of style or tubject as for a noble Opulence and aristocratic 
pride, having to boMt rames in the highest ranks of art, and many of 
their best works. The Palace Pitti formerly figured in the Catalogue 
of the Louvre, which it had coattibuted to enrich with many of it* 
most gorgeout jewels, which have been brought back to their original 
situation, and which now thine here, though not with unrcilectcd 
lustre, nor in solitary state. Among ihcuc, for instance, i« Titian's 
Hippolito di Medici (which ihc late Mr. Opie pronounced the finest 
portTiui in the world], with the spirit and breadth of history, and with 
the richness, finiah, and glossiness of an enamel picture. I remember 
ihe first time I ever taw it, it stood on an easel which I had to pass, 
with the hick to me, and as 1 turned and saw it with the hoar-npear 
in its h.ind, and its keen glance bent upon me, it teemed *a thing of 
life,' with supernatural force and grandeur. The famous mutic-picce 
hy Giorgioni was at one time in the l.ouvre, and is noi a whit 
interior to Titian. The head turned round of the man playing on 
the harpsichord, for ali, expreision, and a true gusto of colouring! 
may challenge competition all the world through. There goei a 



voi» IX. : r 



"S 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



ti4flit>oD that ihci« arc ibe ponratM of Lotb^r nad C^ria. Gtorgkini 
dinl at the agt; o>' thirty-four, bcui-bcoltcn, it ii aakl, bcdusc ddc of 
hi> icbolart had robbed him of hii mictreu — pouibljr tb« very bcatuy 
who«c picrare i« iMrodaoed here. Leo x., by Raphael, that fiac, 
sicrti, globolar bod, on which 'deliberation uu and public care,' U 
ID the Mflw room with the Ctrdiiul BratiToglio, ooc of Vaodyke'a 
happiett and moM ifintuat headi— a fine gcoo^ of^oniutt by RuboM, 
of hinuetf, hia brotlier, Grotiot aod JsMui Lipmn, all to one Iraroe 
— an admirabtc Holy Family, in thit maiter't very beat manner, hy 
Julio Romano — and the Madonna detia Seggia oi Raphael — all M 
thetc were formerly ia the l.oCTrc. The lut it painted on wood. 
and woro. to at to have a crayon look. But fot the gronpiBg, the 
unconadou* look of intelligence in the children, and the lounding nod 
fleabinen of the form* of their Itmbt, thn it one of the antat'a moat 
unTiTalled works. Thcie arc also several by Aadiva del Sano, c«»- 
ceiTcd arKi liniihcd with the highest taaie and trUh of Feeling ; a 
Nymph and Satyr by Giorgioni, of great guito; Herculet and 
Amscw, by Schiavoni (an admirable Hudy of bold drawing and 
poetical colouriog), an unfiouhtd sketch by Gutdo, tcvcral by Cigoli 
and Fra. BartolonKO) a girl in a flowered dren, by Titian (of 
which Mr. Nortbcote posMMei a beautifiil cqpy by Sir Joabua^ i 
another portrait of a Man in (rant riew am) a Holy Family, by the 
tamet and one or two line piece* by Rubena and Rembrandt. 
There it a Parmcgiano here, in which it to be teen the origin of 
Ml. Puteli't «yle, a child in iit moiher't lap, with iu hcid rolling 
away from in body, the motbcr't fiue looking down upon it wicb 
green and red cbtckt taprring to a point, and a thigh of an angel, 
which you ciRDOi well piece to an urn which he carriet in hit band, 
and which teemi like a bu;>c scale of the •ibardbotne beetle.' — The 

aotci^ue and ditcontiouout are, in fact, carried to thdr height, 
ere it alto the Conapiracy of Catiline, by Salvator Rota, which 
look* ntorc like a Caio-xtrm Contpiracy than any thing elic, or a 
bargain ttnick in a bUcktmith't thop ; and a Battle-piece by the nine 
anJM, with lite round hanncbe* and flowing uil of a white horK 
repetied, and tome fierce faces, hid by the Rooke and ibeir hdmets, 
of which you can make neither bead nor tail. Salvator waa a grc^t 
landscape-painter ; but both he artd Lady Morgan hare been giulty 
of a great piece of rf»/um ia tttppoting tint he was any thing more. 
Thete arc the chief failure*, but in general out of bcapa of pictum 
there it scarce one th.tt it not of the highett interest both in itself, 
and from collateral circumstances. Those who come in search of 
high ItaliaD an will heie find it in perfection j and if tbey do not 
feel dtis, they may turn back at once. The picture* in the Pitti 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Psbcc are hneljr pr«Mrv«d. and haw Uut (1«v|h nvellow tone of ige 
u|>on Chan which ii to the eyci of a conaoiumr tn painting as tbc 
nut of mnlalt or the cnist on wioe it to cooaoit&Kisxt and j»dgn of a 
dtfcmt •UiBp. 



CHAPTER XVIII 



P 



Tur road bctwcm Plorcacc and Rome hy Sicmu !> not very imrrctt- 
iogr though it pmrnta a nnmbtr of rrtlcctions to tlioK who arc wdl 
tcqwnattd with the chaD^n that hate ukcn place in the hictory and 
agriculture of lhe»e diurici*. Shortly after you leaic Floreoce, the 
way becomes dreary and InireTi or unhealthy. Tciwardt the clo«e of 
the lirK day'i jontncy, howcTer, we haa a iplecdid *icw of the 
country we w:c lo travrt, which lay stretched oui beneath our (ret 
to an tmiDcnsc disijince, a* we detcendcd into the little town of Voixo 
Borgo. Deep villeya doped oo each nde of ok, from which the 
muilce of cotugnoccanoiuilly curled : the bcacchei of an otef han giag 
birch-tree or a ne^hbomiiiK rain Mve relief to the giey, misty biiid- 
•cape, which waa ttreakcd by dark {Hoe-foreitit and tpeckled by the 
poMing clooda ; and in tbc extreme distance roae a range or hills 
gBltering in the eTcniog *un, and scarcely diKinnMhabtc from the 
rid^ of cloud* iliat hoTcred near ihcm. We did doc reach ihc*r 
hills (ofl the top of one of which Mandi tbc ton of Radicofani) till 
the cod of two dayt' jourocy, nuking a diuance cf between lifty and 
•ixty mileit. so that their mJBlatare nze and fairy splcfidour, as tbey 
crowned the far-off lioriion, may be easily guessed. We did not 
find the accoaunodatioo on the rood (]uite to bad as we bad expected. 
Tbc chief want it of milk, which is to be had only in tbc morning ; 
but we retncdinl ihb dcfec. by a taktn|> a bottte of it with ui. The 
wcaihcT was coid enough (in the middle of March) to freeze ii. 
The economy of tifc is here reduced lo a rery great itniplicityi 
abtolvte neceaaarie* from day to day and from hand to tnouth ; and 
BOttiiBg b allowed for the chanter of accidents, oe the irrcgnbr 
nHTusMMi of strainer*. The mecbamam of Eoglisb iam ts accounted 
for by the certainty of the arrival of costotncn, with fiill pocket* and 
empty ttotnachs. There crery rood i> a ihorot^h&re ; here a 
irBTellcr is a curiosity, ancf we did not meet lei) orriaget on our 
journey, a distance of a bnixlrcd and iiinet]r.thrce mile*, and which it 
took US six days to accomplish. I may add that we paid only seven 



lonis (or oor two places in the Voitufe (which, beddes, 
entirely to oursebe*} o«r expences oo ibe road included, 
cheap enough. 



had 



This 



lay 



NOTES OF A JOIJRNKY 

SKDoa U 4 fine old cowa, bni more like a nceptadc of the dead 
ihao ifae rcndcBce of the liriof;. * It was' migkt be written over 
ibe enasDCe (o ihbi a» U> most of tbc town* in luiy. The 
magnificeiKc of tbc batldbgt conetpood* but ill willi the iqualidncM 
oT the inhabitantt ; there *eeim no ttsaaa for crowdii^ the (treet* so 
dote lognher when tbcie arc to few people in them. Tbere is u 
preacDt no eottaj without to hoddle them together within the walU, 
whatever might have been tJie caae bi foniKr timet : for i&iics you ilo 
MX meet a bnmaa beiog, or tliicera the meet of a huntao dwelling. 
The view through the noble atcb of the gate ai you l»ve Sienna is 
at oikce cxqniaiteljr romaDtic and Dictaretqec : cJiervnte, tlie country 
prewou a moR dqilor^ile aspect for a length of way. Nature »c«mi 
to hiTc here taken it upon her to play the part of a cinder- wench, ami 
to hiTc thrown op her inceaum heapa of clay aad athe*. withont 
ettbet dignity or grace. At a diaiance to the tight and left, you ace 
the tutely rtmaina of the ancient [^tiuican citieai creating the hdghtt 
and built for defence ; and hete and there, oerched on the top m a 
cliiT, the ruinous haunt t»f loroe bandit chief (the koos^ of later 
day*}, that might be compared in imagination ta unoc dragon, old 
and blind, Mill watching for its long-loit prey, and sharing the 
dcniation it has made. There are two of ihcfc near the wretched 
inn of Ln ScaU, where we clopprd tbc third morning, rtiing in lottely 
boiTor from the very point of two luUl, facing each other and ODly 
divided by a brook, that baffle deecripdoo, and tcvpat the artist t 
boideit pencil. Aided by the mirroiaodbg glooro, and abrouded by 
the driTiog mist (as they were when we paiaed), they throw the 
mind bock into a nance of ibrmer tin>e(, and the cry of midnif>ht 
revelry, of midni^ mur>.-IeT it heard front the crumblbg w«Jk. 'lite 
romaatk bridge and hBinlet under them begiot the ascent of Radico- 
iaiii. The cztenaiTc ruin at the top meet* yoor new and diuppcaia 
repeatedly doring the loog, winding, loilaome ascent. Over a 
tretncfKlMU valley to the left, we taw the distant hills of Perugia, 
corercd with snow and blackened with clouds, and a heavy deet wu 
falling aroinxl ti*. We started, on being told that tbe poti'hotiae 
stood directly on the other tide of the fort (ai a height of 1400 feet 
above the level of tbe sea), and that we were to pw8 the night there. 
It was like being lodged id a cloud: it seemed tbc very rocking- 
cradle of Moims and temmta. As we wouikI round tbe road at the 
foot of it, wc were relieved from our ain>tehenuona. It was a 
fortress bnilt by atubbom violence (or itself, that might be said to 
Kowl defiance on the world below, and to promise security and 
ibekcT to those »-ithia its reach. Huge bcap« of round Btonea, 
gnarled like iron, and that looked as if they would break the feet 




p 



THROUGH FHANCE AND ITALY 

that initted tbcmKlra among them, were roUecl into the ipuce 
bclwecn the heights and the ro^d-tidc. The middle or principal turret, 
which To»e between the other two, wm thrown into monKDury pet- 
tpeclive by the mitt i a fragment of an outer wall ttood beneath, hiilf 
covered with try ; dote to it visa jn old cliiipel-ipire built of red 
brick, and .1 sniall bsmlet crouched benestb the mnipaiti. It re- 
minded me, by iti pieCemaiunl strength and lullcn aipcct, of the 
ca<tlc of Giant Despair in Tie /'ifgrim'i Progreii. The dark and 
stern «pirit of former time* might be coneeiTed to hare entrenched 
itwif liere as in its latrc hold ; to have looked out and laughed at 
precipice* and etornis, and the puny asMuIts of hostile bands, and 
resting on iu red right arm, to have waited away through inaction 
and disuse in iw unapproachable tiiltiude and barbarous detolatioo. 
Never did I see any thing so ruajied and no stately, apparently » 
formidable in a former period, 40 forlorn in ihi«. It wat a majciCic 
shadow of the mighty pait, ituKpended in another region, belonging 10 
another age. I might take leave of it in the words of old Burnet, 
whose Latin glowH among these cold hills, /■^a/e angjula /n^/, ifignit 
regt ! valr atigutla nipij, ittaptr mihi mimoranilu ! — We drove into 
the inn-yard, which resembled a barrack (so do most of the inns on 
the roaa), with itt bed-rooms like hoipitalwardt, and iti large apart- 
ment* liar aiisemblages of armed men, now empty, gloomy, and 
uttfumishcd i bwt where we found a hospirnible welcome, and by the 
aid of B double fee to the waiters every thing very comfortable. The 
first object was to procure milk for our tea (of which last article we 
had brought some tery good from the »hop of Signor Pippini, at 
rioteiice ') and the next thing was to lay in a stuck for tlie remaining 
half of our journey. We were not sorry to pass a night at the height 
of i4.<x> feet above the level of the sea, and immediately under this 
famous fortre». The winds ' howled through the vacant guard- 
rooms and deserted lobbies ' of our hostelry, nnd the snow dctcended 
in a heavy fall, and covered the valleys ; but Radicofani looked the 
same, as we saw it through the coach-windows the next morning, 
old, grey, deterted, gloomy, as if it had survived ' a thousand storms, 
■1 thousand winters ' — the peasant still crawled ulong its trenches, the 
traveller stopped to gaze at its battlements — but neither spear nor 
battle-axe uould glitter there again, nor banner be spread, nor tlie 
clash of arms he heard in the round of evcr-roHiog years — it looked 
hack to other times as we looked bock upon it, and stood tower- 
ing ifl its decay, and nodding to an eternal repose ! The road 
in this, a> in other parts of Italy, is evidently calculated, and was 

> BKclIcnl Ui ii (o be had ■< Rome it in luliaa shop st the mmpi of lh( Via 
Caadotli, lo the Pitus lil Spltns. 

ai9 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

a boDK thu bad beIo«iged to Mtlum, and dow m tlni, and find to iny 
iDorti£c3tioa that Jmoguuttoci, u oitireljr a liag im^gmary, and Ium 
nothiag to do with maiier of bxt, hutory, ix the taatt. To tee an 
object of tbooghi ot hitcj b just u ionpoutble u to fed ■ wavoA or 
bora melL 



CHAPTER XIX 

* As Loodoo i* to tfae meaneit country town, to u Rone to nvtj 
other city in the world.' 

So Mid an old IVicod of mioe, sod I bclierrd him till I asw it. 
Thi* it Bot thr Roair 1 expected to we. No one Irom bnag in it 
woald koow he waa in the |>hce that hid bceo twice luiatreM of the 
world. I do not onderMaad how NicoUt Poowin could tell, talcing 
up 3 handftil of earth, that it wn • a put of the £TutH*L Crrr.' 
Is Oxlord an air of leamiog breathe* from the rery walla: halb aad 
college* meet your eye in every direction ; yoo cannot for > '~"'mth 
forget where you are. In Loadon there ii a look of wealth sad 
populoutoeta which ti to be lound i>owherc cW. In Rotnc you are 
for the moK pan Iok in ■ mau of tawdry, fiiliome ia a i mm fi a n)4 . It 
is DM the contrast of pi;g4tyo and paUct* that I corapUn of, ttw 
dittinction b e t w een the M aad new ; whtt I object to b tbe want of 
any each uriking cootrau, but an almo«t uninterrupted fuccctaion of 
tiarrow, Tulgar-tookiog ttreetc, where the atoell of earlick pr««ail« 
o*er the odoor of innqtiity, with the dingy, meUncholy Sat fraois of 
modem-built houaes that teem in teuch of >o owner. A dnaghtU, 
u outho«ne( tbe weed* growing under u> imptrial arch olfend ne not t 
bat iriut hM k grecfrgrocer'i aiaJl, a nspid Eagliih china warelMMMc^ 
a poind trMtoriof a bvber'a tiga. an old dothee or old picture shop or 
a Gothic palace, with two w three bc(]ueiri in modem liverici loung' 
tng at the Rtxe, to do with ancient Rome i No ! thi* it not the wmI 
thai Romulut leaped orcr : thii it not the Capitol where Jnliw CiCMr 
fell : iMtead of tunding on icicn hills it ia wtoued in a tow Tallcy : 
the eoUcD Tiber it a moddy >uc«m : St. Petcr'i it not equal to 
St. PMil't: the Vatican faiU than of the Louirti at it wat in my 
time I but I tbooght that here were wocLi iituoovcable, inuaortali tniitv- 
ictble on earth, and lifting the toul half way to heanrea. I find them 
not, or odIt what I bad teen before in direct way* : the Stanzas 
of Raphael are faded, or no better than the priou ; and the mind of 
Michael Angelo't figprct, of which oo tracei are to be fouod in the 
copiM, is equally nbecoi from the walli of the Sitttne Chapel. Rome 
it great only in miiwi the ColiMwn, tbe Pantheon, the Arch of 

331 





I 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Coanununr fully auwcfcd my cspecudoMi and aa lir brcwbc* 
Toood ber Mately areuiKt, Knot, blitaful, like the micigled breaitb of 
nprittg and winier, betwixt ItTe and death, betwixt bopc and despair. 
The coontry aboot Rome it cheetlen lod barren. There i* little 
Terdure, iwf arc oay irw« planted, on accouat of iheir bud eScctt oa 
the air. Happy cHmate! in which ihade and ninfhine are alike (iual. 
The Jewt (I may add while 1 think of it) are shut up here in a 
(Quarter by tbemcdTct. I see no reaMo for it. It i« a dinbctioB 
not worth the nakii^. There wai a talk (it beinj; vfan* Saitic) of 
tfauiting them up for the whole of the present yev. A nidier uaodt 
at tbe gate, to tell you that thii i* the Jewi' cjuaiicr, and to take any 
ihinK yon choote to give him for this piece of Chritiian bfottnarion. 
A Catholic charch «uada oniaide their priMfi, with a Cnicifixioa 
patDted on it at a frootitpKCt. where tbcy arcobliged to hear a termoB 
n bdulf of the truth of the Chriatiaa reli]^ every Good Friday. 
Od At taroe day they aied to nuke them nut race* ro the Corto, for 
the anauement of the rabble (htf;h aod low) — now tbey are compelled 
to provide hor*c* for the umc purpose. Owing to th« politeoew of 
the age, they tto iooger bum them as of yore, and that ii lomeihing. 
RrligioBt zeal, like all other tkinn, growa old and feeble. They 
treat the Jewi la that manner at Rome (» a local coonoy to St. 
Peter), and yet they compliment ui on our iocreuiit); liberalitj to the 
Iriih Cathobc*. The PromtanC chapel here uandi outside the wallt, 
whileihereiia Btitiah moMimcni to the memory of the Stiutti, inndc 
of St. Peter'* ; (he lombi in the Eo^iih baryiDg^ronadwcc destroyed 
and defa<;ed not long ago; yet that did MK prevent (he Prince Rcmt 
from exchanging foitraiu with ibe Pope and bia Mininm! — *OhI 
liberalbm — lovely liberalitm I ' as Mr. Blackwood would tay. 

From the window of the houae where I lodge. I have a view of 
the whole city at once : nay, I can lee St. Peter'* as I lie in bed of a 
moming. The town i* an immease ma** ot solid itooe-buitdiDg*, 
streets p^ace% and chnrche*; but it ha* not the beauty of the 
environ* of Florence, nor the *plendid background of Torin, nor doe* 
it preacnt any highly piciurenque or commanding poinu of view like 
EdiDborgh. The pleatantcn walk* I know are round the Via 
Ktditt, and along the Via di ^uattro-Fontane — tber overlook Rome 
from ibe Nortb-I^act on to the churcbet of Santa >faria Maggiore, 
and of St. John Lateran, toward* tbe gate leading to Naples. A* 
we loiter on, oar attention wa* caugbt E^ an open grceniward to the 
left, with foot-path*, and a nwocd wsD and garden* on each tide. A 
carriage itood in ilv road joat by, and a gcntlemaii and bdy, with 
a liule child, had got oat of it to walk. A aoldier mkI a^irl were 
*een talking together fiinbrr on, and a herd of cattle were feeding at 



NOTES OF A JOCBNEV 



ikcir leitarc on the neldtng vuC Tbc day wai dote tad <try not 
» bfcadt Mirrad. All «m ala umI iBeK. It had been cold wh^ 
we Mt on, bat here (be ai «w vA— of ■■ Elpian rrmpBtatii re, as 
if tbe wtnili M att dan n viak ifce vmeaaha of the dead! toe 
raa([Uy. TbedaMT^n*gbcscatii<mfc«t— dtefrait-cKcabloMaaMd 
witbiB die noddinK vcbck Oflone adewrrcMnithehiUiof Albaao^ 
on tlic other the Cbndian gWe ; aad doK bjr wat Nero'a Coiden 
Hook, nhere tbecc were MTeaty ilmaiiiat Katnea aod ntUara, of 
mthic tad oS vlver, and wbere teBana luteefed, aad mynad* sbaatcd 
in bcnov of a Etxil nonal, m of a God. Come beer, A raao ! aad 
wn hi l ' thine own ifarii, that can Invd vp^ at ia a ahnne, tlw 
ULWLi of iwotbonund j«>rf,aid caaCRatcosof tbcmnnory of 
nuen tpRndonn and deputed ^ranoeiif a ioihnde deeper tliaii tnat of 
deaen wildcrncMet, and ponr from tbea«-gann of thine own tboogfala 
a tbnader loodcr than tut of maddening imdntndea ! Mo pbon waa 
ever in aii)! at thb ; for noac was e«tr tbc accne of «wb pomp and 
trinm^ I Not faj from tbia are the Batb* of Titaa : dte gru* aad 
the poppf (the flower of oblhioa) grow o*er them, and n ^e vault* 
below tbev dtew 700 (bjr the help of a torch) paiatnici on the cciiiBg 
eigliteen nimdred ^eu* old, btrda, and amtnati, a figure of a atave, a 
oynqkh and a bunumao, &eiJi isd tlcgmtljt fbrcahortened, and aho 
the place where the l.iocoon wai dbcorercd. A few paces off i* 
the Coliseum, or Anipbiihcatre of Ttnu, the nobten ruin in Rome. 
It ia circnlar, buh of red itone and brick, with arched windowi, and 
ihc f^llyfiower aod Icuncl ^roanag 00 its walH to the >ery top : oae 
ude i> nearly perfect. A* ;«■ pan under ii, it aeeBia to laiie itaelf 
aboTe you, and min^ with tbc aky in iu ina je *i c Maplidtyt a* if 
earth were a thing too poaa lor it ; it stand* afaimff unconaciona of 
decay, and may Mill aaod for agt« — tfaongh Mr. Hobbonae hat 
written Anaotation* open it ! There n 1 hypocritical inicriptioo on 
it, 10 aay that it ha* been kept in repiir by the Popta, in order U 
pre aerw the oienory of the martyr* that toffertd here io crad 
conbut with wild b^ita. As I baie allodcd to this mbjcct, I will 
add that I think the fineat Mania in Lord Byron ii that where be 
dctcribe* the Ojmg GlaSater, who (alU aod doe* not bear tbc iboai 
of barborooi triun^th echoing from thete very walU : — 

' He hran it OM ( bii ibougbti arc far avay , 
Where hi* rude hot brndc the I>uiube hyt 
There are hi» yoong tarbariant, all it pl^, 
They and their Damn mother { be their the 
U doom'd lo Ruike a Rooaa hokday. 
Wkn will ye riie, ycGolhir awake and glut your tre t * 

Ciiri.DK Ha BOLD. 
aj4 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



Tfae tMDple of V«ta U on the Tibrr. h is not aolikc an bour- 
gbat — or 1 ti»d-«oo) t it is muS, hat exoecdio^ bc«iitiful» and his 
a look of gnu antiquity. The Pantheon ia alto at fine aa potable. 
It baa lh« raoti perfect unity of cfiiict. It wai hHrtfly a proper 
receptacle for the God* of the Heathen*, ior it bat a aimplicity and 
grandeur like the nulled cope of Heaven. Compared with theK 
admired remain* of former 6mc« I mun «ay ttiat the more modern 
chorchet and palacei in Rome aic poor, flashy, up-stait looking things. 
Eren the donic of St. Peler't it for the most pirt hid by the front, 
and the Vatican has no biuincu by tti tide. Tbi- scuItNuiei (here are 
aUo indifferent, and the moiaici, except two — the Ttanifi;;iiTutiaD 
and St. Jcrorne, ill choicn. I was lucky enough to see the Pope 
here on Easter Sunday. He secniii a harmless, infirm, fretful old 
man. I confess I should feel little ambiiion to be at the head of a 
procession, at which the ignorant mare, ihc better informed irniite. 
i was also lucky enough to tee St. Peter's illuminated to the very 
top (a project of Michael Angelo't) in the evening. It was finest 
at first, at the kindtcd lijjhit blended with the fading twilight. It 
teemed doubtful whether it were an artificial illumination, the work 
of carpenters and torch-bearers, or the reflection of an invisible tun. 
One half of the cross shone with the richest gold, and rows of lamps 
gave light as from a sky. At length a shower of fairy lights burst 
out at a signal in all directions, and corcred the whole building. 
It looked better at a distance than when we went neater it. It 
continued blazing all night. What an etfect it most bate upon the 
country round ! Now and then a life or >o tt loit in lighting up the 
hnge »bric, hut what is this to the glorj' of the church and the salta- 
tion of souls, to which it no doubt tendi ! I can easily conceise tome 
of the wild groups that 1 saw in the streets the following day (o have 
been led by delight and wonder from rhetr mountaaiv-haniiu, or cren 
from the bandits' care, to womhip at this new atarry glory, rising 
from the earth. The whole of the iromenie spce before St. Peter's 
was in the afternoon crowded with people to see the Pope give bis 
benediction. The rich dresses of the country people, the strong 
feature and orderly behavioBT of all, gase this atsemblage a decided 
superiority over any thing of the kind I had seen in iiogUnd. I did 
not bear the JUuerm which is chaunted by the PtieMs, and sung by 
a tingle voice (I nmlerstaad like an angel't) in a dim rcli^ooa light 
in the Sictioe Chapel i nor did I tee the exhibition of the relics, at 
which I was told all the beauty of Rome was present. It b some* 
thing even to m!u such ihingi. Afier all, St. Peter's does not seem 
CO mc the chief boatt or mo« imposing display of the Catholic 
reli^OB. Old Melroae Abbey, bartered to pieces and in ruins, a* 

*3S 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



The only thing onpleaunt in the motley aMcroblage of perioiu at 
Rome, in the number o( pilgrimii with their greujF oi)'«km cloak*. 
They arc a dirt)-, rfisgasting «ct, with t look of tiurdy hypocrisy 
about them. The Pope (firvfirmri) WMhcs th^ir feet; the Nuiu, 
when they conie, haie eveo a lem delicate office (o perform. Religion, 
in tht ciq>th of iti humility, ought not to forget decoram. Bat I am 
> trareJIer, and not a reformer. 

Tbc picture-gaileitcii in Rome diiappointed me quite. I wB» tofd 
thtre were a doien at lean, equal to the Lourre ; there i* not one. 
I thA\ not dwell long upon ihem, for ihcy g»vc me little ptcacure. 
At the Ru>piglio«i 1'al.icc (near the Monte ChtjIIo, where are the 
famous ColoMal groups, (aid to be by Phidi.t« and I'raxiiclce, of one 
of which we have a cast in Hyde Park) ate the Auron aod the 
Andromeda, by Guiilo. The hrst ie a moil tplendid compOtidOB 
(like the Daughter of the Dawn) but painted in frnco; and the 
artiit has, in my mind, failed through want of practice in the grace 
and colouring of mo>i of the iigurcs. They arc a clumiy, gloomy- 
looking set, and not like Guido'a female*. The Andromeda has ail 
the charm and twectness of his pencil, in itt pearly tones, its graceful 
timid action, and ita lovely exptesBion of gentieoeas and terror. The 
face, every part of the figure, has a beauty and softncu not to be 
dcicribcd. This one ligure is worth all the other group, and the 
Apollo, the hortea and tbc azure sea to boot. People talk of the 
ioripidiiy of Guido. Ob! let me drink long, repeated, tcliihing 
draughts of such intipidily! If delicacy, beauty, and grace ue 
insipidity, I too prolcts myself an idolizcr of insipidity : I will 
vcntorc one asiertioo, which tt, that no other painter hu expressed 
the fbnale character so well, so truly, m cBlirely in its fragile, 
lovely CMence, neither Raphael, nor Titian, nor Correggio: and, 
after tbcsc, it i* needless to mention any more. Rimhael's women 
are Saints; Titian's are courtewDs; Correggio' ■> an anecied mixture 
of both i Guido'* are ihc true heroine* of romance, the bride* of the 
(iiocy, nach as ' youthfiil poets dream of when they love,' or as a 
Claiiita, a Julia de Roubignc, or a Mist Milner would turn out to 
be I They are not only angels, but young ladies into the hargaiti, 
which is niore than can be laid for any of the others, and yet it is 
something to say. Vandyke sometime* gate this clfect in portrait, 
but his hinorical figures ate fincifiil and sprawling. Under the 
Andromeda is a portrait by Nicholas Ponssin of himself (a duplicate 
of that in the Louvre), and an infant Cupid or Bacchus, by (he same 

ianist, fmdy coloured, and executed in the manner of Titian. I'here 
li in another room on unmeaning pi<niue, by Annibal Cacacci, of 
Samson pulling down the temple of the Philiuine*, and also .1 fine 
*$7 



I 



NOTKS OF A JOLIINEY 



dead Clwui bjr Iurb t add to tbe«e a I>ub> and Endyntiaa 
Gvcfowt, ID »hkb the rcaJ a fw i mw it of Uw itwy b tbrowi 
the luMbcape and figvrtc. The Ro^iglMMi PariliDn, concainagJ 
UwM and lone inrcHor piciuret, ia (inated aeu tbe rcnuiu c(\ 
Coartantine'* Batfa in a imail laned garden at icmce, la whick 
tiM eartjr nolett and b]pcinth( blowow amdat bnkca cnttnu aod 
dc&ced ttatuet. It u a pretty picture ; an dccayi^ hm aaxtm ttiQ 
■llivia through all chjingc*. At the Doria Palace, there b ninhcng 
murkable bat the two Clandc*, and ihnc are mach injured to coJoor. 
The itcc« uc hlaci, and the water looks like lead. Tbere are 
MTerai Catofi^o«t which are held in cMeem here (not oBJtiatly) oad 
me fise head by Titian. The Velaa()uez ( Innocent x. ], w> madb 
eMeemed bv Sit Joabua, h a apirited (ketch. The Borj^ieec Palnoe 
bai three me pic t ur e * , and only three — the Disbb sod ActXDO of 
DonieoichiDo ; the Talung down ftota the CroM, by Rapltael t and 
Titian'* Sacrrd and Profhne L.otc. Thia la*t fnctnrc haa a pecvliar 
asd iBexpreatiblc cham abont n. It it aoaethtog be t w taiii ponnii 
and aUegorfi a miainre of hiatocy and hndicae, tinple md ytt 
maiott faotaRical yet wilbout mcann)]; to be w, hut ax if a mdden 
uonxbt bad (track the painter, and he could not help a-.temptinj; to 
execnte it out of curiouiy, and finiahing it fron the delight it jtaee 
htm. It is full of (wcctncic and lolenMiky. The Dia&a of Dotneni- 
ehiBO i* fuc the tevcne of it. Frrry thing heee is arranged oaethodi- 
eallf , and i* the effrct of ftudy and fercthovght. DoneiuchiBo wna 
apnMrofacMC, fttlint Md laxe; b« hit pencil wai iDcagr^ and 
hia imagiaatioB dii{>irttcd and inaportntbed. In Titian, the execmioo 
MTpnaNd the deMgo, asd the force of hi* hand and eye, aa he wcm 
on, enriched the moft iodiAereot ootlioe : in OonteBichino, the filling 
op fdl ihort of the conception and of hi* own witfae*. H« was a 
nun of great roodcvty ana merit; and when other* exprenaed an 
adanitatioo of hit talent*, they were obliged to reckon up a numbet 
of hia tirf-tTatrvttt to cooTDcr him that they were in ennicm. He 
eoald hardly believe that any one die thoi^t much of hi« worica, 
when be tbtlaght to little of them tumtcK Raphael'* Tdting down 
from the QoM is n hi* early mamer, and the omline* of the liiaba 
arc like the edgea of pbtet of tin ; bat it hai what wat inaeparaUe 
from hi* productiona, hrtt and lact, piegaaK rxpfemon and careful 
drawing. I ooght to mentioo that there ia, by the aame maaia-4iafKU 
* ^>l«ndid pomBit of Cxaar BetpM^ which it an adtfokm to wj Ii«. 
The contfHexion i» a ftrange mixitire of orange and purple. The 
hut of hi* (iiter, Lacreda Borgia (the friend and miitreat of Cardtnal 
Bembo) is still pceaerred in Italy, and a lock of it wai in the pooaca- 
I of Lord Byron. I lately *aw it in company with that of Mihon 
>S8 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



aod of Booaparce, looking ciIbIi goldca, bcautifbl, a nniling uopby 
from tlie xravc ! Tbtr number and piDf>re«itve impfovcmcat ot 
Raphiicr* worki in luly it itrikirig. It might t«ach our holiday 
artiRU that to do wrll i* to do much. ExccUcttcc iptingi tip bcliiod 
tM) not brfore u» -, and i* the result of what we luv« dimi-, not of 
what wc intend to do> Many aitist* (Mpecially ihow ubra»d, who 
are diatractcd witJi a variety of Mylc« and RiMelt) nevvr adtance 
beyond tbc cooienipktion of Home ffvM work, and think to lay in an 
unexampled *torc of accompli thntenti, before they commence any 
uodeitiking. That it where they ought to end ; to begin with it » 
too much. It i) it if the foundaiion-itonc (hould form the cupola of 
St. Peter's. Great works arc the rciult of much labour and of many 
failutea, and not of pompous preicnaion« and fa&iidjous delicacy. 

The Corsini ]jicturcs are another lurjre and »«ry indifferent cotleC' 
tion. All 1 cun recollect worth meniionin^ ace, a very «weet and 
kilvery-toned Herudiat, by Guido; a iinc Uiidicape, by Gaspsir 
Pouisin ; an excellent ilcclch from Ariomo of the Oiont Orgagna ; 
and the Plague of Milan by a modem iiiit«(, 3 work of great lovca- 
tion and judi^nient, and in which the details of the iubJL-ct are »o 
managed an to adeii, and not to shock. The Campidoi-.lio collection 
ia better. There it a latffi and admirable Gucrcino, an airy and 
richly- coloured Guido, lome capital little Garofolos a beautiful copy 
of a Repoac of Titian'* by Piciro da CorlODa, WTetal Giorgioocsi 
and a Dumber of antitjue bunts of the moti iniercauog dc«cription> 
Here i« the bronze She- Wolf that tuckled Romulus and Remua, and 
the Geese that cackled in the Capitol. I find nothing »o delightful 
M these old Roman heads of .Senators, Warriorn, Philotopihen. 
They have all the freshnesk of truth and nature. Tbey >hew some- 
thing aub>tantiat in mortality. They are tli« only thing's that do not 
cruxh and orcrtum our sense of pcnonal identity ; and are a line 
relief to the mouldering relici of aniicjuity, and to the momentary 
liuIencH of modern thingt ! The little I- arncie contaiiu the Galatea 
and the Cupid and Psyche. If any thing could hart raised my idea 
ol Raphael hiKhef, it would have been wmc of these frescoes. I 
v/ould mention the f.roup of the Grace* b particular i they are uue 
Goddeoet. The line liowing outline of the Itmbi, the variety of 
attitudes, the uncoatcioun grace, the charming UDaiTccied glow of^ the 
cxpreiuion, are inimitable. Raphael nerer perhaps eicaped m com- 
pletely from the trammels of his lirit manner, as in this noble setiet 
of deu'gna. The Galatea has been injured in colour by the stores 
which the German*, who »-ere quartered there, lighted in the apart- 
ment. In the lamc room is the lamoun chalk head, aaid to ha>e 
been sketched upoe the wall by Michael An>;elo. The story i* 



NOTES OF A JOCBSiET 








tfcM ihc Fo6pn pa«: tfe cUd «kk 
t^ Hk MM RayteUqKw far tbr 
tk rick f^ IBBM if tfcc 

dK Oiiiiiia of dK Vsp^ widi 

ate 

tf iH^txiaa iowi 0Mr tfa^^ Tlxn i* a 

ingoi Ac lower son of lUi ykmn,t* if it were 

so froB CMi 0914 t l i ift f ^ravBQ tbe pow of i 

piA^ ifce Mora KiMf M tftew i la the mbc ««e of 9«v 

man (acceMUo to «Bian vd eapjiaa) are tkc Dodk of Sl 

JflfoWv by Doo MBKl ooo t aod tac VittOB of St* XAOMudf w§ 

Aadra SkcU, ifcr b« of iIk ItaKw |oini«r». Fnr ■oUcr ar 

MOW IBSIC^BW flKtDV STC AUt n tlK l WJ il u « A BBMC liJfl0B ^a 

fit. MklHfle (ao a piiKriM »oag tbo A%i) ■■ a pare rich ofcfk^ tf 
tfacptadin li^iiiliif iliimliM iil iiwiililili (i» ihi liwiJiiin wf | 
dw colooriag, — MM M i of ibc tJtpiwioB, Md ibe ^b°*T 4 — 
ofifebaekgrMMl. Tbcn uc no otfaoi c^otDj good. TbeVa 
coottMw Bwwvnoi vfv iMMa Hn otwf n w ii H i ot anii^iuijf i 
nd tiri oM t . The ApoOoI do not admire, ba the Laocoeoi 
to 4K adntfKMe, fee tae wocK gia D aiiip j raf uk nmcdUf 
of ibc &tber't figne, >ad the difioe cxprfioa of the KoCnpeoc of | 
pno md tenor io the chUdren. Tbey are, bawerer, rstlKr hrsH 
Una jmog. Ctaon't figam here- Mcn to me ihr work of a* 
acvoaifGdiad wabtor, b« not of a gnat nuo. Mkhad Angelo** 
figana of Day mm Ni^i. at the Oupcl of St. Lorouo K Ptonnce, 
are iboM of a great mao ; w b eth er of a perfrct (caJpior or doc, I 
«il nal fretcod is mj. The neck of (lie N^ht b cnned like ibc 
340 





THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

borw's the limb* have the ioTolatioa of terpout. Thctc two 6gant 
snd his treotponing the Paatbcoo lo the top of Si. rncr**, hxjt 
•cttltd my WBTcring idet of thi« mighty ncniBi, which his David and 
culy workt at Floieocr had tutggettrd. Ilii Adam rcccivifi;> life 
from hit CmtOT, in ibr Siwoe Chapel, foe boldncsi and frraJom, 
is more like the Elgin Thetevi than uy other fiRure 1 hare seen. 
The Jeremiah in the ume cdling droc^t and bowi the head like 
a willow-trrc *urchargcd with tiiowr*. Whether there are any 
ficc« worthy of these Dobic £gare« I hare not been near enough U> 
Mc. ThoM near the bottom of the Uaat Judgment arc hidcoai, 
Tul][ar caricaiutet of demoni tod ca/dinala, and the whole i« a masa 
of extravagance and confuoion. 1 shall endeaitoiu to jtet a neanr 
view of the Prophets and Sybils in the CapelU Sioina. And if I 
can discover an exprcition and character of thought in tbem eijiul 
to their grandeur of form, 1 shall not be slow to acknowledge it. 
Michael Angelo is one of those names that cannot be shaken wicboot 
pulliag down Fame itself. The Vatican is rich in pictufMi Btai&aryi 
tapestry, gardens ami in the >iewi from it ; but its inaon w e die i> 
divided into too nany long and oarrow oocnpanmenis, and ii wants 
the unity of elfect and impoMDg giantjF of the Lomre. 



CHAPTBR XX 

Thus are two thiog* that an Enjtlittiinan noderatands^ bvd word* 
and hard blows. Nothing short of this (generaUy speaking) excites 
hia attnitioin oc interesu bim in the least. Hi* nrigbbours have the 
bcfw&t of the one in war time, and hit own coimtrymes of the other 
in time of pe«ce. The French express themselves astonished at the 
leata which oui Jack Tars have so ojito petfo^mcd. A fellow in 
thai cbss of life in Gogland will itiike his hand throagh a deal board 
— farM, to shew hi* strength, which he is pcoud of i secondly, to give 
him a aenaation, which he is in want of i laatly lo prove bis power* 
of endaraiKC, wfaicli he also make* a booM of. So <{nalified, a coH' 
troversy vritb a caaaon-bftil ii not moch out of his way : a thirty-two 
poBixler is rather an ig;fy tnttamer, but it presents him with a tangible 
idea (a thing be is always in search of) — and, sbonld it take on hia 
hc»d or carry away one of his limba, be dors sot feel the want of the 
one or care for that of the other. Natntally obtiue, bis feelings 
become hardened fay cnstooi; or if there are any qmlms of repugnance 
or disnuy left, a ToUey of oaths, a few coarse jests, and a double 
allowance oS grog sooo turn the aifair into a pastime. Stw^ with 
VOL. II. ;q 34 > 




J 



NOTES OF A .lOURNEY 



wond*, •raaned with bnmrt, Mceding and maaglnli an Engliih 
tailor DTvcr fiodi himtcir co much >lire u when he ia flong halTdMd 
tflto the cockpit s Ebr he then per ccivrt the txatmt rnnirifiiiiiiMw flf 
hif esnteacc m ku conflict with cxterEol nutttr, in th« violeoce of 
hii will, «nd hi* obatmate coateinpt ht ntSicrtng. He feeli Ui 
penooal idenlitjr on the fide of the dutgiecahle and repultive ; and it 
i* better to leel It m than to be « nock or a nooe, wMcb i« hii 
ofdirury *tatc. Patn puu life into him i action, kmI : otberwiae, 
be it I mere log. *rhc Eogtiah are not like a naticn of women. 
Tbey are not thiiMkiDned, nemnw, or efTeniinate, hot dull and 
morbid : they look dtogcr asd dilEcnl^ in the face, and *bakc huMb 
with death as with a biotbcr. They do DOt hold Dp their bcnda, htt 
they will lum their back* oo do maa : thcv ddlfbt in doing and !■ 
beuing more than otltert : what eicry one «Me lluislcs from throng 
avenioii to labonr or pain, they an attracted to, and eo thiongb with. 
Mid ao lar (and «> lar only) they are a great peofSe. Ac lens, ii 
cannot be denied that they arc i ffgnaamt tet. Their hc«d« are m> 
ftill of thU, that if a i^rcochauB i^ki of Sotm, the celefanied 
farce-writer, a )-oains iiiigliihmaa preaem will mppose he nteuns Cribb 
the boxer; and ten thoonnd people asaembltd at a prize-fight wiD 
wiiBCM u exhibition of ptigilKm with the aamc breauikM attention 
and del^tbt at the audience at the Thiam Frmfmi listen to the 
diriogDe of Racine or Molibe. Anurtdly, %vt do not p^ the oaate 
attentioD to Shaktpeare : but at a boxing-tnatcb every Eagliihinn 
ftdi hit power to girc and tike blow* increaicd by tytnpufay, aa at a 
French tbcairr e>ery spcoator fincin that the acton on the atage 
talk, laugh, and make lore at he woald. A mnafihyticiaD might nj, 
(hat the l£Dgtid perceiie ab}rcts chicfij by their mere nuenal 
i|ualiiie« of tolidiiy, inenseM, and inpeMtnhifiqr, cr by their ovn 
matcniag miMaDce to them ; that they do not care aboat the co(mv, 
caMe, men, the aeme of liucary or picaaare :— they mioirc the heavy, 
hard, and tangible only, nraetliing for than to grapple with an 
rc«iit, to try their ttreagth and their munprennfaility npoa. They ilo 
not Eke to umU to a row, or to taMe of laade-diihes, or to Baiai to 
nft nnric. or to look at Gnc picmrci, or to innke or hear bw tpee ch c t , 
or to eD}oy theneelret or amtae otheri; bat they will knock any nan 
down whu tell* them lOt and their tolc delighi ii to be aa imruni 
fettaUe and dit^;teeaiUe at wmble. To them the grvateat lafcenr ii 
to be pleaacd : they hate to aiTe nothing to find £iah with t to expect 
them to tmilc or to conrerae oo c^ual temu, it the heavicat tax yon 
can lenr oo their want of animal tpiritt or iaccUectoal retoarcea. A 
drop 01 pkanre it the mo« diAcnli thing to extran from tbetr hard, 
drr, iw a dMBiw I, hmky fiamc ; > cinl wwd or hwk it the bat ihoif 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 




they can pact with. Hence the mailtr^-factneji of their nader- 
staodings, their IrnaciouimcM of reoMn or prejudice, their nlowntu to 
diMiogui«h, their backw3idDe«t to yield, their mechanical improve* 
meats, their industry, ihcir courage, their blunt boncuy, their aitlike 
to the frivolout and florid, their love of liberty out of hatred to 
oppteanoo, and their love of virtue from thdr antipathy to vice. 
Hence alto their philo«ophy, from their diitrutt of appearance* and 
unwillingnci* to be imposed upon ; and erco their poetry hai iu 
protublc tourcc in the same repining, diKontented humour, which 
fliDg* them from cross-grained rcalitiea into the reg)on of lofty and 
eager imaginations.' — A I''rrnch gentleman, a man of icnue aod wit, 
expreued his wonder that all the Cngltth did aot go and live in the 
South of France, where ihey would have a beautiful country, a Sac 
climate, and every comfort almoit for nothing. He did not perceive 
that they would go back in thoalt from thit iccne of fancied con- 
tentment to their tog* and Rca-coil lire*, and that no I^ngli»hman caa 
live without something to complain of. Some persons are nirry to 
aee our counttymco abroad cheated, laughed at, <|uartelliDg at all the 
inni they vtop at : — while diey arc in hot mtitr, while they think 
themaelvci ill-used and liavc but the spirit to rexat it, they are happy. 
Aa long a* they can awear, they are excused from being com- 
plimentary: if they have to light, they need not think : wlule they 
arc proioked beyond measure, they arc released from the dreadful 
obligation of being pleased. Leave them to thcmtelves, and they are 
dull ; inttoducc tbcm into company, and they ate worse. It is the 
iBca{iacity of CDJoymeot that makes them tuUea and ridiculous ; the 
BiorttficatioD they feel at not having their own way in everything, and 
M Mcing others dcliiihtcd without aiking their leave, that makes them 
baughty and distiint. An Englishman is silent abroad from liaviog 
nothing to say : and he looks stupid, becauic be is to. It is kind 
words and graceful acts that affiict his aoul — an appearance of 
bappincM, which he suspects to be insincere because he cannot enter 
imo h, and a Row of animal spirita which dejecta htm the more from 

' Vft hiVT li*t nunts anrivi11c4 in madfra limti and in theli dilTimit wtyt i 
— Ncwion, L^ckc, Bi«n, Stukipcarc, and Millon— aad If ta ikese w* v«v« to add 
■ iliih tlul (uuld not t« ijudituiicd in hri [iuE, pctbsps it wauld be H^ssrth. Oar 
wit it the tUtfl not of p't^y, hut iplcen — the tut mult ot s pvrtinseicnt rrdmttio 
aJtity^mm. Our frrstni win h>«c bon our (ramt mrn. PirMiog i«m> to 
havf p'odnetd his Hiin'y efti Fc^mtJing with the s>m« dtlilvrition snd ruttthoDf hi 
that Atktni(ln did his nuininf-jniny. The French havr no poetry ; thil is, oo 
Hobinilion of intemsl t(elin( wilb titfinil imign)-. I'bcit dfsiailie dislofut ■• 
frothy vcibiigc or 1 mscilsfe of leDilntcst wiihuut niinri] bnnei nr luUttaa i 
our> ciiniUnllr (liug* (o the concnti, lad hit a/vrcJdii upim mittrr. Oulwaid 
objvcU intrrfirc with sod cxtinpibh Ihr Aime of their iroLfinstioii i with us tfaey 
an tfat fiMl that kiadic it into a briihtn and ttrcoter bisat. 

»4S 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

makioj; him fed the warn of it in hiiuMiri picturo th» he doci 
undcTMaDd, miuie that Im- don not feci, lo?c tlui he caonoi make, 
moi that ihbe out of EoglaDd. and »ntiks more tadiant than they ! 
I>o not «ttl!e htm with rotn : do mm kill him irith kindncu ; Iravc 
him tofot pretext to f;nimble, to ftcl, aod lonneot himwlf. Point at 
hjm M he drives an t^nglixh mAJl-coMh about the ^iceu of Paris or 
of Rome, to Tclicve his detpair of /rZof by alfording him a pretence 
to bortewhip some one. fie disa^cesble, futly, lyingt Knaviih, 
impertinent out of compuMOD; insati, lob hini, aod he will thank 
you; take any ihinf; from him fna^- cveo his life) vooner than his 
(pinion of himiclf and liis piejudicn againt*. othen, his moody 
dissatislACtian and hii cootempt for every one who ii not in as ill a 
humour as he it. 

John Bull is certainly a singular nnimal. It is the being the bea« 
be ■■ that hat made a man of him. If he do not take care what he is 
about, the ume uagoveraed humour will be hit luin. He mnvt have 
Mmethin^ to butt at ; iind it matters little to him whether it be friend 
or foe, proiided only be can nm-cwiun'i. He imitt hare a grievance 
to soiace him, a bus-bear of itome sort or other ii> keep hinitcif tn 
br«th: otherwise, be droojn and hangt the bead— he i« no longer 
John Bull, but John Ox, according to s hxfpj allusion of the Poet- 
Laureate's. This oeccKsity of John's to be repulsive (right or wrong) 
has been lately turned sgaiost himself, to the deirimcM of others, and 
his proper con. Formerly, the Pope, the Ueiil, the Inouisition, and 
the Bourbons, aerved the turn, wttli all of whom he u at present 
•wovn friends, unless Mr. Canning should throw out * lui to a vuAalt 
in South America : then Bonaparte took the lead for awhile in John's 
psniC'tiruck brain ; and Utterly, the Whig« and the Examhur news- 
paper have borne the bell before all other toptci of abuse and obloquy, 
rormerly, liberty was the word with John, — now it hat become a 
bye-word. Whoever is not detcrmittcd to make a dave and a dtudgc 
<n him, he dcfiesi he wis ati be tostes in the air, Ive trample* oitder 
foot ; and after hating mangled and criuhed whom he pleajwa, stands 
ftupid and melancholv IffMinn in rarnu) over tlie tifelcM rctnains of 
his lictim. When h» fury it orer, he repents of whst he has done — 
(00 laic. In hi( time fit, and having nude a clear stage of all who 
would or could direct him right, he is led gently bv tbc DO«e by Mr. 
Crokcri and the 'Stout Gentleman' gets upon hi> back, making a 
monster of bim. Why is there a taUet stuck up in St. Peter's at 
Rome, to the memory of the three last of the Stuarts? Is it a 
$a'aet maiiu to the Pope, or i compromise with legitimscy ? Is the 
dr«ad of uaurpotion become so strong, that a reigning family are half- 
ready to acknowledge ihcmsclTci usurpers, in favour of those who arv 
344 




THROUGH FKANCE AND ITALY 

DM likely to come buck to aMcrt their claiin, ind to counteiuBcc the 
priaciplci thai may keep them on a throne, in )ien of the parMtoxc* 
that pi.icrd them there ! It ti a handsome way of pying for a king- 
dom with no epitaph, and of satisfyinj; the pretensioni of the Iniog 
and the dead. But we did aw expel the alarith aad tyraociical 
Siuatt« from our soil by ilie volcanic eruption of 1688, iti send a 
whining Jcsuiiical recantation and v/tit of error after them i« tlie 
other world a hundred years aitetwardi. But il may be taid ihitt the 
ioKripiion ie merely .i tribute of respect to miBfortune. What ! from 
that <(uartcrJ No! ii is a 'li!y-li»ered,' poliahed, courtly, pious 
inonument to [lie fcar» that hare bo long beset tlie hcaiis of Monarche, 
to the pale apparitions of Kings dethroned or beheaded in time past 
or to come (from that nad exajnple) to the crimson fltiih of victory, 
which ban put out the light of truth, and to the reviving hope of that 
deathlesi night of ignorance and lupcmiiion, when ihcy thnll once 
more reign as Goiis upon the earth, and make of their enemies their 
footstool ! I'oreigners cannot comprehend this bear-gariien work of 
ours at all: they 'perceive a fvry, but nothing wherefore.' They 
cannot reconcile the violence of our wills with the dulnctti of our 
apprehciisioni, nor account for the fu« we make about nothing ; our 
cuTtvulsiona and throet without end or object, the jiain* we take to 
defeat ouraelie* and othcrt, and to undo all that we have ei'et done, 
»ooner than any one else should share the benefit of it. They think 
it is strange, that out of mere perversity and cooiradictioo wc would 
rather be slaves ourselves, than sudct others to be free \ that we hack 
out of our most heroic acta and disavow our fatourile maxtras (the 
blood-stained deticea in our national coat of arms] the moment «v find 
others dispoaed to anscnt to or imitate us, and that we would willingly 
see the last hope of liberty and independence extinguished, sooner than 
give the »malle*i credit to those who sacrifice every thing to keep the 
spark alive, or abstain from joining in every species of sctirrility, 
insult, aod calumny against them, if the word is ODCe given by the 
whippeis-in of power. The iinglish imagiuation ia not rianit : it 
inclines to the gloomy and morbid with a heavy instinctive bias, and 
when fear and interest are thrown into the scale, down it goes with a 
vengeance that i* t>ot to be resisted, and from the effects of which it 
i* not easy to recover. The enemies of llnglish liberty are aware of 
this weakness in the public mind, and make a notable use of iu 

' But that two-handed engine at the door 
Stands ready to unite once and imjic nn more.' 

Gnv a Jog an Hi namt, anJ tang hm — so says the proverb. The 
courtiers say, ' Give a pairiet an til lumc, and ruin bim ' alike with 

'45 





NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



Whig and Tory — with the hm, becaaw be hau* ywt W a fneod 
frerdoni ; with ifae fine, becaaie be U afraid of being implicated in 
tbr Mine obloqiiy with yov. Thii w the reason whv tbc Magdalen 
Mu»e of Mr. Thomu Moore finds a I^m m the /.iftrro/; why Mr. 
Hobbouie *>iiu Pita* to diMoide Lord Bjrao frotn coeocctiiig hiB- 
•df witli any but gentlemeii-boni, for tbe ctcdit of the popular caow. 
Set about a fabe report or iauaaadon, and tbe tffcct t* ianaoisoeaai 
and onirertallj (eh— povc ibai there » DothiDg io it* and jroa are 
jut where you were. Something wrong aomew b e f e, in rnlitr of 
wnmtatioa, in paUic or in prime, it Decenary to the minds of the 
En^kb people s bring a charge agaiau any one, and they hug you id 
tbeb' bccaK* : attempt to take it from tbem, aod ibey rctim it s* they 
would an attack upon tbcir peraon* or property: a nickoamc i« to 
theit moody, ([^netic humour a freehold c»laie, from which they wiQ 
IKK be ejected by fail mean* or foul : they coaceife they bare a vttuJ 
right in calumny. No matter how hate the lie, how Miuelew the jett, 
it inOIr — becRttie the public appetite groodity twallowt whatever U 
BMiaeoua and dtiguuia;;, and refute*, tliroogh wcakneaa or alMtinacyt 
to ditgorge it apin. Tlietcfotc Mr. Croker plie* hi* dijty task— 
and n a Pri»yHM>onct)lor ( Mr. Theodore Hook call* Mr. Waithouo 
* Lord Waithman ' once a w-eck, mA panes for i wit ! 

I bad the good fortune to meet the other day at Pari* with my tSA 

fellow^nidcni Dr. K , >Aer a lapte of thirty yearit be ii older 

than I by a year or two, and make* it firc-and-twenty. He had oot 
been idle lince we parted. He tometimc* looked in, after faaviiw 
paid La Pboe a rint : and I told him it waa almoK a* if he had 
called on a ttar b hii way. It ii woodcrfid how frieodthip, that ha* 
long lain unu«cd, accumitlates tike mooey at compousd inicrett. Wc 
hod to settle I long account, and to compare oM time* and new. He 
wa* naturally anxious to learn tbc state of our pcdttics and litentnre, 
and ws* not a little mortified lo hear that RngUnd, * whose boMt k 
wa* to give out leformation to the world,' hod changed her taaao, 
and wai now bcot on propping up the cooiinenul dcspotiimi, uid oo 
lathing herself to them. He wai puiicularly moTiiCcd at the 
degraded state of our public pccis — M the sytceniaiic organization of 
a oorpa of gotemmcnt-critici to decry every ttberxl tentimenc, and 
protcribe every liberal writer a* ancocmy tothc perionof tbe reigning 
soTcreign, only because he did not avow the principles of tbe Stuaru. 
I bad some diiTtcuhy Jo making him underatand the full lengths of the 
nulice, tbe lying, tbi- bypocri^yi the sleek adulation, the mnnneiei, 
ei]utvoGation, and skulking concealment, of a Quarirrtj HtvinDer,^ 

' A Mr. Li* UuIt came otn from Anxtica to hoTKU-hip the wika of in 
uticlr in die i/atrt/rfy, TtittCaf on hit mothrc (Mrt. Lt*) it 3 mroaiaa of Iwd 

»4« 



4 
4 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



the reckleH blackguardwm of Mr. BlatiwoeJ, mmI the obtute 
drivelling proAig>c]r oF the Jotn Bull. He taidi * tt » vone with 
yau than with ut: here an author ii oblige<l lo uciifice twcntjr 
morniogB *nd twenty pair of black (ilk-stockioge, in piying hi* coon 
(0 the Ivditors of dinerent journals, ta ensure a hca/ing from the 
public ; but with you, ii teems, he muM jtiie up his unJerttamling and 
his character, to evtabUah a claim to ta»ie or (earninit.' He uki-d if 
the tcandal couJd net be diaptmed, and retuited on the headi of the 
agj;reuors : but 1 Kud that thrac were pcfiuni of no character, or 
Hudiously icrcened by their employer*; and bc&idcii, the Englith 
imagination w^iii .1 bird of heavy wing, i.h^t, if once dragged through 
the krnnel of Billingtgaie abuse, could not well tai»c itself out of it 
again. He could liardly believe that under the Hanover dynasty (a 
dynasty founded to tecure us against tyraony) a iheairiol licenser 
had itrvck the word ' tyrant ' out of Mr, Shee » tragedy, a* offcnsire 
to ear) polite, or at if from this time forward there could be Kupposed 
to be no auch thing rn nrum natura ; and that the common ejaculation, 
' Good God ! ' waa eraied from the wmc piece, as in a itrain of too 
great Icriiy in this age of cant. I told htm that public opinion in 
England was ut present governed by half 3 dozen miscreants, who 
undertook to bait, hoot, and wuiry every man oiu of his country, 01 
into aa obsciue yrare, witli lie* and nicknameti, who was not piejiaied 
to take the politic*! sacrament of the day, and uie his beit crdeavours 
(he and his friends) 10 banish the la»t iracci of freedom, truth, and 
honesty from the land. ' To be direct and honctt ii not nafc.* To 
be a Refortner, the friend of a Reformer, or the friend's friend of a 
Reformer, is a* much at a man's )>e3C<^ reputation, or even Ute is 
worth. Anitwcr, if it is not so, pale shade of Keats, or lieiog iDununy 
of William Gilford 1 i)i. E — ~ — was unwilling to credit this itatC' 
nicoi, but the proofs were too fiagrant. He asked me what hecame 
of that band of patriots that iwaimed in mr younger days, thai were 
to glowing-hot, desperate, and noisy in the year 1 794 i I «aid 
I could not icll ; but referred him to our present Poet-Laureate for 
an account of ihcm ! 

— — ' Can ilieie thing) be. 

And ovcrruinc us like a lununcr-cloud, 

Without a ispccial wonder t ' 

dmnfttt, lor the Tory mion ihit ibt wss At •rife «( 1 Mr. Ls', who dif^nd 
with hit brother (Loiil EJItnbarou^b) in poUiicL He Cilte<1 on Mr. Birrow, who 
knew nothing of the •titer 5 he (mlkii on Mt. Giffotd, who knew nothing of the 
writer ; he cslleil vn Mr. Mumy, who luuluil OiMiy, but he (tiulJ gel no ledreis 
eictpt B public c!Et4'n>WA3 tti the fjilxehudd ( inci they took lh»t opporlcnity (o 
retisct •oiDf other Amcrieia cilumny. Mr. L. nlleH aa one Secitiity of the 
Adminlty, but tbtn tn two Se crttaiiti of ibt Aitntirslty I 

a47 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

I «a«pcct ii is pccntiar to tbc Englith Dot to newer the Icncn of 
llicir fii^'nila abroad. Tbej know you arc asUMis to hear, and Iiave 
a Mirly, tulleo |>Icasare in dtn^HUBtio]; yMi. To ofali][c is a thing 
abhorrtiDt to their tmaRiiiiauoat i to bv un««ir at not bearing from 
borne ju>t wh«i uac wiitin, ii a weakocM which Uicv cannot 
encourage. Any thing like a re^onnbility attached to their writing 
ii A kind of rcxuaint upon theii free-will, an interference with their 
iodcpendcQCc. There ii a seme of superiority in not letting yoa 
know what you with to kooWi and in keeping you in a ctate of help- 
lci« iutpcnte. Besides, they ihiak you arc an;;ry at (beir not writin][, 
and would make iheni ifyi cxmlJ; and they iliow tlicir teaentmvnt 
of your impatience and inf<Tatitude bv contiituioj not to write. — One 
thins truly edifying in the accounti from England, u tbe number of 
murder* and robberieo with which ihc ncwspapen abound. One 
woold suppose ibnt the repetition of the detail*, week after week, 
and day after day, might stagger nt a little as to our uipeilatiTe idea 
of the goodncM, honesty, and industry of the lingHsh people. Ka 
luchthmg: wlietum one similat fact occurring once a year abroad 
fill* u> with aitoniihrneni, and make* lU ready to AA the Italian* 
(without any further inquiry) a tulion of atuaiini and bnndltu. It 
tt not (.ife to lire or trarel among them. U it not sUange, that we 
thoutd pcrfist in drawing nuch wilful concluaons from «ucb groiuuJIeM 
premises '. A murder or a ttrect-robberjr in London is a matter of 
course ' : accumulate a score of these under the mott aggravated 
circumnancet one upon the back of tlie other, in town and country, 
in the course of a few weeks — ihcy il! go for nothing] they make 
n(»thing againut the English character in the abttnct ; the force of 
prejudice ii stronger than tbe weight of evidence. The proccts of 
the mind is this ; and absurd ai it appears, is naiurnl enough. We 
say [to ourselves) we arc Cnglinh, «iv arc good people, and therefore 
the English are good people. We carry a proxy in our botomtt for 
tlie national character in geoetal. Oui own motjiea are ' very atulT 
o' the canscienoe,' and not like those of buhireu* forcigncrB. 
Betides we know many excellent Engltib people, and the mas* of 
the population cannot nc alfccied in the (cale of moi.iliiy by the 
outrages of a lew ruffians, which instantly meet with the reward they 
merit from wholesome and excellent taws. We ate not to be 
moved front this po«itioit, that the great body of the British public 
do not lire by thieving and cutting the throats of their nnghbourfi. 



' Chief jnnici Holt uHii to uy, 'tbtre wtn more roUeriti c««mlitt]l ta 
Entbnd thui in StoiUnil, haut w 'W ttuv innt' Tbe KnflsUi an at all 
line* dispotod to inicrprci thi> littnllr. 



THIIOUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



whatever the sccouqIk in the newnpapert might lead lu to (uapect. 
The «rccti aic lined with baker*', buiclicri', .ind hnberdjuhcn' thops> 
instead of oight-c«llafii and gaming- bouses ; and are crowded with 
decent, ordeilyi well-drtwed |>eo[>lei instead of being rendered 
impassable bv gangs of »win<Ilerii and pickpockets. Tbt extept'mt don 
not matt ihr rait. Nothing can be mote clear or uroper i and yet 
if u linglc It^ian commit a murder or a rubbrcy, wc tmmedtatel)' form 
an abttroction of thix individual case, »nd bccauac we arc ignorant of 
the real character of ihc people or state of manners in a million of 
initinceg, lake upon u», liki' true iiinglishtnrn, to liil up the blank, 
which is left at the mercy of uur horror-struck imaginations, with 
bugbears and monsters of erery description. We should extend to 
others the toleration and the awpenic of judpiicnt we claim ; and I 
am sure wc inland in need of it from those who read the important 
head of * Accioknts ana OFrtNCKs' in our JournaU. It it true ao 
Italian baker, some time ago, shut his wife up in an oven, where *he 
WM barnt u death ; tbc heir of a noble family stabbed an old woman 
to rob her of her money t a lady of ijuality had her stcu^daugbter 
chained to a bed of iiraw, and fed on bread and water till she lost 
her sensei. This translated into vulgar English means that all the 
baker*' wive* in Italy are burnt by their husbands at a slow fire ( 
that all the young nobility are common bravocs; that all the Eiep- 
mothers exercise uohcard-of and uoreleiiiing cruelty on the children 
of a former mairiajje. Wc only want a ttrikinj; frontispiece to make 
out a tragic volume. As the itaiellcr advance) into the country, 
robbers and rumours of robbers fly before him with the horizon, fa 
Italy, 

' Man seldom it — but alwayt to be rMtd,' 

At Turin, ihey told me it was not wiic to travel by a vetturino 
(o Florence without arm>. At Florence, I was told one could not 
walk out to look u an old ruin in Rome, without expecting to tee 
a Lazxaroni ttatt from behind some part of it with a pistol in hi* 
hand. 'There's no such thing;' but hatred has its phantoms m 
well as fear; and the Ivnglish tr^uce and indulge their prejudice* 
neainst other nations in order to have a pretence ibt nMltreaiing tbcm. 
1 his moral delicacy plays an under-game to their political profligacy. 
I am at present kept from proceeding forward to Naplei by imaginary 
bands of brigands that infest the road the whole way. The fact i«, 
that a gang of banditti, who had committed a number of atrocities 
and who hid ihcir haunts in the mountains nc»r Sonino, were taken 
up about three years ago, to the amount of twO'Sod thirty : four of 
them were executed at Rome, and their wives still get their living 

«49 



NOTES OF 




b Hia, I haM MM bM 
«K» J cmm, a^ I d» ■ 

d» eons ttfoar afdc I wt whm « Kmh» 

Wr fat « lonii 1, <>K nn htfly i^ d»«B«B yi^ » >f ■■ fav a' 
htMg dMoow w J, ^d ■ ca^tzjmam who «w !■■*■( witk « ovt « 
iW nmc^ ■■Fpd ia look aad Ium 160 ter. If dw itnyicB m 
Loado* wcrr M «M to (*?« ■■■1 hoMKaE ik tirl* dtn hc MaoKt- 
iag M tkff catacn of ntctt in m doofafal a^adry, tke; wtnld hnc 
rwigli 10 do. Bk the tide of ptUk [■■■■■■iiia tli« f"* da«a 
■d cf «reeti m eamiiutd b]m*e noofiaaaa a dni>a»^tfty ^ 
Ae ■ecoK tanMHO 4f jinrate Ufie^ isd M keep the ibibwc rccean 
rftfaefciMletrtMtwwwdpt faaUowA! If tb» m to fae 
dK toK, «« hi*c iadccd ncarir wimd at the aka of a pofca 



(Swdani ii mO kept n in lalr. tboagb K Mwha i «a lite decfiM^ 
I hmtnoAaagtotaj m &rau of llut aaoonljp ia vice and vittMh 
IW Ritaliih wDHea an panicalvlj ilndted »t it, who m iBawrf 
M tec Ocir liuAaarti, provided thc^ do aot Ske any body dab It 
il a kind of marruft «Mi« a mamt^* ; b bcgia* widi tafiddity in 
cad IB coMtucy t b it not a kuc of licaunl diiwparioo, bat i* > 
ml dktia of the rf cc ii o ai, M^eraddvd to tbc fint formal oar, and 
thai oAcfl la*t* tor li^ A gay aptain b the Pope'* Csvd m 
■etrctrd by 1 lady ai ha em>Mtr tervmle in the prune of lifci asd 
it lecB difcging in the );arden of the family in a my jacket and while 
kairj thirty yean aiW. Thi* doet not look like a love of change. 
The botbasd i* of covtk alwayi tjixtur* ; not to the /ma£rr j f wtati f 
who ia babic to be raaiOTcd for a new faTowice. In noble bmSica 
tbe lp««T OMit be noble; and be ranat be affnntd by the hutfaaad. 
A yowis alGcR, who ibe other day volnKeend this lerricc to a 
btaatiM HarduoaeM without eithrr of tbew litlea, aad w«a a hr 
of 'maiofet on tbe iateoded gaUau, waa tent to Volterra. Wbau 
Cfvr ia the betgbt to which thit tyawm bat been cattiedi of ibe tevd 
to which b hai nmk, b does not ifptai to have extinguiifaed jealonay 
in all it* cxccm a* a {art of ihc natiooal ch;ir3<ter, aa tlic following 
Mory will thew: it it retttcd by M. Beyle, ia bit charmicg little 
work, ratiiled De FAmmir, a* a companioo to tbe ^moat oee in 
l)a«e g and I kliall ^ne ii>c whole |(i»age in hit wordt, aa placing 
the Italian character (in former at well at b«ef timet) in a wrikiiig 
pcHM of view. 

a SO 



THROUGH FRANCE AND !TALV 

* I allude,' he Hys, * to those loiuhio^ liar* of Danic ; — 

' D«h ! qutndo tu uni toniato a] inondo, 
Rii'unlui <li rat, rite ton la Pia i 
Sienna mi fi: ditfcctmj Mirtmniai 

SaKi cotiii, rhc inxnncltau pria, 

Di»|iouinilci, m'avca oon In «>■ ([cmnta.' — Purgatarh, f. $. 

' The woman who »pcakt with ao much rMcrrc, hail in ifctM 
uoderf^one the fate of DcMJcmooa, and had it io her jiowcr, bjt a 
tingle word, to h^re re<ea!ed her buaband's crime to ihc irtrnd* 
whom ihc h;id left upon anh. 

' Ncllo dcll» Picira obtained in marriage the hand of Midcnna 
Pis, tole heiress of the Ftobmei, ihc richcti and moit noble family 
of i)icnn». Her beauty, which ww ihc admiration of all Tuscany, 
^ve rise U> * jcalouty in the breast of her husband, that, cnTenomcd 
by false ttfont and by tuipicions continually reviving, led to a fright- 
ful catastrophe. It is not easy to determine at Uiis day if his wifc 
was altogether innocent ; but Dante ha* represented her as such. 
Her huiib;ind cafiird her with him into the roanhe* of VoUetra, 
celebrated then, at now, for ihc pettifetou* effects of the air. Nerer 
would be tell his unhappy wife the reasoo of her baai»hmcni into m> 
dangerous a place. His pride did not deign to ptoQOUDCc either 
complaint or accusation. He lired wttb her alooc, in a descried 
tower, of which I have been to see the ruini on the sea-shoic ; here 
he never broke his disdainful silence, never replied to tbe ({uestiona 
of his youthful bride, never listened to her entreaties. He waited 
anmovcd by her for the air to produce its fatal cAecu. The vapour* 
of this unwholesome swamp were not long in tarDuhtog feature* the 
inott beautiful, they say, that in that age had appeared upon earth. 
In a few months she died. Some chroniclers of the^c remote time* 
report, that Nello employed the daggcf to hasten ber end : she died 
in the marshes in some horrible manner ; but the mode of her death 
mtiaincd a mysirry, even to her contemporaries. Nello delta Pietra 
survived to pass the rest of hi* day* in a silence which was never 
broken. 

' Nothing can be conceived more noble oi more delicate than tbe 
manner in which tbe ill-fated Pta addrewc* her»clf to Dante. She 
desires to be recalled to the memory of tbe friends whom she had 
quitted so young : hi the same time, in telling bet nanie and alluding 
Vt her husband, she docs ii<ii allow herself the smallest complaint 
iigainst a cruelty unexampled, but thenceforth irreparable i and merely 
isttinutea that he knows the hJ^iory of her death. This conctancy 
in vengeance and in suffering ia to be met with, I believe, only among 

"S' 




NOTES OF A .lOURNEY 

tfac people of the Sooib. In Pi«<ln>otit, I found mjrself the 
intoliliiury wittm* of a fact almoM tirailu; but I wa« at the time 
ignofaot 04 the 4cuU*. I wm orderMi with fSrcsand-twcnty dragoon* 
into the vroods that bo«l« the Sftii, lo preTwit the cofltr^Mod 
traAc. On my arrival in tlie FTcfiinf; ai (hit wild and aolitary place, 
I diatiagtiiahed aiDoog the tren the niina oTaD old caatle : I went w 
it : to my great aurpriKt ■< *'*> inhabited. I tbera fband » Noble- 
laaa of Uie country, of a rcry unprorainng aipect ; a man dx feet in 
height, and forty year* of age : he allowed mc a couple of aparuntnta 
w!th a very ill (;racc. Here I cmcrtainrd tnytclf by getting up aotne 
pai-cn of music witb my i)uancr-maaiCT : after the expiratioo of Mine 
day», we diKOTered that our hoit kepi guaid over a woman whom 
we called Caimlla in jeit ; we were &r fro«i nitpectin;; the dreadful 
truth. She died at the end of nx weeki. 1 bad the tnclaachoty 
curimhy to see her in her colfin; I bfibnt a monk who had chat^ 
of ti, and towatdt midnight, wicter prcicKi ol iptinkling the holy 
waitTi be conducted me into the chapel. I there taw one of tho«e 
fine face*, which are beautiful even in the boMxa of death : «he had 
a large aquiline note, of which I oewr diall forget the noble aod 
exprctaite outline. I quitted tbia mouniful tpuci but litre years 
alter, a detachment of my regiment accvmpanying the Emperor to 
hi* corocifttioD ae King of Italy, I had the wImUc «ory recouitted to 

me. I leained that the jnlocu hiHband, the Count of , had ooc 

momtng fbunii, hanging to hii wife'a bcdnde, as l^ogUnh watch 
beloDgbg to a youi^ man in the little town where the\- Uved. The 
aanac day he took her to the ruined cattle, in the midil of the forc^ta 
of the Sena. Like Kelto della Pietra, he ottem) not a sogte word. 
If the made him any rcqueai, he preacnted to her itcmly and ib 
lilence the Eogliah watch, which he bad alwayi about him. In thia 
maitnei he poMcd Dtvly three yean with her. She at length fell a 
victim to deapair, in the Aower of ber ago. Her hwband attempted 
to ditjiatch the owner of the watch with a stiletto, failed, fled to 
Genoa, embarked ihere, and do tidings have been heard of him 
tince. Hii piopeny waa comfiacatcd.' — De fjfmmr, tvI i. ^ 131. 

Tbia atory is intereuing and well told. One wich inctdeni, or 
ooe Mge in Daote or b Spcnarr a worth all the route between this 
and »rt>, and ;^1 the li^a in all the poat-roadi in Europe. Oh 
Siesiu! if 1 felt charroed with thy narrow, tcnaotlea* strceta, or 
looked delighted tkroiqh thy arched gateway oret the subjected 
plain, it waa that aonie recoUectioa* of hlodoiuia Pia hung ttpoo the 
beattngt of my apirit, and cotiTerted a barren waste into the regjona 
of rooaaocel 



*S* 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



CHAPTER XXI 

Wx h.-id *ome thouglil* of takiag a todgrn;; at L'Aricci*, x (be Caffe 
dri Piazz.i, for a month, but the derp undy ro.idt, the cratincU 
]>0«tcd every hi]f-m!le on thit, which in ihc rouie foe Naplri (which 
shewed that it wa» not rrty ute to [cave them), the looic, straggltBg 
woodi doping doum to (he dreary maiibcti and the story of 
HippolitiM painted on the wall* of the inn (wlio, it tmraa, wm 
•natife to the mumcr here'), deterred ut. L'Ariona, betidei 
bcmg, aiicr Cortona, the ulileu place b Italy, it ako one sicp 
lowitds Naplci, which I had a (tronj[ dcnre to act — iti hrimming 
thores, its tky which glovi like one entire lun, Vetuvins, the mouth 
of Hell, aod Sorrcaiuni, like the Itlasd* of the Bten— yci here 
agaio the reports of robbcia, exaggetainl alike by fofeignera and 
nativci, who wiili to keep you where you are, the accooota of hogs 
without hatr, aad children wiihoui clothes to tbcii hack*, the vefinin 
(aoimal aa well aa hiunan), the gilded hamt and leg* of mutton that 
Forsyth (ptak* of, gave roe a diuaite to ihr journey, and I iiimni 
back to pat an cod to the oocntiao. I am fond of the saa, though 
I do not like to nee him and the aiauMn'i knife glaring orer my head 
together. Af to the real amount of the danger of iravelliog this 
road, aa far u I cm Icam, it ia ihit — there is at preaeftl a punsibility 
but no probability of your being robbed or kidnapped, if you go in 
(he daytime and by the common method of a Vetturtno, ttopping two 
fiighia on the roaa. If you go alone, and with a determinadon to 
act time, place, and circnmctancci at defiance, like a pcmoniSed 
icpreientation of -lohn Bull, m^iiniaining the character of your 
ooumrynien for aturdineH and independence of apiiit, you itaad a 
very f^ood chance of being thot through the head : (he tame thing 
might happen to you, if vou icfuicd your money to an Cnglith foot- 
pad ; but if you give it freely, like a gentleman, and do not itand too 
nicely upon a punctilio, they let you paii like one. If you hare no 
money about you, you mutt up into the raountain, and wait till you 
»n ge( it. For niywif, my rcminancct have not been »cr)' regular 
even in walled townai how I xbould lare in thi> reipcci upon the 
forked mouotUDi I cannot tell, and crruinly t hare no wish to try. 
A frieiid of mine aaid that he thought it tit «ufy ramamtk ibmgi^ig, 
thit of being carried olT by tiK baoditti; that life wu become too 
tame and inaipid withood tuch accident!, and thai it would not be 
amtu to put onc'*-«cIf in the way of racb an adventure, like pmting 
in for the grand prize is the lottery. Atiotcdly, one i« not likc^ 
to go to sleep in auch cixcamitaoces ; one perKin who vm detained 

»S3 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

ia (hit muiBcr, oad threaieixd erecy hom with bang d cf te h cd. 
WRit Rod ill codK«|ucDor. A French ArttM wm laid bold of by i 
fl>og of the ouilawB, u he una tkMchidg ia Hm Dcighbourhood of 
thtit hwHiU, About 1 jrv ago i he did not dUBk th«ir node of life K 
all agreeable. Ai he b>d oo motiey, they enploynl htm in makinft 
■kcichvf of theit bcadt, wiili which they were exceedingly delighted. 
Thcii ranity kept him coatinually oa the alen when ihcy had i 
mcoxni'* leiiwri and, beiidn, be wiu fatigued alrooa lo death. Set 
they made long tnarchei of from forty to fifty nulcs a day, and •carcdy 
ever retted niore than oee tugkt to the ume place. Thcv travelled 
ihiough bye-roada (in cotwant apptcbenaioo of the mtUtary) tn partiet 
of itTc or lix, and met at tome coannon rendeETOiu at nteht-falU He 
wai in BO dnwcr from them in the day-time ; but at lught they mi 
up driaking aad canHinag, and when they were ta thi* ttaie of cxdK- 
lacBt, he van in ooandenMe Jcopafdy mta their violetice or tponm 
freak* : they amtued themadi«t with ]ir(M«liBg their loaded taecc* 
St hit breast, or threatened to diiKiich him if he did oot pronuae to 
procure ratnom. At lait he ctTeciRl hit eacape in ooc of ibdt 
drunken bouti. Their (eiiurc of the Austrian olficer lait year wai 
MDgulai CDcmgh : they crept for aborc a mite on their hand« and 
knees, from (be foot of the mounuin which wm their place of ntmu 
and carried off their prize in the same maitneT, to >» to eacape tbe 
notice of the MntineU who were uatioeed at diort dittancee on the 
rood nde. Some yeari noce a plan waa laid to carry off Lnocn 
fiuoaaporte from hii villa at FraKati, abonl eleven mika &otn Rome, 
on the Albano ode, where tbe mme range of Apennuiei begin* : he 
was walking tn hii garden and ww them approtching through ume 
treei, for hia glaacc ia quick and funivc ; he retired into the howe, 
hii Tilet came OW to meet ihctn, who poued hini«elf off for bii 
nianer, they were ddi;;ht«l with their ibam-ufize, and glad to take 
4,000 crowna to releuc hini. Since llien Lucicn Buonaparte ho* 
lived in Rome. 1 remember once meeting thia cclebnieJ character 
in the Kcceti of Parit, walking arm in arm with Maria Coiway, with 
whom I had drunk tea tbe cTening beEbre. He wa* drcxsed in a 
light drab-coloured great-coat, and wa» then a tpitried, dashing-looking 
young min. 1 btlietc I am the only peraoo ia England who ever 
read hii Chuhmhuck*^ It ia » clever a poem aa can be written by 
a man who it not a poet. It came o«t in two vohimea quarto, aad 
Kveral iodiriduli were applied to by the pubtidwn to iranalate h j 
among other* Sir Walter Scott, who gave for aiuwer, ' thni aa to 
Milter Buon^rte't poem, he ahonld have nothing to do with tt.' 
Sac^ WM the petty amtc of thia undemrappcr of greataeaa and of 
title*, hiratdf *ince titled, the tcaleof whote imdltct can be equalled 
*S4 





r 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

by Doihiog but the pitifulnc** and (odcout oT hi* prejudices I The 
last iccoQDt I have hrarij of the exploit* of Nnpolrun banditti ii, 
that they bad seized ujiod two out of three ifnglUhmen, who hod 
determinetl u|>on pussiog Uuough Cmlabrit on their wajr to Sicily, aod 
were piocrcdioK beyond Pzttum for thi* purpoae. Tbey were lold 
by the Commandaat tbeie, that ibt* wu runaing into the lion'i 
mouth, that there were do patrols to protect tbcm farihcr, and thai 
they were rare to be intercepted; but ao Englithm^in'ii will if hi* 
law — tbey weotformrd — and succeeded in getting ibemselvet iuo 
tit on/r remah a tig nmaiaie firualun. I hare not beard wbetber they 
have yet got out of it. The national pro)<en»iity to contend with 
difficulty and to lesiiit ob«[aclei it curious, perhaps pratieworthy. A 
young Fnglisbman returned the other day to liaiy with a horK that 
he had brought with him for more than two ibnuiand milci on the 
other «dc of Grand Cairo ; and poor Bowdich gave up the gho«t in 
a second attempt to penetrate to (he source of the Niger, the encouragr- 
mcnl lu persevere being in proporlion (o the inipowibility of mcce**! 
I am myneif eomewhai e^minate, and would rather ' the primrose 
path of dalliance tread ; ' or the height of my ambition in thit line 
would be to track the ancient route up the valley of the SimploD, 
IcaviDg the modem road (much a> I admire the work and the work- 
man), and clambering up the ledge* of rockn, and over broken bridge*, 
at the riik of a uprained ankle or a broken timbi to retard to a latCf 
but FxceUeot dinner at the po«t-houae at Brigj; ! 

What increase* tlie alarm of robberi tn the South of Italy, b the 
reviting of old stories, like ibc multiplication of echoes, and thifiing 
their datet indeliiiitely, so ai to exctte the fear* of the Ikteiwr, or 
answer the purposes of the speaker. About three year* ago, ■ 
tktpetaic gang of rulKani infested the pataes of the Abruzzi, and 
committed a number of ^iirociiics ; but thia gang, to the amount of 
sbout thirty, were tcized and broken up, tbetr ringleaders beheaded 
in the Square di Popolo at Rome, and their wives or mistrc*ae« now 
live there by ntimjt for their picture* to Eagli*h attiits. The 
remainder £pire a* coovicti in ttriped rellow and brown drcMet in 
the street* of Rome, and very civilly pull off their halt to sitaagert 
u Atj JMM. By the way, I cannot help rcprobuing thi* practice of 
employing felon* u conunoD laboaters in placet of public resort. 
Either you muit be luppoaed to keep up your feelings of dulike and 
ind^gnttion aj^ie» ibcin while thus mixinx with tlw throng and 
iniKKefKly employed, which ■* a disi^jeeable and Ibrctd operation of 
the tense of juitkc ; or if you retain no *uch feeling* toward* tbcte 
victim* of the law, then why do ibey retain the chains on their feet 
and uely badge* on their tboolder* ; If the thing i* lo be treated 

»S5 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 

I 



I 



RoMM dut be ii nothing — the *ptnlt nf fonner (tmn orcraludinv 
him, and dwarf hii pi{>iny rSvta : crery object he tec* remind* the 
tnTcllcf that gmtncw ii iu owo gnvc. Glory canooc Ur; Tor 
when 3 ihinj i* oacc door, h need not be done agaia. and «ilh the 
enerfiy to >ct( a people lotc the privilege K ir. They rcpoie npoa 
the MbievemcDU of tlietr anceuon : tad becaoie every thing Km been 
done for ibesi, tiak bto torpor, asd dwindle into the counttrfeiia of 
what they were. The Greeks will not rccovet tbeii fiwdem till 
they forget that they had aticetiort, for nothing u twice becatuc it 
voi Qoct. The Amrricani will perbaji* lose theirs when they 
begin fully to reap all the fiiHt« of it ; for the energy necenary to 
acquire freedom, aod tike ea«e that followt the enjoymem of it. are 
ahnoM iDcomfKi-Jble. If Italy ihould ever be any thins >S'^ '* '^ 
be wtwn the tokeni of her furmei glory, piciurea, Maton, trianif^ 
■rebel are mouldered in the dust, and Me nu to re-trc^d tbe giadaal 
ttagct of cirilization, from ptimeral barbarim to the topoiOK roand 
flf nUEnry and refiiMmeni; or when wmc new light giTci ber a new 
M|nl*c; Of when tbc lam oppreaiion (nich u In all probability 
intpeada orrr ber) equally contrary to former independence! to 
iMMeR) apathy, atbging her to the qidck, ODce more kindlea the &re 
in ber eye, and twinci tbc deadly terror* on ber brow. Then ifae 
migbi have mniic in ber streeU. the dance beneath her Ttoea, 
iababitaou in ber house*, butineM in ber tfaopa, poMengcn in ber 
road*, commerce on her cboret, hone«ty in her dealing*, oprnncu in 
ber IooIli, book* for the cen*onhip, tbc love of right for the fear of 
power, and a cakdattoa of ooefeqncncc* from a knowledge of pris- 
cipin — aod England, like the waning moon, would grow pale in the 
riling dawn of liberty, that abe had in vain tried to lannli and 
obscure ! Afm/ aum Jet rr/lnaau ^Mw m tx^jfogmr, 

Tiroli I* an eachanriog — a &iry ipoe. It* rock*, ks grotto*, ita 
temple*, it* watctfall*,and the rainbow* tcllected on tbem, adawcr to 
the deKription, and make a perfect play upon tbc imagimlion. Every 
object ii light and fancitol, yei itccpcd in claisic recoUectioaa. The 
wbole ia a Jine ntt-wofk — a rare aaacmblagc of iniricate and high- 
wrought beauties. To do juaiicc to tbc acene wodd require the pen 
of Mr. Moore, nufiuie and Miikini a* it it, loottire ]wt romantic, 
dia^jing all the Etactnaiioot of lenae, and imfotdiDg tbe myiteriea of 
i cw i ni cnt, 

■ Where all i> orei^th below, and all above ii grace,' — 

jittering like a w aibe aw on the Sybil'* Temple at top, or darting on 
a rapid antithctit to the dvk grotto of tbe God beneath, loading tbe 
pritmatic ipray with epkhcta, linking the mectiog heautivt on each 
VOUIX-: a IJ7 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

tide the abrupt, yaw&iog chaun by an alliuratian, pointing the ilowcrti 
pointing the Tockt, pawing tbe narrow bridge on > dubioo* meuphor, 
aed blcndiag the natoral uid 3»ilidal( the modern and the anttqne, 
ihe nimple and the quaint, ibv glininicr and the gloom in an cxt^uiintr 
prufuiion of Buttering coocdtB. He would be aUc to dcicribc it 
oitich belter, with tt« tby caKadc* and tagged precipice*, than his 
friend Lord Byron hat detcribcd the Fall of Ternt, who makes it, 
wiihout any reaton that 1 can lind, loriuoui, dark, aod boiling like a 
witch'a cauldron. On the contrary, it i> iuni>)e and majeatic in iti 
character, a clear nMUniain-itream that pour* aa uiunteTTUpted, 
knglhened ihect of water over a pfecipice of eight htindred fen, io 
petpeodicular dcaceat, and graccrully winding it* way to the channel 
be^nd, while on one nde the Mained rock naei bare and stately ibc 
whole height, and on the other, tbe eradnal green w^ooda ascend, 
iiMrittcncd by the ccaaele« ■pny> "M hUed by ihc ruar of the 
wMcrfall, u the c^ enjoy» the mond of &nooi poet'* ver»c. If 
Ihia noble sod intcrevting object have a fault, it it that it is too 
tlendcr, uraight, and accompanied with too few wild or grotei(|ue 
onasient*. It it the Doric, or at ao)- rate the Ionic, «non£ water- 
Jalli. It haa nothing of tbe texture of Lord Byron's terzaioi, 
twitted, xigEag, pent up and luuggling lor a trent, broken otf at 
the end of a line, or point of a rock, diving uader ground, or om 
of tbe reader's comprcbcniioc), and pieced on to anothei kl-uiu or 
ahelring rock. — Nature has 

' Poured it out at jilaia 
As downright Slilppm, or x» old Montaigne.' 

To u^ the truth, if Lord Byron bad put it into D«n Juan tnitead 
CtUJt HurM, he might have compared the putt which ber Udykbtp 
hw cbo«en to perfocTn on thit occaiion to an experienced waiter 
ponring a bottle of ale into a tttmbler ai a laiccn. It hat toniewhat 
of the aime cooiinued, plump, right-Uoed detcent. It it not frittered 
into little part*, nor contraited into ipiaintneti, nor tortured into fury. 
All tbe btricacy and cootradicdon that the noble I'oct ucribea tn 
it heJnng to Tiroli ; but then Tiroli haa none of the grar>deur or 
nnlence of the deicription in CIMe HaniJ, Itie poetry it fine, but 
not like. 

At I have got to fir on my way, I may :■* well jump the inter- 
mediate tpacv, and piocccd with my tiatttttct here, at there ws* 
nothing on the road between ihit and Rome worth meniioniaj;, rxcem 
Nami ften tnilei from Tcrni), the approach lo which overlooks a 
fine, bold, woody, precipiioiw ralley. We itopped » Terni for the 




THROUGH PRANCE AND ITALY 



cxprMx purpoic of nciiing the Fall, which it four or fin milet from 
it. The roiiil i« rxcHlcnt, and comrn^tnd* .1 tucccmion of charming 
point* of view. You must pass iho link 1 ill^ge of Fapinio, perched 
like » ttt of pigeon-bousM on (he point of a rock about halfway up, 
which b>* been butti-ied iilmost in pieces by French, Auitriini, and 
other* at dlfTereat limex, from a fort (everil hundred feet above it, 
and that looki directly down upon the road. When you get to the 
top &f the winding aicent, and immcdiatc-ty before you turn off by a 
romantic little pnih 10 the watcffall, you *e« the langc* of the Abiuiu 
and the frozen top of the Pic d« Lupo. Along ihi* road the Ansiriaa 
troops ranrched three ytar* a^o to the support of good KOterameDt 
and locial order at Naplc*. The pronpect of the cold blue mountain* 
topi, and other proipects whicli the *ight of thti tond recalled, chilled 
me, md I iLxttened down the side-path to lone, in the rt»r of the 
Velioo lumbline from ti4 rocky height, and the wild freedom of 
nature, my recollection of tyranny and tyranu. On a green bank far 
betow, TO s( to be ]an diaccmiUc, n thcpherd'boy was «lce{UB]i under 
tlie tkadow of a tre«, surrounded by hu 6ock. enjoying peace and 
httdwn, K*rct knowing their lumet. That 'a tomctbing— we rauat 
wait fof the rer ! , 

Wr relumed to the inn at Term too late to proceed on our jourary, 
and were thnut, as a *pedal &*our, into a ditagrccahle apkriracnt. 
We hid the uiixfaction, however, to hear the united voicei of the 
paueoget* by two vetturinoa, French and Italian men and women, 
lifted up against the supper and wine a* intolerably bad. The general 
eom|ilatM wu, that havios paid to much for our fue, we were treated 
like (leggara — nmmt det gitaix. Thii wat true enough, and not 
altogether unrearanable. Let no one who can help it, and who 
tmeb lor pbuure, travel by a vettuitno. You arc treated much 
in the tame manner as if in England you went by the caravan 
or the waggon. In fact, ihi» mode of conveyance is an imposition 
on innkeepers and the public. It is the result of a combinaiioa 
among the vciturino owners, who bargain to provide you for a 
certain sum, and then billet you upon the innkeeper* for as little 
as they can, who when thus obtruded upon them, tinder the 
guarantee of a graiping stage-coach driver, consider you as com- 
mon property or prey, receive you with incivility, keep out oS 
the way, n-ill not deign you an aniwer, niat you in the quantity of 
your provisions, poison you by the <|oality, order you into their worst 
apartments, force other people into the same room or even bed with 
you, keep you in a state of continual irritation and annoyance all the 
time you are in the houK, and send you away jaded and diiradafied 
widi your reception, and terrified at the idea of arriving at the next 

»S9 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

place of nfoilUBCK, ibt &Kof nooag wall afcae«al of i 

if yna conpfaiit to the Veturiaot Ik mm it b the (amk of tbcM^ 
knpert ifyoa reiwMHCnBe with the nnkecpct, be an be baa orden 
hvn the Voturino onlf to froride cenaia thingL ft ia of Bale uk 
to By ro bribe thr wwim ; ihcy deofat jaor word, aad In liih i, da 
an Ukt to forego the priTilcge of ttcaiiMg a tcaurioo paiaec^er aa 
oee. It ia beat. H yoa tnrri la thia maautt, to pay far yoamift 
Bid then you nay lOad mxbc chuce of deocoi aecamDodMiMb I 
■■a fimlkfa cDOH g h to traTcl twice ia thia a iM Mer t md pn three 
Nifofcona a day, far which 1 vagbt haw gone poM, and fared is the 
moat wmfTtiimia maoner. I oi^it lo ado. is iaitice, that whea I 
hBKcacapcd from the gusidiaathipof HooiaewfeVctcvriao and faatv 
atopped a> iBoa oo my own accouat. a* vat the aac at Vouce^ HtSm, 
and ai FlorciKe twice, 1 have do naton to OHD^biii eithcT oi' the 
ticaCBeat or the cxpencc. As to ecooony, it b la nm to Jool far 
it in trareUinf! in Italy or u ao hotel i aod if yoaMccccd io peDcanag 
a prinoc lodeing foi a tine, betide* the ererlaning trickety and aba^ 
yoa arc lih^ to conte olT with eery ne^Tc £ue, aalcaa yoa can cai 
Italiaii.ditbci. I ought, howvfer, to rqieat what I bdiere I faaae 
«id bdorc, that the bread, butter, milk, wiar aad poultry that yoa 
get here (eren ordinarily) are ezcdlcai, aad that yoa luy ■!» 
obtaia exccHent tea and cooec. 

We proceeded next monuBg (in no very {ood binnonr) on am 
tray to Spoleto. The day waa brilUant, and oar raad lay thm^ih 
tleep aad oarrow dc61et for tevcral hovt. The ndea of the hilla on 
each aide were wild and woody ; indeed, the whole ride waa inmest- 
io^ aad the laM hill before wc came to Spotrto, with a fine mooaaiery 
cabeaotaed in it* thick tufted tree*, crowned o<ir aatii&ctioa wkb tlw 
jovney. Spoieto b a haadwrne town, ddixhiAilly atuated, ukI hw 
an appearance (tococwbat HattUns in Italy) aa if hfe were sot qrae 
extinct in it. It ataode on the dope of a range of the A pran i n ia. 
extending a* (ar a* Foltgna and Perugia, and * aee* and u aeen ' tn a 
great diataace. From Prruna in particalar (u imemJ of forty 
milea) yoa ccctn u if yoa co<^ put your haad npoo it, to plain doa 
it appear, ou-ing ^o the cooiraat b ». twt n i the vhue irnnr TiniMii. Md 
die dark piae-grore* by which it b auno u aded. The tSta of Um 
ooatraat b not alwayi pleaaant. The ain^cottacei or villa* aestteicd 
ia the neigbbosrheod of town* in Italy, often look like dflmjnon or 
dice (preaa on a dark green doth. Wc arrived at Fotigno earhr ia 
the evening, aod aa a nemocable exc^tioB to the red of oar rta^^ 
fiMod there aa ioo equally clem and boaptiabk. From the triadifwa 
of our room we conld lee the youag people of the town waUdag . 

s6o 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

in a fine open coumxy. to bmtbc xht ck-ar (r«ih air, asd the prJMt* 
MBBtcring tn group and ctijcyiog the tliwm cum digiulaU. It wm (of 
•omc monka of FoligDo thu Riphad ptiotcd hb inimrubic Madoona. 
We tnriKd off u Auizi to ticw (1m triple PrsncMcaa chucfa and 
moostteff . Wc taw the pkiurc of Chritt (theWD i>y wcnc niim}, 
that Dial to tffiile ttpoo St. Ftancii at hi* devotions ; and the tiulc 
ckipd in the plain below, where be preached to bia follower* «!x 
hvndred year* ago, oter which a 1^^ chcrch it at pfcicftt boilt, like 
Popery lUTnanntisg ChrJatianiiy. Tbc chnrch on the top of the htU, 
bull tooB after hi* death in honour of the taint, aad wbere hit beart 
rc p otett i^ t curioftty in iti kiitd. i'irti, two chutcbrt were rai«ed, 
one oo the lop of the other, sad then a third wu added below with 
toate difficulty, by meana of exca*at!oot b the tuck. The laa boaMt 
a modern and lomeirhat finical manioleum oi ihrine, and the two 
tint arc omanxnted with frctco paindngi by Giotto and Ghirlaixlaio, 
which are mott tntcreniag and vahiabie tpecinieiM of the early history 
of the an. I tee nothing to contemn in ihem — much to admire — Adc 
hcadf, ample grouping, a knowtcdgc of drawing and fOiie-«hon«ning, 
and digmfitd attitndci and cxprcMtooti aome o^ which Raphael ha 
not disdained to copy, though be baa improved upon tbcm. St. 
Fnncix died about iiiO,and thit cbincb watfinithed and ornamented 
with thete dengna of tite chief actJOM of hi* life, within forty mootbi 
aficnranla ; ao that the pictures in qucatioD rauat be about tix boodred 
ycatt old. We arc mt, however, lo wonder at the matuiity of thete 
ptodactiocM of the pencil ; the art did not aiitc out of bsrbaritm or 
BOthing, bW from a lofty preconception in the mindi of thoie who 
Cm pnetiacd U. a*d appliM it to purpotet of derotioo. ISvcn the 
grace and najeMv of Ranlucl weTe, I apprehend, but emanatiom of 
the iptrit df the Kooian Catholic leltgioo, and cxitted virtually in the 
minda of hi* oountryroen long bdwe and after he transferred then, 
wtdi conwmmatc akJIl, to the canvMs. Not a Madonna icrawlcd on 
the walla near Rome, not a baby-houtc figure of the Virgin, that i« 
out of character and ooatninc, or that u not imbood with an expreation 
of reMgnatioDi badpatyt and puiiiy. We were thewn these dilferent 
objecta by a yonog priest, who explained then) to ut with a graccTtil- 
nea* of manner, and a mild eloquence, cbaracteriatic of hja order. I 
Ibrgot to mentian, in the proper place, that I wai qfdte delighted with 
the external depottmoit of the cccletiaatict in RtMnc. It wa* marked 
by a perfect Moprieiy, decorum, and hnmaniiy, from the highot to 
the towcH. Mot the ^htett look or gcttute to remind you thai yon 
were fortigpcn or heretic* — an «ZM1^ of civility that it far from 
being aanciftKHis, cren in the cxpittl oflfae ChrisiiaB world. It may 
be tud that thit is an, and a destre to gain npoo the good opinioa of 

s6i 




.a^tig 




dkcyBr wan wa^ dm mxheei 
■miaamt»&^ medial At 
<>dwB,» » thnwi^ Aw«w cfaB mfmmmot. 1 dot 
M Wikr ««« pM^k it iW «arU *l» UriMBf i«r 

DCS to n^ HCM^p OC 4CMn £ flOC toOtt tar D0t VWO 2>V 4 

evRT naaKHl IB bvt tknn. At Pencil. ^He laokiBg 
■ads is ■ cbartb aHud t^ Pteoa Penfno^ «c nrc «mh « ;«o( 
Iridi fries, «ha ninpril ac^niBaaec witli » ■• nwiij fc>fti, ^ 
ub m ww b JuI on mMjmf mx iaft, n mr tlw oniBMMii and £107 
«Mad«g ifac tmdaiM of ikc dKcani fand of hi* order ban tke 
cfcardi wbcft kr (qrio lu* faal nMiat-pbcc Wc wkt* ofaiigcd bf 
ilna propaMl. W de diDai k. It «m csdom to bcw Ei^^rit ^okco 
^tlM bnoieof a ** —■■ * ["■■— **—■■— jj — " *— tfae nuaocn of n 

coQ Wri M 3»*braiigbt tog*tfcc tqr ag wut ■■ r dig |»at>- titat) 
nac cooatfyb rtai anaitr byiMcrtaoBi in n. Maa is < ^ 

m ideal b«i^g,«lM«ilMbn«li of «i(^toiaB«i6i firoaa Indwtotte 
Pole, lad «lio ii Kodfio MCriGcc At pmnt world aad nrtr obirei 

ID ii for a rcTT f riop io llw >luei ! Poajpa it nmud on a Idfty hSl, 
sod a ia *ppnr»ce tbc raott loHd hum of buBdiDg I em- tif^tfH - 
It coowwMMli a moM extntotr riew in 2II d if t iaioo a, and the Mceot to 
it is pTcdpitoin on «verj ndc. TravdJing ihk road Ironi Rone Id 
Flomtx B likr aa ragfe'i Sight — Brooi hilltop lo hHH-top, fraa 
towcmJ citj to ciiyi aad jovi tjt dFtoon yotff way before yoa over 
hill or plain. We mw Cortona 00 onr right, looking over iu wall al 
atKiBii mown, cotuaout of ita worth, not obtnxiing iiscif 00 fape- 
ficia) notice ; and paiaed ihrao^ Axfzxo, the reputed birth-place of 
Petrarch. All the way we were followed (hard spoo) by another 
VetOtriBo, with an Fogtiah fasiily, tad we had a uramble wheoettr 
we nopped for npfer, bed*, or milk. At lociaa, the hat u^je facJore 
we arrived at Ploreoce, an Jotjinatioa ws* convened that we slKiokl 
j[i(c up our aparunrtiu in the inn, and teek for lod^ga ejaewhcrr. 
fhi* modcM prc^ontioa could cook only from Enghah people, who 
hiTenich » epinioo of their donnaotitock of pretended goixi-nattue, 
that they think all the world miut ia retnni be ready to eive up ihetr 
own coRiforuio oblige them. Wc had nro Fteoch gcnucmcn in the 
coach with u*, equally wcU-behaTcd and well-infortMd, uti two 
Italian* in the cabriolet, at (ood-Dinired and ' honest as the tkin 
between their brow*.' NearPenigia we puaed the celebrated lake 
of Thiaaymeoe, aeu which Hannibal ddcaied the Roman cooncl 
Fliminittt. It (track me at not unlike Windermere in character and 
161 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

tctnety, but I have ireen oiber lake* Rince, which have dnTCi it out 
of my head. Florence (the city of Howert) ceemcd to deserve its 
name u we catered it for ihc wcond time more than it did the (itu. 
The weather had been cold during put of our journey, but now h 
hud changed lo luhty heat. The gicople looked exceedingly ^in 
and hard- featured, after having pabwd through the Roman State*. 
They hnTc the look of the Scotch |>eople, only liercer and more 
tll-icin)>crcd. 



CHAPTER XXII 

I HAVE already desctilwd the road between Florence and Bolosna. 
I found it much the umc on returning ; for barren tock* and 
mountains undergo tittle ahcraiinn cither in summer or winter. 
Indeed, of the two, I prefer the effect in the mo«t dreary «ca«on, for 
it is then most compirie and consistent with it«clf : on'tomc kind* of 
scenery, as on some characters, any attempt at the flay and pleasing 
tits ill, and is a mere piece of affeetition. There is so far a distinc- 
tion between the Apennines and Alpi, that the latter are often corered 
with woods, and with patches of the richest verdure, and are cauable 
of all the gloom of winter or the bloom of spring. The soil ot the 
Apennines, on the contrary, it as dry and griiiy m the rocks thcm- 
tefvcs, being nothing but a collection of «and-heaps and anhes, and 
RiockB at every idea that ii not of a repulsive and diiiagrccable kind. 
We stopped the Srit □i;;ht ai Traversa, a iniserablc inn or almost 
hovel on the toad side, in the most de»olaie part of this track ; and 
found amidst icenes, which the iniagination and the pen of travdlera 
have peopled with gh.utly phantoms and the assassin's midnight 
revelry, a kind hut simple reception, and the grcatCBt swectnets of 
manner*, prompted by the wish, but conscious of bring perhaps 
without the mean* to please. Courtesy in cities or palaces goes for 
little, means little, for it may and must be put on ; in the cottage or 
on the mountain side it t» welcome to the heart, for it conies from it. 
It then has its root in unsophisticated nature, without the ^loos of art, 
and shews us the original goodncM of the oil or germ, from which 
human affections and social intercourse in all thcit ramiticattons 
ipriog. A little boy clunj; aboui its moiher, wondering at the 
strangers ; hut from the very thoughts of noiYlty and distance, 
nestling more fondly in the bosom of home. ^Vhal is the map of 
Europe, what all the glories of it, what the possession of them, to 
that poor little fellow's dream, to his sidelong glance at that wide 
world of fancy that circle* hia native rocka! 

»6j 




THROirGH FRANCE AND ITALY 






pcitormcTs and by-foandcr*. At the linklisg oS a nlla^ belli ail wu 
ill a inomcat uleni, and the cnlraticc of ■ Bltlc chapel wu crovdcd 
with old and youns, knccliog ia poturea of moic or ten caTDen 
devotion. We walked forwonl, delighted with the appearance of the 
country, and with the ample nunDeri of the iotubitints i nor could 
wc haTc proceeded Icm thftn four ot (ive mtlea aloog an exccUeot 
footp.itb, but under a btoili»g luu, before wc (aw any ligna of our 
Veiiurioo, who was willing lo take tbu opportunity of eating bi* 
horx) — a practice common with thocc ion of gentry. Inucad of a 
rdlowfeelin;: with yuu, yuu fmd ao inttioctire iaclic-ttion in pctsoiu 
ofthitclosi all throujth Italy to cheat and deceive you: the nkore 
easy or cordial you arc with them, the greater it tbeir opinion of your 
folly and ihcir own cunning, and the more arc they dctctniined to 
tcpri or evade any advaDCcs to a fair undrruanding : thtcates, ot 
treat ilicm with indigoity, and you haiv eomc check over them i relax 
the reind a inomeDi, and ttiey are »ure to play you tome tcurvy (rick. 

At Ferrara we were put on >hori allowance, and aa we fiiund 
remonstrance vain, we aubmitied in ailenee. We were the more 
morticed at this trcaimcni, at wc had begun to hope for better thing* ; 
but Mr. Henry Waister, our Commi««ary on the accation, wai deter- 
mined to make a good thing of his three Napoleon* a-day ; he had 
niained a point in procuring us a tolerable supper and breakfast at ibc 
two lut stages, which niuM icrve for lome time to come t aod m he 
would not pay for onr dinner, the landlord would not let us hare one, 
and there the matter rested. Wc walked out in the ereoing, and 
found Fcrraia enchantiitg. Of all the placet 1 b.ire teen in Italy, 
it ia the one by far I thould mod covcl la live in. It it the 
aJtal of an Italian city, oocc great, now a thadow of it*clf. Wbtch- 
erer way you turn, you are struck with picnmt^ beauty tmd 
faded fiplendouri, but with Bothiag t<)ualid, mean. Of migar. Tlic 
^rxm v.rowi in the well-paved nreeu. Vou look down long avenue* 
of building*, or of garden walls, with tummcr-houitet ot frait-treee 
projecting over them, and airy palace* with dark portrait* gleaming 
through the grated wiriduwi — you turn, and a chapel bound* your 
ricw one way, a broken arch another, at the end of the vacoai, 
glimmertDg, fairy perspective. You are in a dream, in the heart of 
a romaoce i von enjoy the most perfect aoliiude, that of a city which 
was oocc ftllcd with ■ the buty huni of men,' and of which the 
tremulou* fragment* at every ttep strike the venae, and call up re- 
licciion. In abort, nothing i* to be *een of Ferrara, but the reniaiiM, 
graceful and romantic, of what it wa> — no tordid obiecl intercept* 
or Milliet the retrospect of the pait — it is not degraded and paicbcd 
up like Rome, with upiiarx improven>cnia, with eanhcuwaie aad oil. 

»6s 






NOTES OF A JOURNEY 

•bop; itUaduucTctiigeofantiqtiitjr.droopiDS ioto pcsccfuldcdj, 

■ Where bunm^ wall and nnm 
Seem fading tut amj 
From bumn tiMwgfan and p wry oat* . 
To vkld tu Mnic tnndanBiQf po*n>^. 
Am blend wilh iht mirounding trrcL' 

Here Atio«to lived — here Ta»o occupied (int a inlacc, :iaiJ daen 
dungeon. Verou hat ercn a tome loundiBg namr ; booMa a Baa 
■ituatioot and conuioa rhe tomb of Jufin. But tbe mne teada 
mdaocholy grace doe* not hang upon iu tralU, nor faovcf roond ia 
precinct* at ronDcl Uiow of Fcrrara, tnTJung to eodlcH letsvr and 
penain mnaiog. Fenan, while it waa an bdepcndeot autc, wm i 
ionruhing aod wcaUhy ciiy, and contained 'o^ooo inhabitxnia i bti 
from tbr tinw ii fell into thr baixU of the Pope*, in 1 597, ti 
dcclifitd, and it hu dow little more tfaao u hiscorical ood poena! 
beioK. 

Prom Ferrara we procetded throosh Rorigo to Padoa tJhe Lttttmd, 
wbetc we were moce IbftunaCe in our inn, aod where, in ihc fine opCB 
■quare at the cstraoce, I tint perccircd the rage for rulgar and 
flaunting irtain^ir;, which diKiBgnithc* tbc L^onbarao-Vraeiian Stale*. 
The tiiTellrt to Venice (who ](0c« there to ace the muterpiece* of 
"Htiaa or Palladio't admired de(tgM}t rvna the gtuntlct all th« war 
along at eiery uiwa or viUa he paasc*. of tbe mom dun»y, oSkcuA, 

EJtry, tprawling figurei, cut in ttone, thai erer dbgraced the chiMl. 
Tea their cruofixcs md common Madonnai arnh bad taste And 
proportioo. Thia inofxitadc foe ilie reprctentation of t'orma in a 
people, who*c ejrc for cokHMV traiuceoded thai of all ihe world beaidc*, 
H ttriUne a* It i* cnrioai : and it wodd be worth tbe undy of a nian'i 
whole life 10 give a irtie and aatisfactory mIuimo of the mynoy. 
Padua, tbongh one of tbc oMett tuww b Italyi b nill a place 
of MNIK reaort and bttstle ; among other catuo, Iroai the mabrr of 
Venetial) lanriliea who are io the habii f£ (pending tbc i ninincr manthi 
ibere. Soon after karing it, yon begin to ctom the canalt and rifvn 
which tntcraeci tbit part of the comtry bordering upon tbe aea, and 
for WHW nilca yon follow the course of the Brcna along a fln, dwtr, 
■nd gnproGnUc road. This a a period of coniideraUe and pdand 
•Uii|iec9e. till yov arrive at Fusicai where you are put into a boat and 
towed down one of tbe Lagunri, where over book* of high rank grsil 
and rccdt, and between solitary tentry-boxe« at dilli^rcnt interrala, yo« 
aec Venice rising from tbe sea. For tn bour iod a Half, (hit it take* 
you 10 croM from tbe laat point of land to thia Spouac of the Adriatic, 
it! long line of «pirc«( towert, chorchet, wbarft h atrctcbed along tbc 
166 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



water's tiar, atxl you view it witli a mixture of *we and tncredulHy. 
A city buill in the air would be somvlhiDg MtU more woedcrfd ; bat 
any other mutt yield the OTilm to thit for ting^darity ind irapotii^ 
ettecl. ir it were or the hnn InntJ, it would rink at ooe of the Gnt 
dttct in Europe for magniliccncr, mix, 2nd bntuty ; m it it, it U 
without a rirai. I do not know what Lord Byron and Lady Morgan 
COuU mtan by quarrelling about the (]ueitioQ wbo liiii caUnl Venice 
'di* Rome of the »ea '— «in:e it la petfertiy tmi<]uf in iu kinJ. If 
a parallel mutt be found for it, it ia mote like Genoa «hored into the 
ie:t. Genoa ttandi on ihc tea, tliit in it. The elTect i> oetlainly 
magical, da/zling, perplexing. You ferl al licst 3 little giddy : you 
arc not qiiirr sufc of your footing as on the deck of a ivtwl. Vou 
cnici its narrow, cheerful caoalt, and lind that ir.ttcad of their being 
icDopcd out of tlie catihi you aic fliiding amidst rows of p.i1ace* and 
under broad-arched briduM, piled on the sea-green ware. You be^D 
to think that you mutt cut your liquid way in this manner througih 
the whole city, and ute oart intcead of feci. You land, and vint 
quays, B(|uare*, market-placcn, theatres, churches, halls, palacei; 
ascend tail towers, and stroll through »hady gardens, without being 
once reminded that you are not on itrra Jlrma. The early io- 
habiiants of this side of Italy, dtiren by Atttia and hi« ho«de* of 
Huns ftoni thi- land, sought shelter in the tea, built there (or safety 
and liberty, laid the first foundationi of Venice in the rippling wave, 
and commerce, wealth, luxtuy, ariK, and crimson coni)ue«i crowned 
the growisg Ri^ublic ; — 

' And Ocean imil'd, 
Wtll pleated ta tec hit wondtout child.' 

Mao, proud of his amphibioui cTcaiio(i» (pared no pains to a^srandiic 
and cmbcilisli it, eren to cstra»a](ance and excess. The piles and 
blocks of wood on which it >i.inds are brought from the huge fotcats 
at Treviso and Cadotc : the itones that girt its circumference, ami 
prop its walls, are dug from the mounuins of Islria and Dalnutii : 
the marbln that inlay its palace-floors arc hewn from the (juarTics 
nr«r Verona. Venice is loaded with ornament, like a rich ctty- 
hciress with jewels. It seems tlic natural order of things. Her 
ntigin was a wonder : her end is to lurprive. The ttrong, implanted 
tendency of her genius must be to the showy, the singular, the 
Eantaitic. Herielf an anomaly, she reconcile* contradictions, liberty 
with ati«ioctacy, commerce with nobility, tbc want of titles with the 
pride of birth and heraldry. A fiolcnt birth in nature, she lays 
gteedy, perhaps ill-adTiatd, bands on all the artificial advantages that 
cu mpply her original def^tt. Ute turns tD gawly beauty ; extreme 

167 




; tncks wiik a^^wib apon die «ae£. Bcr efw &r < 
ifWK, mcOiyacSiaad ica^wf i£ her ncai ^k waQU demc 

qf hrt ■ Mtia . fiwi Ar w wJ nw ia w i hfHW 1 TBc «■■ M' 

■■iffiaty ntt Mwecity in VoeinB taav vnv owing a dtM* tba jfl 
wot 01 BCSHMDi MB QIC wiss Qv 3R* iTriwfafiry ^kmb m ib 
jnAite H GOBBuerce^ vtmv eye is gn>M ibb Bf|pv vki ^Id^ qoi 
aianc d the u» mhA; ad « u laKpdarirf nd wane of nrf 
fnadflm,mmmKfttamK if milmgf m Imm far tteae, frm iIh 
•fasoK itf «Ueh Venice a dw mbhiI bafc, m wfaick Ac «««■ hn 
sB, nl th> nrr (Mnn of «rU^ ii 
( 



A *i7 Hse, lad imI )^ aMK 

AaJ itfiMiB iIhb tmoictt iv ^v^ii 
I'VBr d win ■fcicnC !■ ii h ii , ^wMV 
fhbn on bfrf Mbn ipnag ■ 
Amow uI do pni i B # boAb 
Whnc, mnaaifm An ■■■n BJk 
CoUn aid ^wc-ifR*, and ynm 
Afld iwm wibA alnng NdkaDifcc 
Of Penia and of Anajr, 
Walked priaceljr dopot mbk **uk an air 
likc«tania«ii mom Kfcc fafinfinr 

bHtVQCQtf 

b 



Thii, which badcacriptioaofs dnan «f B^lonof tild,by a 
poet, ia realtzctl alaoat UicaOy ia nodata Vance. 



CHAPTER XXIII 



I mm »« fdacM la y where but ai Venice. Thow ai Rome an 
diui){MiB* c o wp are d to tbem. The^ gCBenHj come down ui dw 
wain'* edge, aad aa tbere are cao^ on each ade of tbem, you Me 
i68 




THKOUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 



I 



ihcm foyr-ijaart. The news by Caiulettt are tttj like, both ibr Uit 
effect of ihc buildiog* and the hue of the water. The pirincipa] an 
by PatUdio, Longhena, and SanioTino. They uc Ru«sy, ekgutt, 
well'proportioDed, ciwtly io initerMis, profu»c of omunnit. P(th>pi 
if they were railed above the water'a ed^ on low ti-rncet (a> tome 
of titein aic), ilic appearance of coniitin laA lecunty would be 
greater, though the arcldleetatal (larinf>, t)ie poetical nuractc would 
appear Icta. A* it u, they aeem literally to be lunpcnded in the 
water. — The richnt in interior decoration that I uw, waa the 
Grimani P.-iUcc, which answered to all the imaginary cooditioea of 
this sort of thing. Aladdin might bate exchanged bit for it, and 
given bis lamp imo the bargain. Tiie floors are of marble, the 
tables of ptectous stonet, the chain ind curtains of rich (ilk, the 
walls covered with looking-glaMet, and it contatnt a cabinet of in< 
raluable antique sculpture, and sontc of Tiiian'« dnan portraits. I 
ncTcc knew ibc practical amount to the poetical, or furniture seem to 
grow eiof^ueni bat in thit inalance. Ine rooms were not too Ur^ 
for comfort neither j for space is a considerBtion at Venice. All 
diat it wanted of aa Eastern Palace was light and air, with distaiit 
riitis of hill ami grove. A genealogical tree of the ^mtly waa hung 
up in one vt the rooms, beginning with the founder in the ninth 
century, and ending with the present rrpreseaUtiTe of it j and one of 
(he portraits, by Titian, wai of a Doge of the family, Icx^ing juM 
like an ugty, spiteful old woman ; but with a truth of oature, and a 
force of cbaracrter that no one ever gave bat be. 1 saw no other 
mansion equal to this. I'he Ptiani is the next lo it for elegance and 

3>Iendour ; and from iu tituatton on tbe Ciond Canal, it admits a 
ood of bright day through flittering curiaioi of Dea^greea «ik| into 
a Doble saloon, enriched wrth an admirable family.picnirc by Paal 
Veronese, with heads equal to Titian far all but ibe character of 
thought. 

Clow to this ia tbe Barherigo Palace, in which Titian lived, and 
in which he died, with his puniiog-roon joit in the atate in which he 
left it- It it hcng round with jHCtures, tome of his latest workt, 
■ucb as tbe Magdalen and the Salvator Mtmdi (which arc conimun ta 
prints), and with an uniiniihcd sketch of St. ScboaiiaD, on which he 
waa employed at the time of hie death. Titian was niDcty-ninc when 
he died, and was at last carried olf by tlie plague. My guide 
who waa cnibiwiaaiic on ike aubject of Venetian art, would not allow 
any falliBf^ff in dww lateat eiforts uf his ndghty pencil, but repre- 
•ented him aa prematurely cue oW in the height of his career. He 
knew, he said, an old man, who bad died a year ago, at one huadced 
and twenty. The Venetian* may (till live lo be old, bat they do imx 

a69 



NOTES OF A JOUBSEY 



pMU tile Tidw! The MacdAlen m 'ip^pn and cjcpccMrve, ! 
(he coloonag n tMed (laiu oiffnfm fron TinBa*! anu -»-tp%ify) 
and it kai a flacdd, mtnaiaoat, ■ScctRlly lacfarraiMe ■[niniM^a. 
which 1 bf BD BcaDi like. Tlicre ti a ilabb«ry freedom or s wif 
gtaatkvr abo« omt of tbne ftwdacboat, arhkli, I duafc, W Lw omieA at 
an nam basd iBd ^yt^ acconnMMa via a lenae of u» i irijM^ iia 
«aid, dvogfat be iMtp nwed m the bo, aad wiriied lo get aomBmam af 
hi* Earacr fiomita, ro poiat ihea ever agtia, mm faroaiteraad i^n 
•cinufic pnsdptcs •* mom aodion hm viiwd to re-wntr tin 
worka: there wa* a nntl nodcl of bin m itax, dooc bjr a ca» 
ien> [ ) OC « y mix in hii utrane old ige, then m I.<Hidoa a for w 
two ^Oi Mh the black vebet cap, the zreen eaarti, aikd a wImk 
tleevc a^Marine &om sader it, ^ainat a faie, thnrdled bawl. Tim 
a r t an geaient of colnmng waa » tndy characutiaiic tbst tc mat 
probably dictated by hitntdf. Ii loav be intcfntiag to araata to be 
told, that ihr tooni in the Barberigo I'alace (nid to br hla pu i nhin- 
rooni) has anrljr a Muthcni aipcct. There *ir mmdc other mditf e iw 
fieeof hnpttg ia the room, by patMets before hi* time, |ii iiliiHj 
aooK that he ^ eaf ly in hii boimmjcb, and kept loawst (6t tte 
icMon. It ii aD event io one » life to fiad ooc't-wlf ia Tkiu'* 
pa iati^ -TOom. Yet it did not (juite UMver to my TTprmrinm i 
hot an (boiie into the room, and the gondola id which wc i-j™. 
wa* aiwiiiilty cloK — neiibcr did I «oop wad kiia tbc rodc wfaici 
coven h0 diut, tboa^ I barc wotafaipped him oa thia «de of 
idobtryl 

*C pMOt il |iaM Titiwiu di VccriE. 
Emu h t o r dt Zeon r di gl' ApcUi.' 



Thi* i« tbe i mcriptio n on hit tomb in the charch of the Pnti. 1 
read it twice o«ct, bat it would not do. Why grtew fer the 
imfflortali ! One it not exactly ooe'*.«eIf on *uch mxaaJona, aad 
cnthunaim faaa its iaicraiitte&t and it Bb bow fits : bei*dc«, mine m, s 
pmeat, I iwpect, ■ kind of JuJt ihoat, that mnst take ita liie fnn the 
Kodc idF fimser impreuiofw. It ^Kcad aloft oa the withered branchn 
of tbe St. Peter Martjrr, and thot ooi move kindly atill frwa 
•cciae three mcuik* of hb, cloae togcdtct, tt tbe boiMc of Srgoot 
Kaoirim (a VcMtiaD tobt CT onittX an daborate Portrait of hia &ie^ 
Ar ioit o ifaafp-fefad aad uway-coloored, with a ticbt MoriKa 
look — a bronzed dusBeace of tbe Poor A^ at the Hai^nem of 
StaAord'a— and hji Mittrem (which i* in the Loairr) imnKloecd 
into a co m po sit ioB with a pj cavalier and i pigr. [ waa glaj to Mt 
her in compaay so mnch fitter for her than her old lorer; aad 
bewdc*, the vanrd groaping gave new life and reality to this clianD- 



I 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 

i 



* 



iog vUioo. The two lasi pictort* an doubtfully itciibcd to 
Giorgioni, >nd ihi» critical equivoque wm a source of curiouty and 
wonder. Giorgioni i« the only nainter with reaped to whom thti 
could br made i qucttion (the dudDctton between Titian and the 
other painters oi' the \'cnctian tchool, Ttntorec and Paul VeronCK, 
is broad and palpable enough) — and for myKlf, 1 incline lo attribute 
the Umt of itie three rlir/ il'dtivrrj above enumerated lo Giorgioni. 
The differe(n:e, it appear* to mc, may be ihua ttated. There ii more 
glow andammatiun In Giorgioni ilian in Titian. He is ofa franker and 
more genial ipirit. Titian has more lubtilty and meaning, Giorgioni 
more lite and youthful blood. The feeling in the one t< suppretacd i 
i& (he other, it it oven and trannparent. Titian's are >ct portiaita, 
with the amalleitt posiible deviation from the otmighi line : they look aa 
if they were going lo be »hoi, or to ahooi somchody. Giorgioni, in 
what i have »ecn of hia pictures) aa the Ga«ton de Koix, the Music- 
piece at Florence, &c. is full of infiection and contrast; there i« 
aeldom a panicle of it in Titian. An appearance of nieace, a 
tendency to itill-lifc, pervadci Titian's portrait* ; in Giorgioni'* there 
is 3 bending altitude, and a fl.-iunting .-lir, as if floating in gondola* or 
listening to music For all these reatons (perhaps alcoderljr put 
together) 1 am disposed to think the portrait of the young mao is 
the picture .iUudcd to is by Giorgiooi, from the flushed cheek, the 
good-natuted smile, and the careless altitude ; and for the tame reason, 
I think it likely that even the portrait of the lady ii originally his, 
and that Titian copied and enlarged the design into the one we >ee 
in the Louvre, for the head (supposed to be of himielf, in the back- 
ground) is middle-aged, and Giorgioni died whih: Titian was yei 
young. The quctiion of priority in this case is a very nice one; 
and it would he curious to asccrtaia the truth by tradition or [ffi*atc 
documents of any kind. 

1 tcaied my valii Jt p!ate (Mr. Andrew Wyche. a Tyroleae, a 
Tery pleaaant, compmionable, and patriotic sort oif person) the whole 
of the first morning at every frenh landing or enibarkation by asking, 
' But arc wc going to »ee the S.iint Peter Martyr?" When we 
reached the Church of Saint John and Saint Paul, the light did not 
serve, and we got reprimanded by the priest for turning our bacVs on 
the host, in our anxiety to find a proper point of view. We returned 
to the charge at Sve in the afternoon, when the light fell upon it 
through a high-arched Gothic window, and it came out in ail its 
pristine glory, with its rich, embrowned, overshadowing trees, ii* 
nobly-drawn heroic figures, iti blood-stained garments, its flowers and 
trailing planu, and that cold conient-spire rising in ibe diitance 
amidst the sapphire mounuins and the golden sky. I found every 

»7l 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



m diani far 





t mw k ■*■— gfc m Simmt 
kmlS,m d SBm t teaJMl « 

wirii A> ndoi ^*V^ "■ nNDmg, ib 
{WMfiJ , th« CHMt be OMOi 

i^JMS M orimal M it ii tfittely and m 

of In mxd po«cn. Ha« pn bA l y , m a fktB^ k b ^ ] 
tb>«acUi or if I ^noc mntt it tht jieun wtiidi 1 «mU d« 
toSHK hatvpu»d.it bai laa tbc tmtwtich I 
bnc It ii a neb faHK tD tW cyv, * whoK so 

OCR ttc ISC fcfitfu noB befoiTf nd ™f ttMl 

■add ilw boriuM. oc ■■€& ikm ^laK ihe laada^e^ «kka« ixfia 

QV BOuVB- OO nnCB KM ^BDVIBdlC ■■! Be 4b tn^ 

A^n. I do ■« lUA R«|ted caiU haw ^ms the' 

aXHHIMI flt fflflnrtp BUtUjf BttTOCt QT uV bBfTica* 

ndMBOM «' tiic f jiq; Heak, of tbc earn j n m i m m m of ife 
(ike a ralfaii mm) w wcfl » Tiun. TW bov eoold mm, I 
hno*, niK a t t mi int tt to itt b(i|^ fite tlw bnMr i bs RaateA 

coadnionv' not the acodnbl Jia'lMiwwi of HHid or hm^ 
— «cn fiul bkI fixed,! bh (^bc^ ^^ nriibfe. I obHSved, n hofc- 
ii( doacr, that the Under or fc wah er m w d 1^ of ihc tf^ muA 
ttm» (fOB ifae cdp of a buk of taf^ inm «Mdi W iadeeoHA^ 
Tfaif cxfhiM the action of dw psi hmcrt hn 1 do^» w iw^h ei Am 
idea of neoaabty asd latcrfutioc kobi the wqbcb BSbnv of Ar 
CToaan ■ aa j^^'I ■*■■ to the rcub^ of |ncnetate mbt ^ad onCBcnH 
fUfk x' u y ia the aand of the penoB repHeaied. Tfaia om be m 
hnocrindBtt. The co lo uiiag of the f oc M o a l^ of thM ^pna 
a ohiem be> prove thai the oner paleaeea of the km of it ia 6bbi ib 
hsfiag Med ia the ctMine of tine. The celev of dtt &oc ai iha 
aad the other aionk. is the taaie m it ««■ twaatf ytan agat it hai 
w Kak ied no tnjary ia that tine, fiat far the taB-banc* wdi-btkmi, 
rofanet tone of the fa h c oIob t , n B Mnml aa le the le][ aad jjaM 
tlagh of the robber. What » dHferoce hetweea thia ud Ra^MTa 
bridHhat ] — I left ihit adminUe perianaaDce with ie||« ; mt I ib 
■MR tee «rh]r i for I have it |rcaaB with aie^ * ia mf aiad** eye,* 
• S« ma tht Aaaaiii, Dj^s imt aAen, «Wdi wa^ It 

t^t 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



i 



ami tweUf in Oie wUdnc >ceiwi of tbc AJp*, thu tlic Si. Pctei 
tAutjt u 6au, That, and the Mao to tbc Lourrci are my ttaodanl* 
of pcHecuon ; my tacte may be wrong i nay, etm ndiculoaj — •yet 
(och it is. 

I'bc picture of the AMumpxion, at the Acaderay of Puoiing « 
VcBic«t which waa discovered but the othcf day UDclcr a loftd of dirt 
aod virtiiah, ■» cried up at cveo superior to tli« St. Peter : it u indeed 
a mote vxtraordiauy pictuic foe the u list to have (ointed ; but for 
that tery rcaton it ti neither ki perfect nvr so nluaUe. Raplud 
coold not paint bndKapc; Titian codd hardly paint history wnhont 
the help of bodKapc. A backgTO«ind wa» ncccMary to him, like 
muMC to a mclodtBine. He had in thi* picture attempted the style of 
Raphael, and hat succeeded aod even failed — to admiration- He 
ha* girco the detaclied figures of the Roman fcbool, the contraued, 
onibrm coloui* of theii draperiet, the nine determined online^ oo 
brealtis^ of the colour* or play of light and «badc, and ha* aimed at 
the lame elevation and force of cxptcMioo. The drawing ha* 
Dcaity the ume fimuicM with more Kopc, the colouring it richer and 
abwfi a* hird, the attitudes are impoting and tigoificiiit, and the 
fntnret haodMMte — what then ii warning? Tliui glow of heaven- 
ward deiotian beat on ideal ulijvctJi, jnd taking uii iu abode in the 
human form and countenance »• in a sfarioc ; that high and abtfracted 
cxpreanoo, that outward and ittibtc lign of an inward and invitiUe 
grace, which Raskacl alone could give in iu umu»t puiity and 
ioiciuily. One ^mipK of the Crowning of the Virgin in the Vatican 
ia wonh it all — K(ta the mind Higher to the subiKt, diawlm it in 
grater tweetneM. noka it b deeper thoaghtiiilBCsa. The eager 
beadloi^ enthuaaMD of the Apostle to the tight in a green nuatlc in 
the beat ; the lambent e^e» and MJfiMcd glow of the St. Jofan are 
only the iodicatMNtt of rosy health, and yoathfol ant«nation ) the 
Vir^n is a well-formed mstic beauty with a little affectation, and the 
aUinide of the Sopfcmc Being ii extravagant and dittoned. Raphael 
could hare paioicd this subject, as to iu ctscntiat quiities, better ; 
he conld not have done the St. Peter Martyr in any re«peci to well. 
I like Titian's Martyrdocn of St. Lawrence (aotwitlutaadtng tbe 
horror of tbe tabject) better than tbe Aatumptioo, for it* charac- 
teriitic cxpreMoo, fbfcabanening, and fine mellow maMet of light and 
shade. Titian oovld come nearer tbe manner of Michael Angclo 
than ihtt of Raphael, frain an eye for what was grand and imprcs- 
tivc in outward fonn and potitioo, as his frescoes of Promeibeuf, 
Cain and Abel, and another gtotea()ue and gigantic subject on the 
ceUing of one of the churches, shew. The*e, in pictisrctque group- 
ing, in muscular relief, and vatioeu of coatovr, surpass Micbael 

TOL. IX. : t aj] 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

Bight in the ycEifcIt in the buy. DameH's Hotel, at which wc wrrtt 
and to whioli 1 would recommend cveiy Engliib trafcller, comnunile 
a Buprrb view of it, add the «cne {particubrly by moonlight) u 
dciicioui. I heitd no miuic at Venice, neither foicc nor lute ; 
nw no gTuup of datxxsv or inHBkfr«, :ind tlie gondolas appear to me 
to rcRcmblc hcartei more ilian plcaiure-boats. I taw (he Rialto. 
which ii no longer an Exchange. The Bridge of Sighs, of whi^ 
Lord Byron ttpcaks ■" not a thoroughJarc, but an arcb suipeoded at 
a considerable height over one of the cKn;i!s, and connecting the 
Doge's palace with the prison. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Wg left Venice with mingled tatiifaction and regret. Wc had to 
retrace our Ftep* as far m Padua, on our way to Milan. For four 
daya' jouiDcy, from Podna lo Vcrana, to Brrsci.i, to Trevijflio, to 
Milan, tbc whole way wras caltiTatcd beauty and Bmiling vegetation. 
Not ii rood of land l;iy oejjlected, nor did there seem the tni.tllcit 
tnterrupticm to the bounty of nature or the industry of man. The 
coDKiant verdure &ligued the eye, but toothed reflection. l''or miles 
before you, behind you, and oo each side, the (railing vines hnng 
over waving com-ficldii, or clear sireims meandered throu^ rich 
meadow-grounds, and paitnres. The olive we had nearly left 
behind us in I'uflcaoy, and were not sorry to |iart witli ttt balf- 
mourninj?, appearance amidst more luxuriant nceneii and rariouB 
foliage. The country is <)uite level, and the roads quite tuaight for 
nearly four hundred miles that we hatt travelled after learing 
Boloj>na ; and every foot or acre of this immense plain is wrought 
u]i to a pilch of nc.iincts and prnduciivcness, c<]Bal u that ol a 
gentleman's kitehcn-gardcn, or to (he notsety-srounds in the 
neighbourhood of London. A giaiei-pii or a fune bush by the 
roadside is a relief to the ej^e. i'here in no perceptible diiference 
in approaching the great towns, ihouf.h their moundi of green earth 
and tbe mouldering icmaina of fortificitiont give an agreeable and 
romantic raricty to the scene ; the whole of the imerroediate space 
is literally, and without any kind of exaggeration, one continued and 
delightful garden. Whether this effect is owing to the felicity 
of the »oi! and climate, or to the art of man, or to former good 
government, or (o all these combined, I shall not here ini^uire ) but 
the fact is so, and it is sufficient to put an end to the idea thai there 
IS neither industry nor knowledge of agriculture nor plenty out of 

*35 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



* 



I 



wall thut Ronwo Icapeil over, ind tiie* you to the (pet in ike 
garden where he fell. Thu /.We* an »ir of trick Mid fictioa to the 
whole. The Itadiiion it a tbminod yeut old : it » kept Dp with 
a lender and pioiu Awe : the tntcreft taken in the iiorj of a paaaon 
EsilliAil to dtrsnh tliewR not that the fceliag in rare, but common. 
Miny Italian women hare read Shaktpeare'n iragedj of Rorneo and 
Jtiliet, utmire and criticitc it with great feeling. What remains of 
the old mooattery ii ai prcteni a Foundling Hoipital. On returning 
from this spoi, which ia ralher low and gloomy, we witaeucd the 
mott hriJIiaBt ii{>bt we had leen in Italy — the lun Kiting in a flood 
of gold behirtd the Alp* that orertoolc the lake of Garda. The 
Adige foamed at oar feet below; the bank oppotiie wa» of pure 
citieraldi the hilh which ro«e directly bchitid it in the mott 
faoiaatic forms were of perfect purple, and (he archea of the bridge 
to the left teemed plunged in ebon darkocM by the flames of light 
that darted round them. Veiona has a lei» dibpidsted, pensive air 
than Ferraia. It* ttrtcu and >qtiare« are airy ^nd apacious : but 
the building! hare a more modem and embellithcd look, and ihere 
i% an appearance of greater gaiety and faahion among the inhabitants. 
The ivnglish »onj«imet come here to reiide, though not in ituch 
crowds as ai I''torence, and things are proportion ably less dear. 
The Amphitheatre iv ochrly ai fine ar>d ijuile ai entire as that at 
Rome : the Gate of GaJienas terminates one of the principal streets. 
We met with Dothing remarkable the ten of the way to Milan, 
except the tanie rich, unnried face of the country ; the dinaal Alw 
banging like a thin film orer the boii^ton, or BMiroKbmg nearer m 
lofiy, solid maNci aa we advanced ; ihc lake of Cards embommed in 
them, and the fine fortreat of P<«chiera buried in it* almost 
nbiefraoean faitnevte* like a mole i the romantic town of Virli, with 
a rabbow glittering over lu verdant groves and hilU ■, » very b»d inn 
at Bre«cia, and a very excellent ooe at Treviglio. Milan was alive 
and full of viittors, thick a> the < mote* that people the tun-beam ; ' 
it felt the pretence of iti lord. The Fmperor of Aunria was there I 
Milan {at Icait un this occnnon) was a* gay as Bath or any town in 
EBgtaad. How time* and the character* of conncries change with 
(hem I In other parts of Italy, » at Ron>e and at Florence, the 
buoneas of the inhuMint* seemed to be to hide tliemsclvct, neither 
to tee nor be seen : here it was evidently their object to do both. 
The nreeta were thronged and in motion, and the promenade* full 
of carriagen and of eleganily-dreatcd women, at on a festival or gala- 
day. 1 think I never saw to many well-grown, well-made, good, 
looking women at at Milan. I did not however tee one face 
strikingly beautiful, or with a very fine expressaoo. In ihit rtapect 

*?7 




NOTES OF A JOCBSEY 

the RoiBUM ban the winaOf^ of tlwsL The North ba« a i 
of rafaoa barinnm in it. Tbeir tninatiop «w » litUe ocofccnM ; 
tbdr look alnuMt araoiHiu to a mae, that oralk, ia * twiag, tfaor 
earioHtf b not dec from an air of defiance. Tbc trrc nd 
■itamiaed nunncn of forinn periodi of Italy xifcar bJ«o to hm 
bcai driven oonbinni, and to lure iutgend longct oo the coofiMS. 
Tbc Ctthcdnl or Dnotna ■• a lylrBdid fiibrk of vhttc marble : it ii 
rich, ratt, and the iande nlsim and fiiD of a kI^kmu awe : tbc 
narfaJe m frooi a q^ttry on the Lago Hafgiore. We alaa aaw the 
Ctkbnted theatre of the Cnw Scab, wfaicb n of an imm cp aa cue 
aad of extremr bmity, but it wa« not full, nor was the perfonnaace 
MTiking. Tbr nunager » the |iro|>rictat of ibe Cobourg Theatre 
(Mi. CloMOp), aad hii wiie (foraieity oar Mita Fearon) the 
faTourite noger of the Mibane atcln. I ioqaircd after ibe grtn 
fninoniine ActrcM, PaUatini, but fouad the bad retired frora tbc 
(tage Of) a fortune. The name of V^iano waa not known to rav 
iafomunt. I did not tec the great pictsre of the La«t Supper bt 
Lionnrdo nor the linle l.uini, two mile* ooi of Milan, which aif 
biriMl Mi. Beyle charged me parriaiUrly to kc. 

We lett Milai), ia a cala^ or «nuU open carriage, to proceed to 
the Idet Boiroaieea. The firu day it rained riolentlT, and the 
third day the boy drove n wtodk, pretea£iv to miwake Laveno At 
Baveno ; to I got i>d of him. We bad a dciigbtiv] fuenuig jt 
Coon, and a fme view of the lake and MmuDdtcg bills, wbtdt 
bowerer riie too pTeci[alouiy fnaa the ahoret to be a dwcliiag-platt 
fbr (Mf but honicn and fiibermea. Seieral Eogliah gentlemen ai well 
u rich Milaoete faaee eilla* oo the bank*. I had a hankering after 
Cadenobu t but the Simploa luU lay before me. We arerc ntnrly 
di*appainted in the hlet Borrooees. Itoh Bella, bdoaging to the 
M>it<)uii Bairomco, indeed re(embte* *a |iyia8i*d of >wee(.Rtc3U 
oiaanenied with green feitoou and Aowen. I bad rappcMeU tUi 
to be a heavy Gemun conceit, bat it ii a literal deccrtption. The 
ptctuica in the Palace are iraih. We were accocted by a beggar in 
an illaod wbkb contain* only a palace and an inn. We prtmeedtd 
in the inn at Daveno, Muatcd on (he high road, clo«e to the lake, 
and enjoyed for «orae daya the encbinuDj and nrkd icenery aleif 
it* bank*. Tbc abnmt rocky precipice* that orerbing it — the wood* 
that ware in itt refrcabiog farcer.e — tbe dittant hitla — the gliding 
fail* and lercl ihore at the oppodtc exuemi^ — (he jagsed ■■■iprj^* 
of ihe nMHintain* thai took down opon Palania and Fertole, bxhI 
tbe deep defile* and inowy p«MM of the Simplon, every kind of 
mblmnty or beaoty, changing every moment wUh tbe shintag light 
or point of new from which yo« beheld them. We were te m pt ed ts 

"?8 





THROUGH PRANCE AND ITALY 



itop here for the tummer in a «uite of aponmcnu (not ill fnrnuhcd) 
i)iat comm^d a panoramic ticw of the Ixkr hidden by woods and 
vineyarda from all carious eyn, or in a similar sec of rooms u Inira 
on the other >ide of the Jake, with a gaidca and ihc coovcnieocei of 
a market-town, for six guineas for the half year. Hear this, yc who 
pine in England on limited incumei, arid uiih a ta>tc tor the 
picturesque ! Thr ictnpt;itton was great, and may yet prove too 
•iroDg. Wc wished, however, lo pass the Simpton first. \Vt 
proceeded to Domo d' Ossola for this purpose, and the next day 
began ihc ascent. I have already anenipied to describe the patuge 
of Mont Ceois ; this is ciid to be fintr, and I believe it ; but it 
impressed me leai, 1 believe owing to circuniBtance*, The road 
does not wind its inconceivable breathless way down the side of the 
same mountain (like the circumgirations of an eagle), gallery seeing 
gallery *unk beneath it, but makes longer teaches, and passes over 
fiom one side of the valley to (he other. The ascent is nearly by 
the side of the brook of the Simplon for acvcral miles, and you patt 
along by the edge of precipices and by slender bridges over 
moutitain-torrenti, under huge brown rugged rocks, hanging over the 
road like mighty masses of ruins or caitte walls — sonic bate, others 
covered with pine-ttcci lo the top; some too steep for any plant lo 
grow on them, others displaying spots of verdure, the thatched 
cottage, tod the winding path half-way up, and dallying with vernal 
flowrra sod the winter's snow to the last moment. The fir generally 
clothes them, aod it* spiry form and dark hues comUne well with 
their ' star-yMmtttag pyramids,' aod ashy palene»s- The eagle 
urcami over4iead| and the chamois looks startled round. Half-way 
up a little rumcd patli (the pathway of their life) loitered a young 
peasant and his mistress hand in hand, with some older people 
behind, following to ihcir peaceful humble homc-^half hid among 
the cliffs and clouds. Wc passed under one or two sounding arches, 
and over some lofty bridges. At length wc readied die village of 
the Simplon, and (topped there at a most excelJeDt inn, where we 
had a supper that might vie, for lastc and elegance, with that with 
which Chitlinch cotenained Fcveril of the Peak and his companion 
at the little inn, in the wilds of Derbyshire. The next day we 
proceeded onwards, and passed the commencement of the tremendous 
glacier of the Flech norr. Monteroso ascended lo the right, 
shrouded in cloud and mist, at a height inaccessible even to the eye. 
This mountain is only a few hundred feet lower than Moni-ISlanc, 
yet its name is hardly known. So a difference of a hair's breadth 
m talent often make* all the dilference between total obscurity and 
endless renown! Wc soon alter passed the barrier, and found 

179 



NOTES OF A JOURNEY" 



oundvM involted ia Ibg and dririBg «lMt apoa the brak 
pf tdpjcei : the view wai Udden, the nxid diDgeroas. Oa our nghl 
wcte drift* of HM>w left there by the anlwcbes. Soon after tfe 
nut ditpcrwd, or wv h>d peHB|e puted below it, aod a fine iHny 
marniag ditdoeed the whole amaung tccne ahove:* aboos, below ik 
On ov right wu the Swuizaberg, briiind m tbe Simplati, oa «■ 
left the Fttch Hotr, and tbe petated CliM-Hora — ofpomtK wm ife 
YvK-Frow, lod the diMau laoan tai— of the lake of Geaera rmt 
between, circled with wieaib* of nin lad tan e h i ng : (taccljr fit«ca 
nKMtred ibc abrupt deueot at oar Nde, or the eDuad of dnal^r-eeB 
oQncta; and in an opening faelonvt teeo throngh the nan* ^ki^ 
oadcr our Int, b^ the *iU^ of ^SS fa* ia a >a^} etiil Inlf a 
day** joamn diiuat. We woaad ravas the valley at the oihcf 
(Ktnauty of it : iht road en the oppaite side, which w« codU 
plaialy diitinjuidi, Ketncd alawil oa the Irrcl graaad, aikd wfaca a* 
i tached it we (bnad a tall creater depth bdow ua. Vma|;e«, cnttafOt 
flacfca of dieep in the nlic^ uadaacath, bow came in tight, »d 
amde the eye Kiddy to look at ibein ; hage cedar* by tbe rMdnide 
were imefpOKfl hctwtm at and the rock* aad wwianniaa oaao MK, 
aad threw them iiuo half-tiat ; and the hci^ ahoic oca- bcaal^ mi 
that beneath oui l««t, by being percepdbJy joined together, doolM 
Ibe eietatiiOB of tbe objects. Houataiaa •eeia Ughm either whca 
yon ai« at their nry Mnnmtt* and lode down oa the ararld, or wlia 
yoa are nidway i^ and the eye taket in the meanm of tbcir bd^ 
at two distinct aage*. I thick ibc fineet part of tbe dc*ceni of the 
Sanfloa i* aboot (eat or fin mile* befare yoa come lo Br^. TV 
idley H here atcrow, and afford* prodigioa* con tra*ca of wood ad 
rock, of hill and Tile, of aheltercd beam aad of uvage granlrui. 
The red perpndiciilaf chann in the tock at ihe foot of tbe Chv- 
Hora i> tmnendouai the look back to tbe mow-clad Swartzeabox 
thai you have left behind i* no le*a m. I gntit tbe Siraplon hat the 
advantage of Moot Ccni* in variety and beauty and in naliirn aid 
terrific contrast*, bat it h» not the ume nniple expaoaivr graadear, 
hieading aad growtog into one *Mt accsniiintad impreaMon ( nor it 
the deaoent of the *une whirKng and giddy character, na if yoa wvic 
bnnied, itage afm uage, aad from one yiwning deptb tti aaotbcTi 
iato the rcgioiM of * Chaoc and old Nkfat.* I'hc iwnpkm pc» » cap 
nuK ptctntCMjue potnta of newt Moot Onu« makes a atraafcr 
imprewioa bb the i mapn atioa. I am aot prejatBced m btottr of oae 
or the other; the road over each wan laiaed by the otme im— i 
haad. After a jmiK like ihit thro«^ the atfi k «aa r«i|aiai» is 
poatc aome uaic at the hotfntable iaa at Brigg to recover. It imir 
remain* for me lo deacribe the bke of Geneva and Mont Blaac 
s8o 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



CHAPTER XXV 

Wt Idt the Ina at Biigg. sitcr hRiing itopped thtn above a week, 
and piocrccjcd on our way to \cify, which had atwaya been an 
iQierctttng point in the lioriuie, and a rrttini;- place to the imagbia- 
lion. In traTctltnc, wc visit iiamfi as well as placet; and Vcrcy ia 
the scene of the flfrw Elme. In apite of Mr. Butke'a |>hiliDpic 
a^init this performnncc, ihc contempt of the Late SebotJt and Mr. 
Moore'i tatc Rbynti nn ihe Roijd, I had ttilt tome ovcrmattering 
recollections on ihat lubjcci, which I proposed to inrfolge at my 
lei«ure on the spot which waa supjiosnj (o give ibcm birth, aod which 
I accordingly did. I did not, on a re*pctu«al, lind my once favourite 
work quite «o rapid, quite ku void of eloquence or aentiment aa some 
critict (it i» true, not much beholden to it) would iounuate. The 
following painagc, among ntheri;, iccmed to me the perfectioa of 
style :— * Mmi vaii /it mpiiRlr dt ert aitrt, ^i vale tt tn I'arrett 
jammi ; It Itirn fmt, taeeajion tctioppr, la btaule, la hravtr mrmt mim 
ton temu, tlU doit ^trir ft firir un jour cammt unjirur qyi ivmbr lam 
avoir iti caniR!' What a difference between the sound of this 
pasaage and of Mr. Moore'i verse or prose! Nay, there ti more 
imagination in the ninglc epithet mire, applied as it u bcie to this 
brilliant and fleeting scene of things, than in all our bshionablc poet's 
wtKings ! At lease I thought «o> reading Si. Prenx'* I.ciier in the 
wood near Clarens, and stnling occBUOtuI glances at the lake and 
rock* of Nfeillerie. But I am aotkipaiins. 

The mountains on either tide of the Valley of the Simplon present 
a gloomy succe4«ion of clilfs, often covered with mow, and concruting 
by no means agieeihly with the marshy grounds below, through whicJi 
the Rhone wanders scarce noticed, scarce credited. It i> of a whitish 
muddy colour (from the snow and sand mingled with its course, very 
much ai if had been poured out of a washing-tub), and very different 
from the deep purple lint it assumes on oozing out from the other 
side of the Lake, after having drank its cerulean waters. The 
woods near the lofiy peak* of the CliK-Horn, and bordering on 
Montcroso, arc said to be still the frequent haunt of bears, though a 
mice is set upon iheir heads. As we adranced farther on beyond 
Tuttomania, the whole breadth of the ralley was aomeiimes covered 
with pine-foresls, which gave a relief to the eye, and atforded scope 
to the imagination. The fault of mountain scenery in general is, 
that it is too barren and naked, and that the whole is exposed in 
enormous and unvarying rnaascs to the view at once. The clothing 
of trees is no let« wuited ai an omamcfil than panially lo conceal 

181 





B * 
ttt 



htm hoMB, ad vka noj afafRi 
*4ma? P^ui pM» tdm. 

W<(ndwlfimtbc«an^ U k me if tte ifinim Md Im 
wmCwiaU* wwm «• te rawl} Mrdoa ibe dn^na dnenrtk 

mi hnv OM KMMtM. is o« of U^ oriy p mgriimi o—, wi> 
NCHMMiM fif bit hndkxd to u tras-&Nadry in the Be^bbonriwod 
(itMTHMikccfwInck,! Ulievc, we r« M ■ Uok dkuaoc), whew 






THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



be would be likrly to procare cmploymrai, miaukiog *the pauprr 
lad' for a journc^iniin blackimith. Pcrhapn the inibor of (he 
Rhymes en Iht Road will think it a pity he did not embrace tliik 
Dropou), iniiead of forgiBX thundeibolta for Un^Iy crowna. Aba ! 
Mr. Moore would then nerirr have liad to write hii ' Fablo for the 
Holy Ailiaticc.' H;iunicd by some inditltnct recollection of Uiia 
adrenture, I dskcd at the Ino, ' If Jean .l.-ic<ju« Routsexu had crer 
rallied in (he town ? ' The wniirr himaclt could not tell, but »oon 
after brought back for .tnswcr, * Th;ii Monaicur Kouswau had never 
lived there, bui that he had parted through Kbout fourteen ye-At* belbre 
on hi« way to Italy, when he had only time to itop to iiike tea ! ' — 
Was this a mete >iiipid blunder, or one of the relrscciuns of fame, 
founded on htn miision u Secretary to the VcnetUn Ambasiiador .i 
hundred year" before l There is a iradilioo in the neighbourhood of 
Milton's house in Vork-wrrei, Wcsimiosier, that 'one Mr. Mii/anl, 
a celebrated poet, formctljr lived there'. ' We ict forward the next 
inotniog on our way to M^tigny, through the most dreary valley 
uosiible, and in an abtolute atraixht line for twelie or fittcen mile* of 
level rond, which wai terminated by the *illa;>e -spire and by the hilU 
leading to the Gre;it St. Bernard .ind Mont-Blanc. The wind 
poured down from ihetc tremendous hjl!«, and blew with unabated 
tiiry in our faces the whole way. It was a most unpleasant ride, oor 
did the accommodations at the inn (the Swan, I think) make u* 
amends. The rooms were cold and empty. It might be Bupposed 
that tlie dei.olatiDn witliuut had subdued the iniaj^inattou to iti own 
Ime and tjuality, »o that it rejected at! attempta at improvement i that 
the more nigRard Nature had been to it, the more churlish it became 
to iuclf; and through babit, neither felt the want of comforts nor a 
wi»h to supply oiheri with ihem. Clow to the bridge stands a steep 
rock with a c.i«ile M the top of it ^attributed to the times of ihr 
Romans). At a distance it was hardly discernible ; and afterwards, 
when we crossed OTcr to Chamouni, we saw it miles below u> like a 
doTe-eoi, or a dirt-pye raised by children. Yet viewed from beiteath, 
it seemed to present an impofing and formidable attitude, and to 
elevate it* pigmy front in a line with the natcly heights around. So 
Mr. Washington Irvine binds up his own ponrait with Goldsmith's in 
the Paris edition ofhis works, and to oiany people seems the^mWer 
man I Krom the definite and dwutflib, we turned to tlie mow-clwl 
and cloud-capt ; and sttoUed to the other side of the tillage, where tlie 
road parts to St. Bernard and Chamouni, anxiously gazing a.t the steep 
pathway on either side, .-ind half tempted to launch into that billowy 
sea of mini and mountain : but we reserved this for a tubse<i"ent 
period. As we were loitering at the foot of the dizzy ascent, our 

a8j 



NOTES OP A JOURNEY 



poKiEoM, who had (laid bebmd tn a couple at boen the day btfort » 
pkf at bowb. now drove on half m bow beforr hia timr, sad wka 
«« nnicd ■ cofMr which gair m a view of our ino, no cafanolci «u 
there. He, however, mmd fou&d hit miiuke, and turnrd hack w 
meet lu. The only pic tw rf qu e object* beiweea tht> «nd Bex an i 
witcr fa JI ahont two nundred feet ia height, umiog thnmcfa tat 
cavitict of ih« nxMncain Iram the inu acnae glacier to tbe vwfey at 
Ttit, and the romantic bridge of St. Maaticc:, the booodarf bctwn 
Saroj aad the Pa;* de Vaad. On the ledge of » rocky precipee, a 
you ifiproach .St. Maurice, lundt a hcrautage in full view of tk 
road ; and poeiibly the ininau cooioka hioMcIf ia fait vnluntwy retcU 
by watdunt the carriagea ai tbey come b aigbii aitd fmtrfiag thai dn 
driver it pointiiig out hit aniel dwcUing to th« in(]ui<iiiv* aad 
wondering travcJIei ! If a nun oovld tnmtport bimtelf to one of iht 
fixed ftart, to br from bring lifted above tlut tabhraary tjihere, he 
would atill with hit fcllow-nKiniilt to ]iotnt to it as hit paracnlc 
abode, and the tocne of hit marvellout advcMurc*. We go ioU t 
crowd to he teen : we go into tolitttde that wr m^y be tlittingnithed 
from the crovrd, and talked of. We trivet into foreign pant to gn 
the ttart of thote who itay behbd ui| we reium home- to besr i^n 
hat been taid of nt in our alMcnce. Lord Byron mounted on In 
pcdevul of pride oo the thote* of ibc Adriatic, ai Mr. ITiiUki 
ridei in the car of popuUriiy through the ortcti of Wertmiiiits. 
The one oblKt COtdd be iccb at a dituacr ; the other, whotc reioi m 
mote Saacm>-Panx*-iifa and fag^ialanJ, rcc|vire« to be bro«^ 
nearer to the eye for tug»«4ect I Bex ittelf it dcliciout. It itaaA 
in a little nook of qaiet, alraott oat of the world, nestling in nni 
beaaty, in mooniaio tuUtmity. There it an excellent inn, a cotmtii 
church before it, a large ath tree, a circnltlmg library, a rookery, 
every thing otcful artd comfortable for the life of man. Behind, there 
it a ridge of dark rocks; beyond ihrm till and bare mountuat — and 
a higher range ttill appcatt throuj>h rolling cloud* and cirding dhwu 
Our reception at the inn wat eiery way whit wr oodld with, uu! wc 
were hall diipowd to uop here for tome ntoatht. Bnt wmeririnn 
whitpcred me on to Vevey:— ihit we reached the next day in a 
drizzling drawer of rain, which prevcoitd our leetng mach of tlw 
country, excepting the black mattet of rock and pine-tree* thai io«c 
perpendicularly I'tun) the roodtidc. The day aliet my arrival, I fouMi 
a lodiiinp, at a btm-boutc, a mile out of Vrvcy, to ' lapped in luxttry,' 
to retired, to r«MCMUe, and in every rcfpect convenieDL, that we 
icmaiord here for the reit of the mnimer, aind feh m Mnall regm at 
leaving it. 

The conniry round Vevcy it, I matt neverthelett own, the km 

184 




THROUGH FHANCE AND ITALY 

picturesque putt oT the boidrrs of the Like of Gcnen. I woikIct 
Rou8«eiiu. who wait » ffiod jwlffs and an admirable deacriber cf 
ronuntic aitualioii*, should have fixed upon it u the (ceoe of the 
•New Eloiic.' You have paued the rocky and ptccipiiou* defile* at 
liic entrance into the volley, and have not yci conic into the oora and 
more agreeable part* of it. The immcdiaic vicinity of Vcity ia 
entirely occupied with vtneyuda slanting to the aoutli, aod iacloted 
bfiwccn MoniMvalii without any kind of rariety or telief. The walk* 
are unevco and hud, and you in general tet little (for the walU on 
each side of you) but the xlaisy surface of the Lake, the rocky 
barrier of the S.ivoy Alpi opjxjiite {one of them crownrd all the yew 
round with tnow, and which, though it is twenty milcA qS, uttat u 
if you could touch it with your hand, to completely doet (izc neutralise 
ihcctrcci of distance), the grcfo hills of an inferior c!au orer Clareoa, 
with the Dent de Janunt sticking out of them like an iron tooth, and 
the winding valley leading northward towards Bcmc and Prihourg. 
Here Eiar)d» Gclamont (the name of the Campagna which we took], 
on a bank nlopin^. down to the brook that puec* by Vctcy, and )o 
entirely embosomed in tree* and • upland swells,' that it ffltghl be 
caJIcd, in poelical phrase, 'the peasant's nest.' Here every thing 
was perfectly clean and commodious. Tlie ftrmier or vineyard- 
keeper, with his family, lived below, and we had aix or seven roomi 
on a floor (fuiniidied with cverv article or convenience that a London 
lodsing alfordi) fur tbtrty Napoleona for four months, or about 
thirty thillingt a week. Tbit nm expcnue we found the grcaleal 
during our itay, and nearly equal to all the rest, that of a servant 
included. The number of [^ngltsb Mttlcd here had made lodgings 
dear, and an l-ingli»h genitcman (old me he was acquainted with not 
less than three-and-twcnty l^nglish families in the neighbourhood. 
To give those who may feel an ioclinaiion to try foreign air, an idea 
of the comparative che^ipnes* of living abroad, I wUl mention that 
mutton (equal to the bent Welch mutton, and fed on the high grounds 
near Moudon) is two bail, that ii, threepence I^Dglinh pet pound j 
and the beef (which in also good, though not of so fine a quality) i* 
the tame. 1 roul, caught in the Lake, you get aimcwt for nothing. 
A couple of tbwl* is eishteen-peoce. The wine of the country, 
which though not rich, is cxcecdiagly palatable, i« three pence a 
botUe. Vou may have a basket of ftrapes in the acaion for one 
shilling or fifteen pence.' The bread, butter and milk arc cqualljr 
cheap and excellent. They have not the an here of adulterating; 
e^ery thing. You find the name things a« in Irngland, served op in 
the umc plain and decent manner, but in greater plenty, aixi generally 
* The girls who work ia the tincyirdi, arc p*U tbice hiti i Avf. 



NOTES OF A JOUHNEV 



qwdting, of a better and tnorc wbtdetome qo^ity. and at leut i 
u cheap. Id Ei^mid they luvc few thb^t, and tbcy cootriTt 
(poU thotc few. Th«tc i> a ^ood deal of iU-oatutc aitd cburUibMn^ 
ai well if 1 nafrow policy ia thti. The trading pricciple aemw to be 
to give you Uk orom, and make yoa pay at <lcar for it a* pooiblr. 
It is a *ile principle. At mwd m you land « Dover, you t'ecl tbt 
force of thi« Jow tnuh. 'I'hcy cheat you to your f^cc, and laugh a 
yiN. I fiMUt tay, that it appear* to me, uhaterer m»y be the &iilu 
or rice* of other nation*, the BokIiiIi fefataftaa it the only one to 
which the epithet Uufguurit la applicable. They arc, in a word, tV 
only people who make a merit ot giring otben p^n, and criumpti ic 
their impiBdRice and ill-bchaviouTi aa proof* of a manly and indcpenden 
spirit. Afraid thai you may cooiplaio of the absence of fbreign 
luxorm. they are delennined to let you underMaod beforehand, the; 
do not care abovt what you may think, and wanting the art to jJea^ 
retort to the enieT and Mter way of keepinf[ ep their imponancc h 
practiting every kind of annoyance. Incteod of their betne st yoo 
mercy, yoa lind younelf at tfaein, mhjccicd to the aidlco airs of tke 
muter*, and to the impcninent iatirity of the waiters. Tbcy diuinie 
your theory of I-^ngliah comfort and hotpitality at the thretdxild. 
What do they care that you have chcrithed a food hope of getting a 
nice, nny little dinner on your arrival, better than any yoa have had 

Eb Praace i * The French nuy be d ,' a the answer that pmtn 

thioi^fa their minda — ' the dinner i> good enongh, if it t» I^nslub ! ' 
Let ua take care, that by jttuming an insolent local auprriority oter 
all the world, we do not sink below ihcTn in every thing, liberty not 
excepted. While the name of any thing pafaca currcDt, wc nuy 
di«pen«e with the reality, and keep the Mart of the re«t of mankiad, 
rimply by assening that we have it, and treating all foreigners a* a set 
of poor wretches, who neither know how, noe are in truth lit to bre '. 
AganMt thin port, alaa I John Dull is continually running hit hevL 
but at yet without knockii^ hit brains out. The beef-steak which 
yoa order at Dover with patriotic tender yearuag* fur it« tepntuioD, 
ia accofdjngly filled with cinder*— ibc mutton is done to a rag— the 
sovp not (Stable — the porter tour — the bread gritty— the butter raitctd. 
Game, poultry, gtapet, wine it is in vain to think of; and ai you may 
be mottafied at the jMiratioOi they punidi yoa for yoor noraMtnaUe 
disaatiaiaction by giving you canae for it b the niiBinaita|{einent of 
what remains.' Tn the mklsi of this ill fare you nwet with caually 

' Siaec iBjr rttutn [ hive pu( aijuU no a ngimvn of tuawn breail, bocf mi 
lita, tail hiw thui dcfcalr^ ihr tTittoutic conipirtcf tirrlH on agtitui wnk 
diaciticot. To thnr iccBiioRMil lo, »mt wha can inilal{i la totvgn InawrW tha 
Nsl wIU Mcm fa bom ntitftctory. ^ 

tae 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 



bad treatmnit. While you are trying to digest a tough bcef-ticaki a 
fellow come* in and prrcmptoiily aemimds ruur fare, un the asiuniocc 
thai you will get your baggage from ihe clutchci of the Cauom-house 
in time to go by the fix o'clock coach ; and when you find that ihi4 
i« ini|>08»ii)lc, and that you arc lu be tiuodlcd olT at tvro in the 
morning, or by the oexi <Uy*s coach, jf it is aotfull, and complain to 
that personifintion of blind juidicc, an English mob, you hear the urcb 
tlatig reply, * Do you think the Gentleman tuch a foul at lo part with 
hb money without knowing why ^ ' and ihould the nniural rejoinder 
rise to your lip« — * Do yoa take me for a fool, becnuae 1 did not take 
you for a rogue f the defendant immediately iiands at bay upon the 
natioDal character for honeety and morality. * I hope there are no 
rogues bete I ' is echoed through the dense atmosphete of English 
intellect, though but the moment before they had been laughing in 
their sleeves (or out loud) .11 the iden of a itrangcr having been 
tricked by a lownnman. Happy country! equally and nupidly 
tacisficd with its vulgar vices and boasted virtue! ! 

' Oh I for a lod^ in tavac vail viililerncu. 

Some boundl<i* coniinuity of shade ! ' 

Yet to what purpo»e utter nich a wish, lince it is impotnblc to stay 
there, and the moment you arc teparatcd from your fellows, you 
think belter of them, begin to form chimera* with which you would 
fain compare the rcalitiea, lind ihcm the rame as ever to your coti and 
shame — 

' And disappointed Mill, are still deceived ! ' 

I foimd little of thi« tratmitrii at GclanioDt. Days, weeks, months, 
and even yrari, might have passed 00 much in the same nianner, with 
'but the season's di^ercDce.' We breakfasted at the sum*.' hour, and 
the tea-ketile was always boiling (ao excellent thing in housewifery} 
— a Immgt in tlie orchard for an hour or two, and twice a wreck we 
could tee the steam-boat creeping like a spider over the surface of the 
lake ; a volume of the Scotch novel* (to be had In every library on 
the Continent, in English, I'rench, German, or Italian, st the reader 
pleases), or M. Galignani's Paris and London Oittrver, amused as 
till dinner time ; then tea and a walk till the nioon unveiled itself, 
' apparent <|aeen of night,' or the brook, swolo with a tranneot shower, 
was heard more distinctly in tlie darkness, mingling with the kA, 
rustling brceie: and the next morning the song ot peasuits broke 
upon retreching slee|>, as the sun glanced among the ciunering vine- 
leave*, or the shadowy hills, at the mists retired from their summits, 
looked in at our windows. The uaifonniiy of this mode of life w» 

187 



f 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

world) orti oui headt. Tfac lalic thone like a brood golden mirror, 
reflecting the tbouiaotl djfe* of the fleecy pu/ple clouds, while Saiai 
Gifigolph, with iu clusieriag hibttitiooit thcwcd like a dark pitchy 
tpoc by it> side ; and beyond the gfimmaing terse of the Jui* (almoM 
hid in iu own brightccM) hovered gay vrntbs of cloudt, fiiir, lovely, 
visionary, that tenned noi of thiit world, bat brought from tome dream 
of fancy, trcaaorcd vp from past year*, cmblcme of hope, of joy and 
imiling regret) thai had come to grace a tcroe so heavenly, and to bid 
it a lait, lingering farewtrll. No petsoD can dcacribe the effect; bill 
to in Claude's landKapes the evening clouds diiak up the roty light, 
and sink tnto soft repoae ! Every vac who travclii into Switzerland 
•hoold triait ihia secluded spot, and witocw such a Buntet, with the 
heaven stooping its face into the lake on aoe side, and the mountains, 
rocks and woods, liiiiDg earth to heaven on the other. Wc had no 
power to leave it or to admire it, lill the evening shades stole in upon 
us, and drew the dusky veil of twilight over it. 

We had a pleaunt walk the next moTDiDg along the wde of the 
lake under the grey cliiFs, the green hills and aj:ure sky ; now tauing 
under the open gateway of some dibpid^ited watch-tower that had in 
former times coonected the rocky barrier with the water, now watch- 
ing the sails of a boat slowly making its way among the ircci: on the 
banks of the Rhone, like buiterSita nmaoding their wings in the 
breeze, or the anowy ridges that MOMtl cloae lo us at Vcvey receding 
farther into a kind of lofty back-groond a* we advanced. The 
nwcBlatsoa of Bishop Berkeley, or msdc other philosopher, that 
ditfance is naeasured by raotioa and not by the sight, is verified here 
at every Ucp. After going on tbr hours, and perceiving no altera- 
tion in the foem or appearance of the object before you, you begin 
u> be conrinced that it is out of ordinary calcnlatwo, or, in the 
bngnage of the Famj, an * ugly cuatonier ; and our curiosity once 
excited, it ready to magnify every cirCBmstancc relating to it 
to an iodefinite extent. The literal impietaion bring discarded aa 
insdiicient, the inugioatioQ tako out aa unlimited letter of credit 
for all that it potcible or wonderAil, ami what the eye aces is coD- 
ndcred iheocclorward merely a* an imperfect hint, to be amplified 
and filled op on a ctdotial acale by the undcratanding and ruJes of 
prmartion. To say the irvth, you alto wlTeT a change, I'rel like 
Lilliputians, and can fancy yourselves transported to a different 
world, wtiefc the dimentions and relstiont of things are regulated 
by tome unknown law. The tna wheie we stopped at Vioooax u 
bad. Beyond this plaicc, the hills at the eastern end of the lake 
form into an irregular and ttnpendou* amphitheatre ; and you pasa 
thnMigh long and apparently eadlest viatat of tall Sonrtshiog tree*, 

vou ix. : T 189 



NOTES OF A JOUHNKY 



witbMi being ciMiKiou) of raakiajt much proxrcM. 1'bcrc t» ;> 
};kw-mioufactory at Viutmax, which I did not jo to tee i othcri 
who bate mare curiotity may. It will b« thoe (I dare s»y) next 
year Tor thoie who chootc to viiii ii : I Kked ncithci ita glare nor 
its \k»U The cold icy cragi that h^ng »ufipcnclcd otct it luve been 
ihc(« a ihooaand yean, and will be (here a tliouxand ycarc to cone. 
8bon-U*cd as we aie, let m attach ouitclrc* to the immortal, ukI 
acile (aauistccl by canh'a j^iani brood 1 the enij>yr«an of pure thought ! 
But tlic Engtieh abruad turn out of their way to aee ercry petti- 
fogging, huckKering object that (bey coold aee better at home, and 
arc ai /'"j and tidgclly, with their tmokc-pck* aiui mechanical 
invcniiont among the Alp*t aa if they bad brought MancbcMcr and 
Sheffield in ihcirpockeu! The linciit cftect along this load ia the 
<icw of the bridge as you come near .Si. Maurice. The movaiairii 
on either side here descend nearly to a point, boldly and abruptly ; 
the riiet flows rapidly through the [all arcli of the brid^Ct on ooc 
■ide of which you aee an old faniaMic tnrm, and beyond it the bill 
called the Sugur-toafi riainx up in the centre of inunenae range* of 
mountaina, and with fertile and tarioualy'inarked plaiM atrecchioig 
out in the intcrtening ipace. The landacape painter haa nnly to go 
there, and make a picture of it. It il already framed by nature 10 
his hand ! 1 mention thic the more, because (hat kind of groi^u^ of 
objects which is cMcntial to the picturesque, is not always to be lound 
in the most sublime or even bcwitiful acenca. Nature (to to tpeal:) 
uset .1 latj^et canrasc than tnan, and wbete ahe ia greateat and moti 
prodi|^ of her wcjdib, olicn neitlecti that principle of concentration 
and cofltrait which it an indiipensable preliminary before she can be 
tnuidatcd with effect into (he ctrcumacribcd language of an. We 
(uppi^d at Mattigny, ni (he Hotel <le la Poiic (fomieily a convent), 
and the next morning procetdrd by the Valley of Trie and the Col 
dc Pcaumc to Cbamouni. 

We left tbc great tit. Bernard, and the road by which Buonararte 
paawd to Marrngo, on our left, and Martigny and the \''alley of the 
Simplon diti-L-tly bvbind ua. Theac Uat were also i,w>a at an im- 
meaBuralile depth below ua: but the summits of the mountain* that 
environed ua on all aide*, neumed to aaceod with us, and to add our 
elcfation tu their own. Cragt, of which we could only before 
dixcrn the jutting tops gradually reared (heir full uaturc at out 
tide ; and icy masaci, one by one, came in aighi, emerging from tlicir 
lofty icceascs, like clouds tloaiing in mid-air. All this while a green 
valley kept us company by the roadside, watered with gia^ng rilla, 
bteraperacd witli cMiagcs and well-atockcd farm* ; Cue elms and Mb 
grew on tbe tide) of the litUa, under the shade of one of which we 

190 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



Mw SO old peanot atlm. The road, liow«*eri wu Ior)[. roosh, 
xod atecp t and horn the heat of the ran, and the coatinual iQterru|>- 
tion of loobe ttone* and the itragglirtg rooia of tree*, I felt mystf 
exceedingly exhausted. We had a mulr, a driver, and a guide. I 
was adTJscd, by all means, lo Imkr ihc fatigue of ibc asccot by 
ukiag hold of the ^urur ^ M^niitur U Mulei, a mode of tiaTciling 
paitakiog as little of the sublime it ]>ostiblc, and to which I reluctantly 
acceded. We at laK reached the top, and looked down on the 
Valley of Trie, bedded in rocVs, with a few wooden hut* in it, x 
mountain -stream trnveTKng it from the Glac'ur at one end, and with 
an appearance at if nimmcr could never gain 3 footing there, before 
it would be driven out by winter. Id the tnidn of thia almoit 
inaccesribic and dc*olatc »pol, we found a lictie inn or booth, with 
reiieshcnents of wine, bread, and fruit, and a whole drove of Ivngliah 
travellers, mounted or oo foot. 

' Nor Alpj nor Apenninei can keep them out. 
Nor fortilied redoubt ! ' 

As we moimted the atcep wood on the otiier aide of the valley, we 
met teverol mulea returnbg, with their driven only, and looluog 
extremely pictute«que, as they were perched above our headt itmoag 
the jagged pine-treca, and cautioualy felt their pcrilouc way over the 
edge* of projcaing tocki and ttump* of ircci, down the zig-ug 
pathway. The view h«c is prccijutoux, exicn«iic, and truly appalling, 
both ^mn the lizc of the object! and their rugged wildncia. The 
tmctl of ttie pine-iiees, ibc clear uir, and the golden sunshine gleaming 
through tlie dark foliage tefreiihed me i and the faii};ue from which 
I had tuifered in the morning completely wore uC I had concluded 
that when we got to the top of the wood that hung over our headi, 
we ihould hnvc maitercd our ditficultiea i but they only then bc^n. 
Wc emerged into a barren heath or moraM of a most ioil»ome aicent, 
lengtheoing as we advanced, with herds of swine, sheep, and cattle 
feeiUng on it. and a bed uf half-melted snow marking the Minimit 
over which we had to paw. We turned aitde, lialf-way up thit 
drean^ wildemcn, to slop at a ihairi, where a boy, who tendn! the 
straggling cattle, was fait aalecp in the middle of the day i and being 
waked up, DTocurcd us a draught of moM delicious wai«r from a 
fountato. We at length reached the Col de Pcaume, and saw Mont 
Blanc, the King of Mountains, scrctchlog away to the left, with 
clouds circling round its sides, and snows forever resting on its head. 
It woi an image of immcnnty and eternity. Earth hail heaved it 
irom its bosom ; the * van cerulean ' had touched it with its breatfa. 
It was a meeting of earth and iky. Other peaked cliffs rose per- 

191 




NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



pcndicubuir by its tUt, tad » naje of roclu, of red £naitc, frntUt 
It to the noclli ; bat Mont-BUiK ittdf wat round, bald, iJiuub^ 
unplc) snd eoual in tt« twtlling proponioii* — a huge dumb beqi 
of mwter. The valley below wm bare, wttltout mi object — m 
oraunent, no cootraxt to ict il off — it wp oitd in tiiencv and is 
•oliiudc, a wofld vitfaii) it*clf. 

' Rtttn, ihf norkl Am out, th]r ibou^ii call homr. ' 

Thcie is an end here of xmhj aad linlcnew^ and all tranaitoiy jarrigg 
intercut. Yoa stand, a« it were, in the presence of the Spirit of tk 
Universe, before the toa'jniy of Nature, with her chief element* aboM 
rou : cloud and air, and rock, and Mream, aikd mouat^un »re brougbt 
lata immedtite cuntacE wilb primenl CbMW and the great Pirn 
Cause. The mind hovers over mpteries deeper than tbc abjrsMt 
at our feet ; its spcculatioos soar to a hcij;bt beyond the visible forms 
it sees around it. As we descended the path on foot (&t oyr 
mutctecr was obliged to tetom at the boLTtier between the two tain 
of Savoy and Switzerland marked by a solitary unhewn atone,} we 
aw before tu the ihiofjlcd rool^ of a hanilet, situated on a |«tcli of 
Tcrdute near iiuccerabk columns of j;raiute, and could bcu- tW 
tinkling belU of a number of cattle pasturing below (an imxge of 
(utmrchal tinwt ! ) — we alto met one or two peasants returning bone 
with loads of fern, and still farther down, fonad the ripe fawett* 
of wheat and barley growing close up to the feet of the glaciers 
(those huge maisea of ice arrested b their pstsage &om the moantAins, 
and collected by a thousand winters,) and the violet and gilliAowcr 
nestling in the cliflt of tbe harden rocks. There arc (bur of ihcM 
glaciers, that pour their solid lloods into the nlley, «rith rivnielt 
usoing from ibcm into the Arbe. The one next to Chamouni tSf 
I think, the finest. It faota yen tike a broad sheet of congealed 
snow and water about half-way up tbe lofiy precipice, and thea 
sprcada out iu arms on each side into Menung bmcfiet and fortific*- 
tsoos of undisiioguiahable rock and ice, as tboiaKh winter had here 
* built a fortress Ait itself,' seated in stern state, and amidst frowinng 
horror*. As we advanced into the plain, and before it became disk, 
we could discern at a distance the dark wood that skirt* the glaciers 
of Mont-BI.inc, the t^pire of ChimovDJ, and the bridge* that cross tbc 
stream. We also discovered, a liitlc way on before Bt, stragglers on 
BUtlcs, and a cabriolet, that w*i returning from tbc valley of Trie, 
by taking a more circuitous route. As Lj>e day doMd m aad was 
followed bv tbe moonlight, the mountain* on our right hung orer vs 
Bke a dark pall, and the glacier* gleamed like aigaatie abroodi 
opposite. We might have fancied ourselve* inclosed in a vaat tomb, 
»9» 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

bat fer Ibc •onadiDg cauract* and the light clondt that llittcd over 
OU haJi. We arrived at Chamouni M lut, and found the thtcc 
inn> crowded with Fnglith. The entrance to that Co which we bai 
been recommctidcd, or lathcr were condnctcd by our guide (the 
Hotel dc LondrcR,) wai hcticgcd by I%ng1i«ti loungers, like a bazatri 
' or an hotel nt sonic t'sshionsbic watenng'pla(«, and we were glad to 
«ecure a tniall but comfDttablc rootti for the nij;ht. 

We had an excellent lupper, tht- materiaU of which we undentood 
I-came from Geneva. Wc proceeded the next morning to SaIeKe«, on 
our way to ihin capital. If the c-ntrancr to the valley of Chamouni 
if grand and timpir, the route from it towards Genera unite* ihc 
pictoreaque to the sublime in the most rcmarkflble degree. Vot two 
or three miles you pass along under Monc-filaDi;> looking up at it with 
awe acid wonder, derived from a knowledge of its height. The 
toteten, the pleaaurc you take in it ia from conviction and rellectioR ; 
but turn a comer in the road at a homely village and a little bridge, 
and it lihoots up into the itcy of it> own accord, like a fantastic vision. 
lt$ height is incredible, its brightness dazzling, and you notice the 
snow crusted upon its surface into round hillocks, with pellucid 
thadowi like shining pavilions for the epirits of the upper regions 
of the aif. Why is the effect so different from its former desolate 
and lumpinh appearance ? Tall rocki riiie from the coidiide with 
dark waving pine-trees shooting from them, OTer the higheit top of 
which, a« you lonk up, you »rc Mont-Dlanc ; a ruined tower Kcrret 
as fl foil 10 ihc serene smilcr in the clouds that mocki ai the defences 
of an, or the encroachments of time. Another mouniain opposite-, 
part bare, part clothed with wood, tntercrptc the view to the icft, 
giving effect to what is seen, and leaving more to the imagination i 
and the impetuous torrent roars at your feet, a hundred fathoms 
below, with the bright red clostert of tlie mountain-aBh and loose 
fragments of rock bending over it, and into which a nngle step would 
precipitate you. One of the mightiest object" in nature is ort off by 
the most appropriate and fttriking accidents ; and the impreesioD is of 
the most romantic and enchanting kind. The scene has an intoxicat- 
ing effect ; you are relieved from the toil of wiihing to admire, and 
the imagination is de!ighte<l to follow the lead of the sense*. We 
paned this part of the road in a bright morning, inceisanlly turning 
oack to admire, and finding fresh cauK of pleasure and wonder at 
wery step or pauee, loth to leave it, and yel urged onward by 
continual displays of new and endless beauties. Chamouni teems to 
lie low enough ; but we found that the river and the road along with 
it winds and tumbles for miles over steep banks or sloping ground ; 
and as you revert your eye, you lind that which was a Rat converted 

»9S 



NOTES OP A JOURVEY 

imsBrTcimi ot tnc luuLv^ tut i^wiaonB oc tit^ ii*i'^n 
MfKirt to be liwaicf, mi the Xtta da a tUck. Tbe fiaii^a' 

of the •eenerj, won ^idr ■ forget « rfiMff i n i iin aeg we U 
ex|nitiiced in iIm ttipMt. Aa «c ucaOBd s tm^ US asibaafe 
of MooJoo, nd looked bock, fin at tbc gma dewy nBey nAi 
o«r (ttXr «^ the dsdiy tovo and tlir bine nofce rionis &e^ ii, Ao 
u the rood we had tnmwd the pcvcediag ncaiog, wiafiBC aaoif 
lUck gre««« of tree*, ud Uu ai the Safoj AJm oo the ocfacr nit i 
cbe L^Jw of Gcaen (wnh vriudi we had been finwt'hr far &k 
aoBtfae, md wUcb «e«a«lu> faaveooniad lo i}nii ■•) I ncmnvdi 
fatMit ipedt deee to the cop «f floe of ibeee — I «*■ fli Hh li^il. ■< 
Bid it w« Moec Bboc Chir driver tna of a dAnat i 



' it «a* only a clood, «i>d I occocdiiqly WffoomJ I bad tala 
a loddca bacy for a realitj. I b^u b wcrct to take m j m S tn H^ 
aod lo kctare KTeelf liir mj proweae w to bvild thiofiii oa At 
iMldMMB Ot wj conjcctMrei md nbei. On tnntcqg rmmI ea» 
wadlf, bowcm, I oto tntd ihat tint doad n-ro ipwi a tfe nae 
dace, and I BOtked the dmaBtfaacc to oar goide, ■■ fiuawwg mj 
fintioM^OBf far dooda do not oM^rcBaa kof in iht ^m 
place, ^fft dilated tbe point ibr halT a day, and it wu not tSI cbr 
a&cfnoan when we had teacbed tbe other ode of tbe bke ce 
Wlifdmtl, thai thii nine dond riaina Kke a omoff over the peaK 
ate* it bad boircred, 'ia ihape aaa natioo praadly "ninnii/ bf 
aduiOwlcd(ed it to be Moot Buix. We were then at a dwtaace c£ 
aboot (btty miln &i»i Verer. and eighty or oiaety &aai CfaaaMwi. 
Thia wffi gire tbe readtr aoox idea of the acale «>d attar* df da 
waederAd nenery. We dined >t Irerdno (a prtltj ttnen), aa d« 
head of tbe hke, and patted on Co Nenfcbatd, atoag its cacfcMC^ 
■ad alawK BDrtrallcd bm dm, barns tbe kna anatferiag "BV trf'tbe 
Jwa oa oar left {from the top oTwhidi oL Pr^x, oa bim naK% 
from hia w Wi dwiMi roaad tbe world, fine greeted ibat ctHSiy, 
where * torrean of dtfiriK bad poured imo bia ban,* and, tadnd. we 
conld diitii^nilli tbe Srt A Jamamt right om Clartaa alnott At 
whole way), and on Oar ri^ waa the c^pGng Uu^ i» law cakinMd 
baoka on tbe other nde, then a brown rocky ridge of ■HaaNatD^ mi 
the calm golden peak* of the Miowy poMc* of tbe Siaiplan, i^ Gtctt 
St. Benutrd, md (u I wa* laia to bcBeve) <£ Mottteroao rin^ iaM 
tbe ereaing iky at intcfvah beyond. Meanwhife we rode oa tbiaa^ 
a coaniry abooadiag in raxau and lineyanbaod ctety kiad of coarfan, 
and deaerring tbe eoitbeta, '*crd ct tWK.' SoiBCtitncs n taB t«& 
rote by tbe road nde; or a niiaooa tarm or a wttt-OOMpacnd *Sb 
attracted oar attenti on, fieuichatel u larger aad aaadaom^ tlua 
396 





THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

I«erdun, and i« remarkable Tor a nuaibcr oC tliote »nte«I and 4]ii>et- 
looking babiudon*, where people teem xo have retired (in tbc ntidit 
of lociety } to tpead the mt of ibrir lire* in eaK «ad coiufon : thej 
are not for shew, nor are th«'ir vety uriking friMD ntuatioo ; thry are 
nnthct fashionable nor rornantic ; but tbe deccnc7 and tobcr oraa- 
menta of tbeir exterior ciidendy iadicate liretade enjoymein* aod 
Gultiraied laxte withio. This kind of retreat, where there ti nolhiag 
10 mrpritr, nMhtog to dugoR, nothing to draw the attention out of 
iuelf, uniting the adiuitagr* of tociety and aolhodc, of aimplicity and 
eleiEaocc, nod where the (niod can indnlge ia a *on of habiCDRi and 
tcli-cenired MlH&ctioi), It tbe ooly one vhich I ibould nerrr feel a 
wish to quit. Tbe gvlAa mram b, bdcedi an exact dt-Ktipt'too of the 
mode of life I should like "ji lead — of the tifU I should likt to write : 
but alu \ I am aliaid I shall never mcceed in either ob)cci of my 
ambition ! 

The next day being clovdy, we Ion ngbt entirely of the high«(t 
range of Alpine hills, and uw ihcm no more afterward*. The road 
lay for tome miie* through an ofXD and aooKwhat dreary country, ia 
which the only object* of curiotily were the uU peaa3Bt.i!itl* working 
in the Geldt, with their black gaoze head-dres»e% sticking out from 
ibetr matted hair like tbc wine* of a dra^DO-Sy. We, howcTcr, had 
the Lake of Bicnnc and I*Ic of St. Pierre !n ))ro*pcct before u*, which 
ire (o admirably detcrilxd by Rouateau, in hit * RcTeric* of a 
SoliUry Walker,' and to which he give* tbc preference over the 
Lake of Geoera. Tbc ejfrct ittxa the town n Bicnnc where we 
•topped lo dioe wa* not miKb i but in cfimbing to tbe top of a Mcep 
*aDdy lull beyond it, we *aw tbe whole to great adTantagc. Ereniii 
WW jntt dotii^ bi lod tbe (ky wa* cloudy, with a few red itreak* 
neat tbe horizon : the firtt range of Alp* only was discernible i the 
Lake wa* of a dull sombre lead colour, and tlie Ittc of St. Pierre 
was like a dark spot in it ; the hills on one tide of the Lake a«cend«d 
abrapt and gloomy s cxtcDSiTe IbreUs iwcpl in magnificent nuge* otcr 
tbc rich valley to our left ; town* were *cattertd below ni here and 
there, a* in a oup ; rocky fragment* hung orer our head*, with the 
•battered inuluofhage pioetreeit a mountain-torrent rwhed down 
tbe irregular chasm between us and the bow of tbe mooMain, that 
rose in mtity grandeur oo the oppocile (idc ; boi the wktoh wa* ia tbc 
ereatctt keeping, aod liewtd by the twilight of historic liadacape. 
Yet amktti all this solemnity aod graodeur, tbe eye tMUfaultj nvoud 
to one little dark speck, the Isle of St. Pierre ( wbere Rmmcm bad 
taken refuge for a few bumIi* fttatt bis Borrows and his eenecutioM) 
with a more inteoae interett tbm all the rett ; for the widest pnospecta 
an tririal to the deep reccne* of the hutiaan heart, and its anxious 

'97 



NOTES OF A JOrBHEY 



ravr Tbe cbNHk ef npom, Ml tfe cfeM cfai 
«cMed tm iMrnic s divHci *ir« of the i^id lka> ■ 

to , wbtie «r MOVfcd lor Ar ngte. Tke ■■■ 

nd Cfows), dMM|h MOM ■ nbsry heme «■ « ml 
fvry 0M4 OBC^ aBO tiic t lwi^x iiM SCI vitn innM 
i^^» lodwn, Md buikfaa, anoMBRl w oaly iwco fraaou Oi 
idiMe, the fcUBBwg HaiHib 1*T *r * ^c^ad ■WB -vaUef, -wkk t Ik 
MJ i dl y nnd ihiiwgh k, md fanto of fine ^M ocfacr ub^ taat 
&c n M^Udwc M ciAcr wle. The •» Iwl ^ riM^ wd ^ 
dio^ of nnadl kog ipn thr bnocbn. On thv oihv air at 
came ia» • man opn tmmaj, aad iIms anja ■■■« ndasBd ^i^ 
ariU aad mhw mm* of Uj^ focfc, ^Mt wiA^ by AbAvv 
cMH^e» iau le^e^ lau cMtb walk COMC dMfB *D tbr ^ rf 

fcidare aad die foliage or other na Ina h i hi aj ia tkv aaaeaia 
between dMB. Ti wihr liwaoiir nfrlir tinriTrr inrriaiwiir! I 
bc^ lo dmof dwM danife, lad wffl InaKB to dircad of B7 jMne> 
nadH^oalroa a fewdttaebad poion aad pbcn- 

Bmuu — ThB i* a rtattrkaUr bmc tmn t bai b Bea U j !■■! tlr 
COBiacBof the pictareMpe. We aoffed at the Three Ktapsai 
Wttt newa into a Hn^ oarrow reoni* ■hjcb did ooa wofuuv vail a 
fine ) bat the waiter threw up tbc n-nnjow ai the farth er «Bd« ad «■ 
aU at oaoe aaw the Ml breadth nf the RUae, raUing twfmOf faoaal 
it, dtei jnaring thrao^ tbc ardeaof aa naawn hndge. It as 
clear OMwali^ia, Md the «4fcet waa &BC aad oaenecMd. "IIk bmd 
■aaiflfwaHrndwd by with daaeraM aowd and atacelj impeiaeaiTi 
u if it were cartTnijt a ntnaigi' Bvai the auontaWM to cfav ooEtal 
The imi moraing we {Ww i e d thai it waa of a oiaddjr coloar. Vic 
tboogbt of puwag dowB it ai a Maall boat i bai the eo^ ^rfim «na » 
tow a* to make the wMare oacoaAwtaUe, or, if raiaed tuf her, thm 
WM a Atnfjn of it* beng oeerart bjr any taddea gaat of wiad, Wt 
iherctore wvm bf the DiEgcKC to Colnar aad S traafa ig. 1 
regretted afie tw at da that we did b« take the right hand tawl bf 
F ie yfao at g aad the Black Foreet — the wood*, hills and moulderi^ 
cattle* of which, a* fiu- a* I coald jodgt fran a diataacie^ atr the ma 
raoMBtic and boatifal poatiUc. The tower at Stnafaorg i» red, ad 
bai a fingalar a^aearaaoe. The f or ti ft nti oai here, ta time of oeate, 
have an effect like the atillset* of death. 

RjUTHtn-. — We cro«aed th« Rhine at Smibarg, and 
throagh Raitadt and Manheim to Mafcnoe. Wc Muyy ad tW int 
oift^ at the Ooldca Croa* at Raaiadt, ^nch it the VKtj ba« m 1 

198 




THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



WW 31 during tilt whole time 1 wu ibrcod. Aiaoaj^ other thbg«, 
we had cBifivni for lupper. which I foand on inquiry were wood- 

r'idf.ea, which arc much more highly e«t«cnied thtin the licld onrei. 
dclic.-itcly do they disiinguiah ia GermR&y ! Manhcim i> n 
splendid town, both from iu admtiablc building* and the glouy 
neatnci>B of the houK*. They arc coo line to live in, aod lecm only 
made to be looked at. Would thai one of the itrecti could be trt 
down in Water loo-piace ! Yci even Minhcim ii not ci^ual to the 
town* in Ittly. There the houte« arc pitlacr*. 

Mayence is a disagreeable town. We half missed the tcenciy 
between this and Coblenti, the only pan of the Rhine wonh se<d(ig. 
We saw it, however, by moonlight (which hung o»cr it like a tint 
ecil), with itE nodding toweri and diimant-liil fortrewm over our 
heads, the itcep woody banks on the opposite lidc, and the brood 
glittering surface of the Rhine, reflecting the white cloud* or dark sail 
gliding by. It was like a brilliant dream ; nor did the mellow 
winding notes of the horn, calling to the warders of the drawbridges 
as we paiaed along, lessen the effect. lihrcnbreitMein overlooks 
Coblcntz, and crowns it with magnificence and beauty. The DuJcv 
of WeUiagMD, 1 underitood, had been here, and being aaked by 
1 FrcBch officer, * If it could be rakcn ? ' answered, ■ Ye* ; in two 
ways, by hunger and gold.' Did the Duke of Wellington make 
this answer ! 1 cry you Enerey — it wras the [''rcochmao who gave the 
anawer : the Du i- said Botbins. 

Cologne is the birth-place of Rubena i and at one of the churchc*, 
there is a Crvtifixhn by him, which we did not aee, for it being the 
time of divine service, the back was turned to the apectaiori and only 
a cofij of it was exhibited. The road from Cologne to Neuss is the 
only really bad one we found on the Continent; it is a mere tand- 
bank, and not likely to be soon mended, from its ticinity to the 
Rhine. 

From NeuiB to Clc»e» we went in the Royal Prussian I>iligence, 
and from thence to Nimeguen, the lim town ia Holland. From a 
itnAtl tower here we had an admirable view of the country. It wat 
nearly a perfect dat all round, » far at the eye could reach i yet it 
vrai a rich and animated, as well as a novel scene. You saw a greater 
extent of surface than is possible in > hilly coimtry ; all within the 
circumforence of the horizon lay expoecd to the eye. It wat like 
seeing a section of the entire globe, or like 'striking flat its thick 
rotundity.* It was a fme dear aiiemoon, and in the midst of this 
unitbrmity of surface, ynu saw every other variety — rich meadows, 
with Hocks and herds feeding, hedge-rows, willowy banks, woodt, 
oom.6clds, road* winding along in dilfcrent dircctionsi canals, boata 

199 



NOTES OF A JOC&JfET 





nv iOt ''" vMC pfcupA 
tv Utnckt . 

itf thr nor objcciB, ad tk csttM at 

O f f n m i ** . . U yam mc muck m aace, ^wn objIs u W : 

rdicf : if yem tn atij deachcd ofaJKn, f«a — g fa i tti br i 

I Sew of then at > tioK. Wlui ri "tr - " o^- i ■!, ■ 

oTacile x oBoe! Any one t» ■■■■ b ^w gh , aad tbeotkoi h( 
Eke a dad-wngbt m lltc trsfola'* fwirty. Rc«Jm» t^n b ^w- 
lUng hnspA nd bcny ib the w yn of the tniiMij t ilw rye ■ 
doggM ■■<> iwywwii n iu pngrcM tntt it by onw and dytn, arf 
dw ounfay Banre of the mm dmnMid chi&i f- ^[i—iiMi Ttee 
iax Ekccxtm af coaatry m C a m e in FrMce; batfinm the peam 
neaibcr of wood* rad a nxn kxatiaat ttge Uti o M (IcariBg i^ iut 
orth icldoin vinble,} the vbofe kodi^^ aMiiM m me gloar. aad tb 
eje (court drligtitcii onr warii^ gtuvLi aid poiple dtacsBce*. TV 
towiu and rilbi is Holhod are iiBrmlled (or nraacte, and aa asvcs- 
anev of wealth aad coaifort. All the way froo Utrackt to AaM«£m, 
to the Ha^ue, to Rottenlafn, you might laacy yoanrif ob Cl^lan 
Cotmaon. The caail* are liacd with brat* aad c umm e r- homtti, «i[h 
orchard! and gardea* of the ntmaM beaary, aad ia exc^iau ^- ^r . 
The ncterior of their baildiagi ia aa clean a* the interiar of nm; 
that fMie-bame* look aa nice aad weD^vrdercd a* ovr prw w e •w n. 
If yoa are np bctintca ta a morniag, yon «e a tmxtt iia ^ h (tfat 
donntic Nrim,) with a tcathera fipc, like ikai atiadhed u a fire- 
cnpor, dreochJog the walla and armdow* wkh paU-fiilU of water. 
Willi all thit, ibey idTocate yoa with tobacco onoke in their Kage- 
ooacbca and canal-bau>, and you do oot Ne a tet of clean teeth btna 
one ead of Kulland to the otlier. Aauierdani did not oncwer oar 
expectatioiM ; it i« a kind of paltry, nibbiiUy Venice. The picteres 
r>f Rciiibrandi hrrc (»o«ne of whkh tarn little thKlc) arr ialerior to 
what wc hare in Englasd. I vat auwrd here that Rembramfa to 
the greaieit painter id thr world, aad at Antwerp ihu Ruben* waa. 
300 



THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 



I 



The inn at Anisteidam (thr Koasland) it oor of ibc bcu I have been 
at; and an inn i* no bad tciit of the civitiEftiion and dilTuMOn of 
comfort in a country. We uw a play at the thwtic here; ficd the 
action wa» exceedingly gracefii! and natural. The chimes ai Amster- 
dam, which play erery quarter of an hour, at fir«t Kerned gay and 
delightful, and in » day and a half became ledicut and intolerable. 
It wa» aa impcninent as if a icTTant could not come into the room to 
answer the i>ell withont dancing and jumping over the cbait* and 
table* every tin)e. A row of lime-trees grew and waved their 
brandies in the middle of the itrc« facing the hotel. The Dutch, 
who are not an idea! people, bcttow all their taste and fancy on 
practical things, and iniiead of creating the chimcriii of ixjctry, de«oie 
their lime and thoughti to rmbetliiihing the objects of ordiniiry and 
familial life. Ariosto said, it wai^ easier to build palaces with words, 
than common house* with »tones. The Hague in Hampton-Court 
turned into a larjie lown. There is an excellent collection of picture* 
here, with some of my old favourites brought back from the Louvre, 
by Rembrandt, Vandyke, Paul Potter, &c. liollaod is, perhaps, the 
only country which you gain nothing by leeinff. tt is exactly the 
lumc as ihc Dutch landscapes of it. I wa< ihewn the plain and 
village of Ryswick, close to the Hague. It struck me [ had seen 
something very like it before. It is the back-ground of Paul Potter's 
Ba/I, Froni the views and models of ChiDe»e scenery and butldingi 
preterrcd in the Museum here, it would seem thai Holland is the 
China of Europe, Delft i« a very model of eomfon and polished 
neatnesi. We met with a gentleman belonging to this place in the 
Ira^iichuyt, who, With other civilities, shewed us his bouse (a perfect 
picture in itt kind,) and invited us in to rest and refresh ounelves, 
while the other boat was getting ready. These things arc an CKten. 
sion of one's idea of humanity. It t4 plcaiutnt, and one of the tisev of 
travel, to lind large tract* of land cultivated, citick built and repaired, 
all the convenience* of life, men, women, and children laughing, 
talking, and happy, common sense imd good manners on the other 
nde of the Engfith channel. I would not wish to lower any ooe'i 
idea of England ; but let him enlarge hi> notioni of existence and 
enjoyment beyond it. He will not think the worse of bis own 
country, for thinking better of human nature 1 The inconvenience* 
of travelling by canal-boats in Holland is, that you make little way, 
and are farced to get out and have your luggage taken into another 
boat at every town you come to, which happens two or three times in 
the course of the aay. Let no one go to the Wasliington Arms at 
Roticrdam ; it ii only iii for American Ka>captains. Rotterdam it ■ 
handsome buuling town ; and on inquiring our way, we were accosted 

501 





NOTES OF A JOURNEY 



bjr a Dutch ictTaiit-^rl, who had lived in ao Hnglitfa family for > 
year, and who tpokc i^ngliih bcttcii aod vritfa lew of a foreign accent, 
than any Frtncb tromaa i eier heard, lliit coAvioced ia« that 
German ia not *o difficult td an Engtiibiuan a* French i for tht 
difficulty of acqtiiriiif; any fotcign langxugc mnit be muttiaJ lo thc' 
native* of each country. There wa« a iteam-boat here which act tail 
for London the next day ; but wc preferred pacing through Ghent, 
Lille, and Antwerp. 'I'hit Ian is a very dclighuul city, and the 
apit« of the cathedral exqulsiicly light, beautiful, and wetl-proporttooed. 
ludeed, the (iew of the whole city from the watei-aide is as cinenlar 
a« it u reBplcndent. We saw the Rubentc* in the peat chorch here. 
They were hung outiidc the choir ; and teen aguntt the huge whttr 
wallt, looked like piciuroi dangling In a broker'* *h>op foe aalc. They 
did ncn form a part of the building. The pctMn who thewed ns the 
Taking Down from tbe Cross, aaid, * It wai the finen picture in the 
world.' I said) 'One of the finc*t' — an answer with which he 
appeared by no mcaeu aadtlied. We returned by way of St. Oroett 
and Cilaii. 1 wiihed lo see Calaii once more, fot it waa here 1 
fir*t knded in France twenty yean ago. 

1 confcts London looked to me on my return like .i long, ■««£■ 
gting, dirty country-town ; nor do the name* of Liverpool, ManchenCTi 
Birmingham, Leedn, or Coi-entiy, sound like a irtunpet in the can* 
or inritc our pilgrim sieps like tliose of Sienna, of Cortooa. Pcrn^ 
Are;:EO, Piu and Feiraia. 1 am oot sorry, however, that I have 
{{Ot bock. There it an old nytng, /fomc u home, it it artiep to homdj. 
However delightful or striking the objcclE may be abroad, they do 
not take the name hold of you, nor can you identify yoiutclf with 
them as at home. Not only is the langvage an insuperable obstacle ; 
other things as well as men spenk a language new and urangc to yon. 
You live comparatircly in a dream, though a brilliant and a waking 
one. It ia in vain to urge that you learn the bnguage ; that yoo are 
familiarixed with manners and icenery. No other language can ever 
become our mother- toD)>ue. Wc may Icaro the vordi; but they do 
not convey the tame fcclingt, nor \» it powiblc tbcy *bould do to, 
aa\tf* wc could begin our fivct over again, and divide our coiMcioua 
being iolo two ditl'erent selres. Not only can wc not attach tbe nnse 
meaning to words, but we cannot tee objecu with the same eyea, oe 
fenn new loves and friendnliipi after a certain period of our Uvea. 
"Hie pktiiiea that mott deligbted me in Italy were ihoic I had before 
•ecn in the Louvre ' with eye* of youth.' 1 could revive ihii feeling 
of cnthuiiami, but not iranifcr it. Neither would 1 recommcod the 
going abroad when young, lo become a mongrel being, half French, 
half English. It !■ belter to be aonwthing than nothing. It is well 

jot 



THHOUGH FRANCE AND ITALY 

to ace foreign couDCriea to enlarge one'i Bpeculadre knowledge, and 
dispel false prejudicea and libeltous views of human nature ; but our 
alfectionB must settle at home. Besideg though a dream, it is a 
splendid one. It is fine to see the white Alps rise in the horizon of 
fancy at the distance of a thousand miles ; or the imagination may 
wing its thoughtfiil flight among the castellated ApennineB, roaming 
from city to city over cypress and olive grove, viewing the inhabitants 
as they crawl about mouldering palaces or temples, which no hand 
has touched for the la«t three hundred years, and see the genius of 
Italy brooding over the remains of virtue, glory and liberty, with 
Despair at the gates, an English Minister handing the keys to a 
foreign Despot, and stupid Members of Parliament wondering what 
is the matter .' 



The End. 



303 



n 



ii 



MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS ON 
THE FINE ARTS 



tot- IX. : V 



30s 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

or (kt tm»ji no tbt Fiw Art* whidi fbUo*. oock wen t n U c cm tar paUo- 
lloo in ToboM («nB by llMlin. Pntiddin a to their tame^ uriU be TmbJ » 
ihc kill of dtc H«wa tefoTiac la cKh Mnj. 

Is it}t the tfticlci da PonB^ MM Hr Fin jtrtt,* etatttbmtea to ibc mhiiiI 
tdition of tbt tncjclopaJa Bnunaio, liy B. R. Uifdoo, E»q., mil WiUiai 
HuUn, E^V "«*< Itruhlilkd to BdiabKih ^ Mown. AJ>m * Cbvlca SkA. 
te • foM tm. wolamc. Sec the •nkle in tbr (rmm votenM and aa(a thcnt*. 

In 1(43 ippomJ ■ (cap. >n. wlnot •( •CiitianN oa An t asit Sfctwbw d 
tbi Pktwf GiIlcTin c« Eniba>l, By ^lUiua HuUn. Witk CaUlo^iKt tt di 
Principd GaUcriM, mw im crtbcU*. Edind by kb Sbo,' lad fbliAri tf 
Joha TtoiploMa, 14!, Rcfcai Stmt. AStModSanMipporHUieyaf f6Ua«i% 
fblBhrJ by C. TcapkBUB, 6 Glut PMikod SmM, L»>4 na . Tbrae •mi 
ccoUM lh( ttayt friattrt in tbt pnatot volmv, toftthe <riUi oUten os Afl 
•kkh IN t* be faw>4 Id TtHi Ttti, »• itM/ r«Ui, Tit fUm .^mIw nJ 
«>—« E. etf (far pmcM MilUa, when iht SdMwji Crwnv trtirhw <•■ k 
fanad. T^ t3to ceoiua iws f pBtttim sC cMik(De« of pkuun n ik laha 
(dkiin, comrdid bj Huldt'i bo, lad do( bcrt RpiaHd. la llM ftdniliwii 
to ibcM ToluBc* Mr. W. Huliu (the (moikI} umc* I *I have cat^ndy eamae' 
•U ibc nfcKBcit tfl the fkism dotrjfaEd^ aecordlBi la the Utcat ■iraBfcatBi ■< 
«Kb pitiolw pIlBT I wd I Ian bm wd tho* lOMnd M ■f|ti>d ■■ jHmii 
tjvt «r wtw rth t MM, vfacR Mcb Kcnad t* be nqand m t« • anttet <rf bo.' 
ta the prewat cdiliea the Kiaja we giivn u H*slltt fuhUihed ihcn, uil m te 
ordrr «4 llsir Gnt foblkation. 

A •>(«« tdiiiaa' U 'boijn m iIm Fa< Am by WDlian Huditt,' 
pahlkhad la oaa (otamc bj Mcmt*. Ree«« Ic Tma m 1873, edlttil br Mi.' 
W. Cbcw Httlitt. 




CONTENTS 













HGS 




The Catalogue Raiionoe of the British Iiutinition 






■ lt> 


Weif » nctutt of Death on the Pale Horse 






■ 1"« 


On Williams's Views in Greece 






■ J"4 


On the Elgin Matbin 








J>«S 


Fonthill Abbey 










iA» 


Judg^g of Pictures 










JS* 


The Vatican 










159 


English Students at Rome 










1S7 


Fine Ans . 










177 


James Bany 










4-11 


Originality 










4"J 


The Ideal . 










419 


Royal Academy . 










414 



J07 



1 



! : 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



ON HAYDON'S SOLOMON 

The Tenth Exhibition of the Society of Pitintert in Oil and 
Water Colouta opened on Monday Int. The productions of G!o*e(, 
Crittall, Dc Wint, .^c. principally till and adorn the Water Colour 
Department. — Among the oil pictures in the room, the princip! strc, 
The Juil^mtni a/ So/omm, by Mr. Haydon, and Ihn Qulxolr rtcrixms 
Mambrino'i Helmrl from Saiuho, by Mr. Kichter. 'I he rormei it a 
work that evidently claims a place in the higher dep*rtment of »rt \ 
and we are little disposed to reject that claim. It certainly shcw« a 
bold and aspiring mind; in many parts (that which we hold above 
all other thingt to bectsential to the painter) an eye for the piciureiquc 
both in form and colout ; considrntble Taricty of cxprcwioD, attitude 
and character, and great vigour and rapidity of execution throughout. 
It would, at the aamc time, be in vain to deny, that the lucccts \» not 
always in propoition to the effort made ; that the conception of 
character is toroetinws erroneous ; that the dctire to avoid iDU))idity 
and monotony has occaiionally led to extravaj;ance and diitortion ; 
that there are great ineijualiiici io the Ktyle, and lumc inconiintencie* 
in the corapotitian g and that, however (triking and admirable many 
of the parts arc, there is a want of union and complete harmony 
between thent. What was said of the diyrcta membra pont is cot 
inapplicable to this picture. It exhibits fine studies and oiiginal 
fragments of a great work — it has niany powerful ntarta of genius^ 
without conveying thai impieuion of uniform consiitcncy and combined 
effect, which it lomctimn attained by the lyncmatic mechanitm of 
well -disciplined duUneM, and at other* i* the immediate craaDaiion 
of genius. 

That which strikes ilic eye most on entering the room, and on 
which it dwells with the grcaictc admiration afierwatds, are the 
figures of the two Jewish Doctors on the left of Solomon. We 
do cot recollect any figures in modern pictures which have a more 

$09 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

(trilung dTect. We ay (hi*, not only with tnpcct to the solid nun 
oS colour which tbey project on ih« eye. the datk draperies contiMlMC 
fiady irith the palenew of the cooucoaDcri. but also with respect to 
the lorcc, truth, ncid drunatic oppoeitioo of cKanuter ditpliyed b 
ilieiD. The (tct o( the one it turned in isxioiu expeciiuion tovardi 
the principal aciora in the *oene; the other, looking downwatdi, 
appear* loH in iDward mcditatioa upon it. The odc u e^jcdj 
wstcbbg hr the caia«ropbc, — the Mber •eentH endearouring le 
anddpote it. Too much praiae ctHtM be gmn to the cooceptiea 
of the figure of Sotomoa, which is raiatd above the rcct at tie 
picture, and placed in the centre — the face fronting, and tookiiij 
down, the action bnlaneed and nitpended, and the face intended n 
combine the dilTemt characteri of youth, bexuty, and witdoa. 
Such is eridenily the conception oS the paioler, which we tinai 
equally uriking and juM i but we are by no mcao* satisfied that k 
has mcceeded in embadyiDg this idea, except aa far as relate* to the 
design. The cxpccSMon of the cowueaance of the yotithfiil jnd^^ 
which oBght to convey the feeltng of calm penetration, we thiat, 
dcgCDcrBtet into npercilious iodiflWence t the action givea to At 
imaelta m mch at to d«itroy the beauty of the features, withoa 
giring force to the character, and mftead of the najesty of conacioH 
power and intellect, there is an appearance of languid iuleciMaa, 
which seem* to shrink with repugnance from the difficulties wUil 
it hai to encounter. The colouring of the head is unexcrptioBiilc. 
In the face of the good mother, the uttist but, in our ofMoo, 
luccecded in onrcommg that which hai been always cosaideNred S 
the greairU diiBculiy of the art — the union of beauty with ttnn 
cxpresiion. The whole face exhibit* the internal working* Of 
mateival lore and fear; but its deaih-like palcneaa and aeony do 
MX deatroy the original character of fenuDior beauty Mad delicacy. 
The attitude of thii ligurc a decidedly bad, and oot of nsnire ai 
well as decomro. It i« one of ihowc sprawling, extraTagani, tbeatiictt 
French fijtnrei, in which a common action b strained to the extreniiy 
of caricature. The action and expreanon of the execntiooer we 
liable to the tame objection. He i« torbvlent and fierce, ioatc«d cf 
being cold and obdurate. He thould not bhiuer in the part heroic- 
ally like an laor — it ia hi* office. — On the whole, we think te 
picture decidedly niperior to anv of thi* AttiM** former pct>dtKtiaoi^ 
and a proof not only of genius, out of intpcoved taste and judgomL 
Ib spesking of it with freedom, we trust we shall beat aerre both him 
and the an. 



Sto 



THE CATALOGUE RAISONN^ 



THE CATALOGUE RAISONN6 OF THE 
BRITISH INSTITUTION 

Wk will Uy odds thnt thii it j fellow 'damned id a fair face)* 
with white cyr> and cyc-browE ; of the colour of a Shtcwubuiy cake; 
a miooth lallow-tkinncd meal, a white German lauugc, a wvlUfcd 

chillerling, from whose face Mudamc de wouM have tiuQcd 

away in diBgiuii — a transcendental aiu^ed man I We have no 
patieoc« that the Axta ahould be catechised by a piece of whit- 
IcAther, a whey-face, who thtokii that picture*, like the moonr 
(houM be made of grecn-cheenc ! Shal! a toll of doultle tripe rice 
up in judgment on ^racc; ahall a piece of dough talk of feeling? 
*Ti« too much. 'Sdeath, for Rcmbrandi to be dcmaoded of a 
cheeae-curd, what replication should he make? What might 
Vandyke anawet to a jttck -pudding, whoae Angers are of a thickneta 
at both eDds i What ahould Kubena »ay, who ' lived in the rainbow, 
and played i' th' plighted cloudi,' to a awaddlinfi-cloul. a piece of 
lUickinci, of fleecy hoiiety, to u squab man, without a bcnu in hi* 
body ! What might Raphael answer to a joini-iiool ! Or Nicholas 
Fousuo, chaigcd in ^c pteaencc of his Ctfiba/ut itad Aurora with 
being a mere pedant, wilhoul grtcc or feeling, to ihia round-about 
machine of formal tmpertiDeDCc, this lumbering go-cart of dutneat 
and apitc \ We could hive wiahcd that aa the feUow atood before 
the portrait of Rembrandt, chattering like an ape, making mock* 
and raowa at il, the picture had lifted up it* great grimy fist, and 
knocked htm down. 

The Caialtgue Rauinni of the British Intlituiion !• only trorth 
notice, aa it i> ptetiy well understood to be a declaration of the 
view* of the Royat Academy. It \» a very dull, gro(», impudent 
attack by one of ita load-<atcri on human genius, on permancDt 
reputation, and on libera) an. What does it say? Why, in to 
many words, that the knowledge of Art in this country is inconiiaient 
with the existence of the Academy, and that their success ai a body 
of men iniiiiuted for promotinj; and encouraging the Fine Arts, 
rc<iaireii the destructinn or concealment of all worki of Art of great 
and acknowledged excellence. In thia they rnay be right; but we 
did not think they would have come forward to say so themselves. 
Or that they would get a fellow, a low bulToon, a wretched Merry 
Andrew, a practical St. Gilen's joker, a diity Gruh-Sireet critic, to 
rent his abominations on the thef-d'amrti produced by the greatest 
painters that hare gone before them, to paw them over with hit 
blcarcd.cycs, to smear the (ilih and ordure of hi* tongue upon rhem, 

Sit 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

lo tpit « ihcm, to potiu at ihctn, to nkkiunw tbem, to hoot u thtm, 
to ottkc iiMMMiu M ilicm, to ihrng op hU (booldrrB anl nm avsj 
from tban in the tntoKK of tbcM divine gnota, like a bbckguud 
who aficcu to nau > baj[b«ir of evrry one he roeet* in the nrcct ; 
to fiMj OTcr igain the iummmu trick* of one of Swift's Yabocs— 
ana for what? Arowcclly for the ptupoae of dircrting the publiE 
miod Fram the contcmpbaon of all that genius and art can booM b 
the Up«c of ages >i>d to pcTiudc the world ikai ih«re u ooihiag b 
An that hao been or cm will be prodnocd wonh lookiae at bvt tbr 
silt fraom and red curtaiiM at tbr Lichibition of liir Koyal Acadrrajp I 
We kacw bdbrc that they had do jirest geniut for tbe Aita ; but « 
tboujibt thtj might have vocne lore of them ia tbcu- heart*. The* 
hefe aTow tbeir rankliog jealmuy, hatred and tcocOy of all Art and 
of all the great name* in Art, aod at a bold pm indeed, re<|iurc the 
keeping down of the public tute a« tbe only racaaa of keepbig ^ 
the b«£ble of their reputation. They 'aua» that ihinr only hope of 
COBtioued eocouragenem and wmori mh a i&aminj putSe U ia 
hood-wiakiog that pub&Ci in ooeuiin;; th«ir lughcst rtotiooa of An 
to their own groaa and niperficial atyle of daubing, aod in vtlifyiag all 
worka of Mandatd oeniua.— Thi* i» r^t En^i^. The IHngliih arc 
a ■bo|>-keeping aatios, and tbe Royal Academy are a society of 
hnclcRct) in the Fine Am, who are more tcnacion* of tbeir profru ai 
diapnicn and dcalcf i. than of the boooor of the Art. The day afiH 
the Ctlattgw Raitemif wat jMbliabtd, the Prince Kegeat, in Uk 
name and oa behalf of liii r'atheit ahoukl haTe directed it to be 
burned by tbe hands of the hangman of their CoRimitteci or, i^oa 
refusal, have ahitt up their ahop. A Kciety for tbe cacouragerocM 
and promottoo of Art hat no right tu exiit at all, from tbe raoomn 
that R profeiaei to exitt only in wrong of Art, by the guppmsion of 
the knomedp of An, in contempt of grniun in Art, in deliaan 
of all manly and liberal feotinient in Art. But ihia it what the 
Koyal Academy profcate* to do ia tbe Caulagof Rauonai. 

The Academy, from its commeaccmcot and up to th« ptcscjit boor, 
is in fact, a mercantile body, like aay other nieicaatilc fwdy, cno- 
ailting cbiefly of maoidactiirer* of portrait*, wbu ba>e got a regular 
monopoly of thit branch of trade, with a certain rank, atyle, and title 
of their own, that it, with ihc King'i pririlcge to be thougbt Artiaii 
and men of genius,— and who, with the jealousy natural to such bodies, 
■upponod by authority from without, aod by cabal within, think tbem' 
•eliT* bound to cruih all generous viewi and liberal principlea of An, 
Icit they should interfere with their monopoly and their priTilege tu 
be thought Artists and men of genius. The Academy t* the Royal 
road to Art. The whole xtyle of English An, as iisuing (torn thi« 



THE CATALOGUE RAISONN^ 

Academy, i« foundnl on a principle of appral to tlic pcrsorul Tioiiy 
sod ignoriDcc of their sittcii, uud of accoiuModaiioiD to the luciative 
purauiti of the Painter, in a iweeping attention to effect in puctinjti 
by which meani he can cover to rainy mote whole or half Icngibt io 
each teaaon. The Artist* have not time to linisb their pictiiKi, oi 
if they had, the effect would be lost in the iiupcrfici.il gUrc of that 
hot room, where nothing hut rouged cheeks, Daked shoulder*, and 
Ackcrmann'ft dresses for May, can catch the eye in the crowd add 
bustle and rapid aucceeuon of meretricious aitructiuiis, as they do io 
another hot room of tlic same eijuiiocal description. Yet they 
complaiit In one pan of the Catalogue, that ' they (the Acadcmiciaiu) 
are forced to come into a haaly competition every year with worki 
that have stood the test of ages.' It is for that very reason, among 
others, that it was proper lo exhibit the works at the British 
Institution, to show to the public, and by that means to make the 
Academicians feel, that the securing the applause of posterity and a 
real rank in the Art, which that alone can give, depended on the 
number of pictures they finished, and nt)i on the number they began. 
It is thii which excites the apprehensions oF the cabal ; for if the 
eye of the public should be once spoiled by the Old Masters, the 
necessity of doing something like them might considerably baulk 
the rcf;ularity of theti returns. Wliy sliould they complain of being 
forced into this premuiure competition ? Who forces ibem to bring 
forw.ird »o many pictures yearly before they arc lit to be seen J 
Would tiicy have taken more paim, more time lo linisb them, to 
work them up to th.tt lantidious standard of perfection, on which they 
have set thcii minds, if ihcy had not been hurried into this un&ir 
competition with the British Institution, 'sent to their account with 
all their imperfections on their heads, unhouscled, onanointod, 
unanealed ! ' Would they have done a single stroke more to 4ny 
one picture, if tlie Institution bad nei-cr been opened? No such 
thing. It is not then true, that this new and aJarmiDg compelition 
prcvcoti them from finishing their works, but it prevents them from 
imposing them on the ]>ubiic as ftniihi-d. /'n^o i" fltrnkalfiii, t* not 
their n)otto. Tiicre are three things which constitute the art of 
paiming, which make it interesting to the public, which give '«. 
permanence and rank among the clTorto of human genius. They are, 
lint, guito Of expreaiioo : i.r. the conveying to the eye the im- 
prcisions of the soul, or the other iCDtea connected with the sense 
of sight, such as the different paailans visible in the countenance, the 
romantic interest connected with scenes of nature, the character and 
firelings associated with different objects. In this, the highest and 
lirst part of art, the Italtin painters, particularly Raphael, Corteggio, 

315 



ESSAYS ON THE FIVE ASTS 




Aaitmj b sec the pUce fix dw 
ftntm of nak and opdcne r , wlw mfa b» han 
ochiUted, do mm wiib to bt ccWwrf « ebJK«» of 
n txtnot^aan phmo iueii a b m or aaBBc^ in tfcr s^ s 
nMUeOBil wonl ( aad in tlm thvy an ti^tt. Niukar d* «r 
wnh to wJiMiirrr liiar own ye i w^ wUcfc ^"T fcaii ■ to 
i mw B ti!, tboo^ there it acAtag at aO at lltaiii, a* *^'iF^ * 
(be {MDHT n czCTciK Iw Mi oyoo, » ffiwgtj w£ EyfaK mA^A 
M mEKly objccu of iigh(, b wwJia i y c MMM aod «nc(k «c^ 
from the outward accideiaa of Bitiuv. Thsy da oos Bm- b bv 
that tnamph with nanre ; to imk tfwir pmoaa in • htr glona* Bft-' 
Tfaev owe no allnpaooe u the tte i ueui* . Tbef wiak ta k ma^ 
M Mr. and Mn. Snrh jmne, ooc a* noln of Bjgfcr and 
VitB BO be rcptoutcd as complete ah M iOLnL i utto nf 
fnfuift to hKvc one Moe m tiie ace aecs w oiadk 
Mve tbw cootf VMMcott and fafMisneia tneir 
Mttba^ lod Kttee*, tbeir dog* aad bonN, tbcv 
p aMitfed t to have t fwinmim and an tint oeJoBi 
DOtflSBe eue pBW^L 1 iw pccture la UDde tBF 
dx iJk pictun. Hence tbere oa be notfaniig b«t tbe 
ind locctianic^, in {rofroriooal An. PrafaMaaal An la 
tion in tcnna. Art h gtaiat, aad gtoiai obboc b tium oa m 
Ow Paaoten' t[alletin iie aet *Td*T*i bn bimn^jim «J 
Wodd a ^"'^'^ **^ * **>' ***'> ^ ^ laiand (rhwifc yns) 
a viev t0 tti enect id the j o tlioe^ oc ^ Ml J he soc hsev ^ v 
all eveota and aa mnA a* poMUeJ Tbe Caaloftt Wnttr i 
the grwlumtn linen of the Ropl Acadm}- u p aad b 
Renibnadt'a ponniBs and to «ik iheBMeltc*» i£eir «n«, 
d8acham,«b>dMrd»]r«airid Oe n> be pnted in tte ^w 
Vo, tnlf • TUa, «c lonftw, ■ bard im oar rtniaa, an 
look apoB iplendoar aad o« ebanriqr «D aocv 
daft not ctca attentpt Co ■■■■' j** t co tee 
tne re^nmxiua ov tajte aad fnffOM oc anfixatt■^ aa 
aad whiu pane oo the bcea aad aecka a£ their [■iiiiiiie^ Cgg 
aad aiU *to Im / Jaw* mt wm apoa / ■»!/, EKr ti 
ibr adage.* Ba wfcy tJiea coaifhai ^ the imjtrf thry 
bf the i w Mw n a a of Aff (tf it woe po^ib) taas «ic 
waraabtp of uaiaie aod feaiaav wncn * tewicc iv^m io^ ^ 
fix lat I il ' Sir Jodwa oiade a tluft to i ■ i i iHifr tume of 
an wkb faaa pwiiaiia, oaly hj geanig the tnrt at 
aad by banag d>e lead ai bit anfaaoat m thai 
painten be coaU aBcn the i adapaadace of baa 
jadgMM. The audwa aiAin « 
316 




•9k 
s a 

k n 






THE CATALOGUE BAISONNfi 

him tod hit ciiatv tt*r» iaio the tludc prcfcotlv. The cridc prafeMM 
to admire Sir Joihui, cboogh all hit «xccllvflciet are CiMhic, palpably 
borraw«d from tbc Old Maacen. B«t be ii wrong <m incoiMMtcnt 
in eYeiything. — The imitation of the detail* o^ natnre ii not coid- 
[Wtiblc with the profesdoDal anticc of the poim^ r, as the two former 
Mteniialt of the art are inconntnnit with the vaDity and ignorance of 
his employers. 'Thi*, thit n the unkiodest blow of all.' It i* tlurt 
ia which the understanding of the multiiudc it most likely to cooipire 
with the pabter's'own gaiucd knowlcdj^ ' to make htm dti»atiibed 
with hit dupropoitioned prolits or under the lou of them. The Dutch 
ma*teri arc tnitructiTe enough to thi> way, and ihcw the value of detail 
by shewing the value of An where there is nixhing else but this. But 
this is not .ill. It might be pretended by OOT wholeule manufacturers 
of ehff-d'avvrti in the Fine Arts, thai so much nicety of cxeculioD 
ia uaelcss or improper b works of high gatto and grand effect. It 
happens unfortuoaiely. however, that tlie worki of the x^atest gusto 
ana niott pictuieMue eifect have this fidelity of imitation often in 
the highest degree (as to Raphael, TttJao, and Rembrandt), generally 
in a Terv high degree {at in Ruben* and Paul Veronese), so that 
the modcmt gain nothing by this pretext. This is a serious Iom of 
time or rcpntation to them. To paint a h»nd like Vandyke would 
cost them as moch lime at a dozen halT'lcogtlis ; and they could cot 
do it after all. To point an eye like Tilian would cost them their 
whole year's labom, and they would to«e Oicir time and their labour 
into the bsrgatn. Or to lake Claude's landscape* as an example in 
this respect, at they are in alnaoct all other*. If Tomer, whom, 
with the Catalogue- writer, we allow, rooM heartily allow, lo be the 
grcatcit Undscape-paioter of the age, were to liniih hit trees or hia 
plants in the (brcgtound, or bis distance*, or his middle dimincca, or 
his iky, or his water, or his buildings, at any thing in his psclvrea, in 
like manner, be could only paint and sell one landscape where be 
now paints and sellt twenty. This it a clear los> to the artitt 
of pound), shillinfis, and pence, and ' that 's a leeling diaputatioit.' 
He would have to put twenty time* a* much of every thing ioio a 
picture a* he now ha*, and that it what (if he is like other persoot 
who have got inio bad habtu) he would be Deithcr ^e nor willing 
lo do. It was a common cant a short time a^o to pretend of him 
as it formerly was of Wilton, that he had other ihioj^s which Claude 
had not, and that what Claude had beudes, only impaired the 
grandeur of his piaures. The public have seen to the conirary. 
Tbey nee the quackery of painting tree* blue and jrellow, to produce 
the etfcci of green at a distance. They see the affectation of 
des|Hting the mechanism of the Art, and aercT ibinklng about any 

$'7 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

thing but the mechanicm. They «cc that it U nix true is Art, 
■ pan it greater thui the trholc, oi that the meicui are dcttnictive 
tbc end. They *ce that ■ daub, howwcr maucrly, c4iuiot vie with 
the pcrfrct liodKapes of the aU-accompliifaed CUudc. ' To gome 
men tlieir Rnctt Krre them but a» eoemie* ' i and it wan bd till the 
other diy with Claude. If it bad been only for openin;; the ryet 
of the public od thia anbjcct, the Innitutioa would bafc dcterted well 
of the art and their coaatrf . 



WEST'S PICTURE OF DEATH ON THE PALE 
HORSE 

Mr. West*! name atiodt deMTvtdly high in the aanala of an n 
thia couotf y- -tuo hi^h for him to condeicetid to be hit owa pulfer, 
eren at lecoiul'hsiid. He oocnes forward, in the jifcieitt iaitancc, a> 
the pnnter and the fhowmao of the piece ; u the candidate fiir pulilic 
applauaet and the judge who awarda himself the price ; at the idol on 
the alur, and the pricK who offer* up the jratenil incente of i>rai»e. 
He places liimselt, a« it were, before hia own pefformancc, with a 
CMaltgue Rmiwitu in his hand, and> before tbc spectator ean form 
a judjoUBt on the worit ittelf, dazzle* hiiu wiUi aa account of the 
prodigic* of art which are there conceired and executed. Tbtt ic 
not quite fair. It i* a proceeding which, though * it leti on a quait' 
tity of barren ipcciaior* to admirt, cannot but nuke the judiciou* 
griov.' Mr. Wen, by ihua talcing to himadf unlimited credit iai 
the ' high endeavour and the glad succesi,' by proclaimiag aload thai 
be haa atraed at the highe»t aublimitic» of hia an, and at loudly, with 
a UDgular mixture of pompotity and phlegm, t)ut be has fully accom- 
plished ail that hit most aideol liopea had anticipaicd, — muti, we 
ihould think, obtain a g:cat deal of Bpuriouii, catchpenny reputation, 
and loac a great deal of thai genuine tribute of approbation to which 
he is otherwise entitled, by luming the attention of the well-informed 
and unprejudiced pan of the oonunnnity from his real and tiodoubccd 
mcrita to hii gruimdleM and exaggerated pretensions. Stlf-fraiit, it 
is said, it w traite g but it is worse tlian this. It cither abows greal 
weakneM and vanity for an nnist to talk (oi to get another to talk) 
of his own work, whicii was produced jreslerday, and may be forgotten 
to-Riotrow, with the same lofty, emphatic, solemn tone, as if it were 
already stamped with ihc Toice of ages, and had bnxHne sacred to tbe 
imsgiaatioD of the beholder ; or else the doing so it a deliberate 
■Mint to encroach on the right of private judgment and public 




WEST'S PICTURE OF DEATH 

opinioD, which cliote who ire not iu dopes wiU tncDt accontiagly, 
and endeavour tu repel by acta of pr(s»ution or hottiUty. An 
uDSuccesst'ul tSoit to cxioit iidniuabon i* rare to iaTohre it> own 
punishment. 

We should not h^vc mode tbctc remarks, if the ' Dctcriptioa of the 
Picture of Death ' had been a solitary instuce of the kind ; but it is 
ODC of a scri«s of descriptioDs of the same sort — it it a pan of a 
■ystcm of selfaduIatioD which cannot be too much diacourtged. 
Perhaps Mr. West may say. that the Uesciiptii-e Catalogue ii not ^; 
that he has oothing tu do with it« composition or absurdiiic*. But it 
mutt be written with his conscrit and approbation ; and this U a 
■toctioa which it ought not to receive. Wc presume the ariiot would 
have it in his option to put a negative on any undue censure or 
flagrant abuse of his picture; it must be equally in his power, and it 
is cijually iDcumbcni upon him, to reject, with dignified iiiodenty, the 
gross and palpable (latteries which it cont^iiia, direct or by implic;itian. 

The first notice wc received of this picture was by an advertise. 
ment in a morning paper, (the editor ol which is not apt to haxard 
extraTBgani opinions without a prompter,) purporting that, 'in con- 
sequence of the Presidcnt't) having devoted a year and a half to its 
completion, and of its having for its subject the Terriile SMmi, it 
would place Great Dritain in the same coiupicuous relation to the 
rest of Europe in arts, that the battle of Waterloo bud done in arm* ! ' 
We shall not stay to decide between the battle and the picture ; but 
the writer follows up the tame idea of the Terriile SMau in the 
Catalogue, the first paragraph of which is conodved in the following 
termt ; — 

' The general effect proposed to be excited by this picture it the 
terrible sublime, and its various modifications, until lost in theopponte 
extremes of piiy and horror, a ccmimcni which painting has so seldom 
attempted to awaken, that a particular description of the subject will 
prolxibly be acceptable to the public.' 

'So shall my anticipation prei-cnt your discovery.* Mr. West 
here, like Bayes in the ' Rehearsal,* iniiaaaiti the plat very pro- 
foundly. He has, it seems, opened a new walk in art with sti 
alternate ramificationB into the oppointc regions of horror and ptty, 
and kindly takes the reader by the hand, to show him how tnum- 
phantly he has arrived at the end of his journey. 

* In poetry,' continues the writer, ' the tame effect is produced by 
a few abrupt and rapid gleams of description, touching, as it were, 
with fire, the features and edges of a general mass of awful obscurity ; 
but in painting, such bdistinctness would be a defect, and imply, that 
the artKi wanted the power to pouruay the coDceptions of his fancy. 

3'9 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



'»m 



Mr. Wnt WM tt BfJM'M am u ddtontt > pbywol Ibrm, wUdi ib 

■B nonl iaiprcMM vsdd ifffoXBHte la ikK of Ifae vMioBvy Dodi 

of HaMB, i« nw wwwy ta —lif it, if yoiAle, with tte ifpcar- 

■Kc ef i^ MhiMM B «mgil> and ncrgf . H« lu«> daerHMv. cxencd 

tfae nB»« iocce ttd | w in«fkj of Im pacfl os ifce cntnl figur.' 

Thia h 'ipokca with mihontj, lai mx u tfcr tczibn.* Pvtm, 

scamuog to tne aoMKn btfc un io wc gd ol tf* ravcibva it cmufe* 

D^^ ncm, wluLU kivo ncrcly toe rioi mio ovOvm ot tstivB w a 

V11W wtd nmJn n ^ bm co MM cd aoa uBuitcct ttoBDcf* wr^^ ^gnitfll 

tril wbetlier dn ■eennt will be tammiinii m maitftnorf, "Bm 

Mr. WcK. or hk eoBBcaator, •benid trad cantioMly «t d^ 

gnmi. He nnf othcrwne coaiina IubmI^ bm oaly b « cen- 

M ci io n Willi the epic port* buc vitb tbt i iwy i rxt vnccr, wbo ooiy 

laH «*r^. It will Wdlr be coowodcd, for iattaoce, thxt 

accoant of Death on the Pale Hone in the book of Reidac 

nefrr [irodDCcd tci doe cSea of the Itrntif nMme, cUl (be defincac 

of [be peo were applied by ibe pencil. Neitber <to we scr how 

endowing » phyticaJ form with cuperhumia arengih, hu anr i 

cooaectioa with the msrai anfrtiiioH ^ iht vimaary Dtatt af i 

There leeTiu to be here *o»e radical miNake is Mr. WeM'i 

Tbe moral attribBia of death ^e powen and effect* of at) 

wide and general dcKriptioa, which do iodividiul or phTUcd iarm < 

MMMjr repreKM^ b« Vf oonrteay of (pcccfa or by a duant analog. ' 

Tbe nsnu Imfttmitam of Death ia eMcntially ttMotury ; it* reality ii 

in tbe mind'a eye. Word« are here tbe only tbingr; and tUog 

pliyuc^ fotim, tbe mere mockerit* of the uaderetaiidiDg. Tbe I 

dennite the conception, tbe Icta bodOy. tbe more rait, ntformcd, , 

onaabatantial, the Dearer doe« it anpcoach lo tome retenMance oft 

omnpreMnt, iarting, BniTcral, irresiuiUe principle, which en 

wberei and at aome time or otheir cxerti iti power over all thinga.- 

Dcatb i* a mighty >b*tracii«n, like Night, or Space, or Time. He it 

an ugly cuatomcT, who will not be inviiod to B>P|>er, or to fit lor hi* 

picture. He i* with m and aboBi im, but we do not aec him. He 

(talk* 00 before ut. and we do oot mind him i he rollowa ui behind, 

and we do not took back 4t him. Wc do not fee him making &cci 

at u> in our liletiroe ! we do not feel him iicklbj[ our bare rib* aftcf- 

wud*, nor look at him through the emnty gratit^ of our hollow eyct! 

Doca Mr. Wett really mippote that be hat pst tbe rcr^ imajce of 

Death upoo hit cidtm ; thai he baa taken the fear of him out uf ont 

beana : that be has circumtcribed hit power with a pur of contpiaiaett 

tlut he hiU meuured tbe lengtb of his arm with a two-foot rule ; that 

be haa (upended tbe (troke of his dart with a itrohe of hi* pcad!; 

that he ha* laid hii band* on the untrertal principle of dcMnMliaBi 

3" 




WEST'S PICTURE OF DEATH 



and hemmed him in wiih line* and lineamenU, aod nvgde a gaiing- 
atockand a show of him, 'under tiic paironfigc of the Ptinn Rcgut' 
(aa that tllusirioiu person hits taken, and confirtod, and made a (faow 
of another enrmy of tht human rat*) — so (hat the work of decay snil 
di&eolutian a no longer goinf; on in nature i that all we hate heard or 
felt of death it but a fable compared wttli thi> diitioct, Itting, and 
watrantcd likcnet* of him ? Oh no ! There t> no power in the 
pencil actually to embody an abitiaction, to impounii the imagina- 
tion, to circumrent the powers of the loul, which hold commuoioo 
with ihc unirerse. The pointer cannot make the gcncril particulafi 
the inlinite and imaginary defined and palpable, that which it only 
believed and dreadcdi an object of iight. 

»Ai Mr. Went appears to have wrong notions of the power* of hii 
art, (to he leemi not to put in practice all that it it capable of. The 
only way in which the painter of genius can reprc»cni the force of 
moral truth, is by tranElaiing it into an attiiicial language of his own, 
—by substituting hieroglyphics for word", and presenting the closest 
and most striking allinicics his fancy and observation can tuggeat 
between the geiieioJ idea and the visible illustration of it. Here we 
think Mr. West ha* failed. The artist has rcpreaenicd Death riding 
over hit prostrate victims in all the rage of impotent despair. He ia 
in a great splutter, and seems making a last elfori to frighten hit foe* 
by an explosion of red-hot thundfrbulls, and a pompous diiptay of 
his allegorical parapharnalia. He has not the calni, ttill, majestic 
form of Death, killing by a look, — withering by a touch. Hi* 
presence does not make the still air cold. His flesh is not stony of 
cadaverous, but is cnisted over with » yellow glutinous paste, as il it 
bad been baked in a pye. Milton makes De-aih *grin horrible a 
ghastly smile,* with an evident allusion to the common Death's head ; 
but in the piaure he seems grinning for a wager, with a full row of 
loose rotten teeth ; and hin terrible form is covered with a long black 
drapery, which would cut a figure in an undertaker's shop, and which 
cuts a ligurc where it is (for it is finely pninted), but which serves 
only as a disguise for the King of Terrors. We have no idea of such 
a swagjtering and blustering Death as this of Mr. West's. He has 
not invoked a ;;haslly t|>ectrc from the totnb, but has called up an old 
squalid ruffian from a night cellar, and crowned him 'monarch of the 
universal world.* The horse on which he rides it not ' pale,' but 
white. There is no guitn, no imagination in Mr. West's colouring. 
As to his figure, the description gives an accurate idea of it enough. 
' Hia horse rushes forward with the universal wildnes* of a lem- 
penuout element, breathing livid pestilence, and rearing and trampling 
with the vehemence of unbridled fury.' The style of the figure 

311 



t'oi. II, ; X 



ESSAYS ON THE PINE ARTS 

correcpond* to tbc nyl* of th« dctcripiion. It U OTcr4aadcd M 
top-hnvy. The chcsi of the ADimil is a great deal too long fa 
the lcg». 

I'tue uaiuwi hu m*(k ameoiU for tliit tptuhiog li;;afv of Uw Pik 
Hone, bjr Uiow of tbe Wlute jumI Red Hoc»c. Thcj ve Ift* i 
ooiLgie of ruckbg-bonM, and fta a* tity. Mr. West's noiiaH 
egodKD obirudc* it>clf sguo uAcniifel^r io ■peaking of tbc Rida ■ 
the Wbite Hone. < i\j he u xappoced,' sayi the Catalogoe, *■ 
rcpmcnt Uie Gofpc), it was reqasite that he should be tnrcHed «b 
ihotc exterior iodicMions of purity, excdlcDcc, and dignitVi yto* 
are associated in oui miMl* with the name aad oAc«s of the Httitt 
B«H it was Dot THs S4vio(iK liealtog xod CDtnforting the afflicted, • 
the meek mmI towly Jisi*t, beaiinji with resigiuijon the teats si 

hatred of the Koffii^ maltiiude, thut wni to be tcprcseotnl i H «a 

the King of King* going forth, conquering xnd to conc^ucr. He b 
tierrfort piinied with a totcmn coimtciuncc, cxprcMire of a dwl 
filled with the thought* of a great entrrpriae; and be adtncn 
OBward is hi* nbUmc ciner with thn tcTet>e M.-tJL-sty,* &C. No* 
du* ii nrriy ui wmrranabk waunptioa of public opicioB is i 
matter of taMe. Chriit ti no*, repreicntcd b this picture u bevM* 
Mr. Wcu'h two former picture* ; but io all threie he etvc« mb u 
naderHand that he hu rcHecMd the tnte couDteoance and fins 
character of the ^tcsuab. Muham allmSi imngo. Xbc Cfarixi '■ 
each picture bitre a different character indeed, but they only vtmm 
A vnricty of meanoets and intipidity. But the unwary spectator, ib 
looks at the catalogue to know what be is to think of the picture, Md 
reads all theae thtrr/wti of nUi^uty, ttrtmtj, purity^ Stc. conahn 
tbeia as lo many infallible infetvncei and demoanrauao* of ^ 
painter's iViU. 

^fr. Welt has been tolerably succeMiul in the delineabon of ^ 
neutral character of the < Man o«i the BUck Horse ; * bat • the t*n 
wretched cmadaied tigurcs' »f a man and woman before him, 
■abmrhed in the tccliogs of their own pailicvlar tniaery,' are not 
likely to excite any sympslhy in the beholders. They exhibit tfe 
lowcit stage of mental and phytacai imbecility, that could never by 
any postilnlity come to any good. In the doraestic groupc in the 
ibrenound, ' the painter has aitenipteii to excite the strooMM iitmt 
of pity which his subject admiucd, and to oontraat the aurroendat 
objects with images ottendcmcM and bciuty ; ' aDd it is here that br 
has piincipally failed. The Dying Mother appears to have been la 
her lifetime a plaster-cast from the antique, stained with % little paildt 
and yellow, to imitate the life. The ' Lovely Infant ' that >• nUnc 
from her breait, is a hideous little creature, with gUzed eyes/iiij 

311 



WEST'S PICTURE OF DEATH 

livid upect, borrowed from the inluit who i* falling ont o^ hit 
mothcT'i lap ofer the bridge, in Hogarth'i Prioi of Gin-Laoe. The 
HustMTid'ii features, who in plxced in m pAthdic an attiimlc, are cut 
out of the harden wood, and of (he deepest dye ; and (he surriviag 
Uiugliicr, who i« fttatevi 'to be icntiblc only (o the \om $hc bat nu- 
lained by tlie death of la kjiid a patent,' i» neither better nor wone 
than the iiftureB we meet with in the elejiant frontiipiecc* to hinorr- 
bookt, ut family sturiet, intended ai Chrinitui pre«cn» to gnod titlle 
boys and girli. The fomhoricning of the lower cxircmities both 
of the Mother and Child, i« wretchedly ddectlTC, cither la drawing 
and colouring. 

Id dctcribing * the anarchy of the combati of meo wjili beast*,' 
Mr. Weat kin attained that «ort of excellence which alwayi arim 
froai a knowledge of the rulea of coroposttion. Hi* lion, however, 
look* at if his l^ce and velvet paw* were covered with calf* itkio, or 
leather gloves pulled carefully over them. So Utile it the appcaranc* 
of hair given ! The youth in this group, whom Mr. West celcbratea 
fer his muscular manly courage, has a nne rutuc look of health and 
itren^ih about him; but wc think the othei figure, with scowling 
swarthy tace, striking at an animal, Ja superior in force of character 
and cxprcsiion. In the back figure of the man holding his hand to 
his head, (with no tery dignilicd action), the artist bat well imitated 
the bad colouring, and itilf inanimate drawing of Pouutn. The 
remaining iigurci arc not of much importance, or arc Mriking only 
from (heir defecu. ^tr. West, however, omitt no opportunity of 
diKrectly sounding his own pr.iine. ' The story of this group,' it i* 
said, ■ would have been incomplete, had the lions ml been tbown 
conquerot* to s certain extent, by the two wounded men,' &c. Aj 
it )«, it it perfect ! Admirable critic ! Again we ace told, * The 
pyramidal form of thii Urge division is ptrfeeted by a furious bull,' &c. 
Nay, indeed, thr form of the pyramid i* even prc»erved in the title- 
page of the catalogue. The prettiest incident in the picture is the 
dore lamentiQg over its mate, just killed bv (he serpent. We do not 
deny Mr. West the praise of invcotion. Upon the whole, we chink 
this the b«t coloured and most picturesque of all Mr. Wcst'n pniduc- 
tioni; and in all that rcUtet to composition, and tlic introduction of 
the adjunct* of hiRioiical design, it thows, like hia other works the 
hand of a master. In the same room it the picture of Christ Rejected. 
Alas! how changed, and in how short a time! The colours are 
(carcely dry, and it already looks dingy. Hat, and laded. 



3'3 



ON WILLIAMS'S VIEWS yS GREECE 

tlui never an, but watt and art to be ; tboo that the en ten oot, tun 
that livxR for c*cr in tbc bean ; thon wbom toco believe and know 
to be, fer tbou dwelint in the <lc*iK« and longing*, and hunger of the 
niad ; tbo« that art a G«dd««t, titd wc thj worahippen, say don ihou 
BM wnilc for tier 00 thii land of Cmc«t and abed thy p«rple light orer 
tt, md btend thy cbmcMt hliBdiahinCRta with its magic aamc i Bat 
bere (in the Coltoo CoBTening Room, b Waterloo place, do«e nidcr 
the Mchrilk mooaiiKtit — ■trange contradtciioo ! ) another Green 
growl 00 the waJI»— other akic* arc to be Kcn, ancient tcmpln rke, 
asd modem Grecian ladte* walk. Here lowct* Mount Olympot, 
wbcre God« once ut — tliat Ji the top of a hill in Arcadn — (who 
*0«td think that the eyei would ever bebotd a form to eiuooary, that 
tbey would errr tee an image of that, which tcttaa only a ddkioua 
Taniabed aonnd f) chit U Corinth — that it the Partbenoo— ibcte 
Maad* Tbebet in Borotia — that it the Plain of Platza, — yonder it the 
city of Syracute, and the Temple of Minena Snniat, and there the 
tcilc of the gatdens of Alcinouf. 

' Clow (D (he gair 1 ipaciaui f;ardcn liei. 
From tlnrmi defended, and inclcmrnt iJuei| 
Tall thriving nrti conttsi the fruitful nwukt, 
Th« reddening apple riiiens here to gold. 
Here the blue lig with liacious juice o'tiAnn, 
Wiih deCjKr redlhe full pomrgranatt flowti 
The branrh heit bend* beneath the wo^ty peat. 
And verdant olivet AoiicUh round th« year. 
The balmy ipiril of ihc wertem gale 
Ettrna! breathei on fruiti, untaught lo fiili 
The omc mild leauin givn thr blooms to blow. 
The biidn to hanlEii, ami the fruit (o $'ow.' 

This h Pupe't deKciptton of them in the Odytiey, which (we 
muK lay) it rcry bad, and if Mr. WilJiami had not given u* a more 
ditticct idea of the placet he profettca to dctcribc, wc thould not bare 
gone out of our way to notice titeni. At wotka of art, theae water- 
colour drawioga deterre wry high ptaite. The drawing a correct 
and characteristic: th« colouring cbatte, rich, and peculiar; the 
Gninhiag generally careful ; and the (election of pointi of view itiiking 
and picturevqoe. We have at nnce an imprettive and latiiJactory 
idea of the country of which we have heard to much ; and wtib to 
visit placet which, it teem* from thii rcprctcnution of them, would 
not bcly »ll that wc have heard. Some (plenciic travellert have pre- 
tended that Attica was dry, dat, and b^ree. But it it not to in 
Mr. Willi^mt't autheoiic draught* ; and we thank him for rettoring 
to ut our old, and, at it appears, true illunion— for crowning that 







MhVMyk,- 

It b cndcm to tay o«e wfce newa tfane idaMinlile 
Aatifiitr laxf, k m adkmmitigiA by cmt m^m» tbo 
dnnlie a( all UM nwh odM h u B p liiu] ! vfaich they bue ben Mfk 
or MTC fami ttacUag oaen for half a ccmbtt) ikat the dwf 
CT cdIoc * of the igam de^cndi on then faaviqi baai copied htm 
mnmt, tad mx from iia^ Q Mi oc. Tbc fow i mBnirik w of art vili 
MUn ii bwc rrnywheic J rowdiWff, cfltire, pdpdik. TV utie 
|itn UvKlf no &«tidioiu ain of Mptriority onr what be teat. He 

J«6 



ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 



hut Dot arrived at that itagc of hit projtTcn described at much length 
in Sir Joehua Keynoidi'i Diivourset, in which hariajt >erTe<l ow 
hu apprcBticethip to nainr«, he con vet up for himKlf in oppontioa to 
her. According to the old Greek form of drawiog up the iodentmie* 
in thi* cue, wc ajiprehcnd ihcy u-cre (o Uii for life. At leaat, we 
can compare ihoc Marble* to ooihing but human 6gvtt* pclrilied : 
they have eivry appearance of absoluic ^;-/Mnut/ or catta talcco ftom 
aaiore. The detailt aie tho»e of uture ; the nUMca arc tho»e of 
nauitc ; ihr fornw are froni naiure t the action t» from nature ; (he 
whole i> from oattuc. Let toy one, for instance, look at the leg of 
the iliiKut or Kirer'God, which u bent under him — let him obtcrre 
the awcU and undulation of the calf, the iolcr-tcxturc of the cnDicle*, 
the ditiinction and union of all the paru, arid the ctfect of action 
ercry where imprcsacd on ihc externa! form, a» if the »ery marble were 
a Hexible substance, and cootaiocd the various aprings of life and 
motion within ttaelf, and he will own iltai art and natiue are here the 
nme thing. It ii the tume in ihc back of the Theseu*, in the thig,tu 
and koee«, and in all that reinnini unimpaired of tbeie two ooUe 
ligures. It i> not the lume in the cant (which wm ahown at Lord 
Elgin 'i) of the iiimou* Torto by Michael Aogclo, ihc »tyle of which 
that artid ajipcara to have imitated too well. There every maacle 
hM eMoONy the greatest piomincnce and force given to it of which 
it it cspaUe ia itaelf, not of which it ia capubic in connexion with 
oibers. Thia fragmctit ti an accnmaUtioa of mighty parts, wiihoot 
that play »d re-action i>f each part upon the rest, without that 
'alternate miction and repcue' which Sir Thomas Lawrence speak* of 
ai characteristic of the ThcMus and the Ilinus, and which are at 
inaeparable from nature at wave* from the tiea. The katned, 
however, here make a dininction, and fuppo*e that the truth of nnmre 
is, in the Elgin Marbici, combined with ideal formii. If by uttal 
firtat they mcao fine natural fornu, we have nothing to object ; but if 
they mean that tlie aculptora of the Theteua and llissus g,Ot the forms 
out of their own heads, and then tacked the uuth of nature to ibem, 
we can only wv, * Let them look again, let them look again.' We 
consider the Elgin Marbtci as a demoniiraiion of the impoasibiility of 
(cparating ut Irom nature without a proportioniibic lorn at every 
remove. The otter nbaencc nf all MtDcM of appearance prove* that 
they were done aa (tudiea from actual modelt. The teparaic parts of 
the human body may be ;;ivcn from scientitic knowledge: — their 
modilicaiioni or inflections can only be learnt by jeeinjj them in action ; 
and the truth of nature is iocompatiblc with ideal form, if the latter 
ii meant to exclude actually existing form. The mutual action of 
the pan* ca&DOt be determined where the object iticlf U not reen. 

3*7 



ESSAYS UN THE FINE AKTS 



Th«tke&»<tfd 




■Mk fcMwMjp «f A* art and of U« ^150. 




wmM M« km pOMCwd ill ibe I . " ' ' 

J oaly, ihs ifcc foraa woe la Ac fir» i 
«y»of tiWfi, wJ ^ 
FincdKlarin^M 
of the body ■uyU kawe ben fund m tkr catts fix- tbcy wobU tafc 
bcB* faaad B HraRc. TW tad ad tr^, nd «i^ aad ^i. ad 
lljlhi »Bttld here faen there^ br dne mc |Bns if the 1 
wcfl KwBgbody.Md ■otiwuwi— af tte imi, or 1 
bonvanl froB tbc fkin. TVra wohU hM* hm the 1 
thcUciof the Tbnnui ttw vne wd a j-y itmiIii of the «a 
oa«4kicb he Inai; the uive dniMM of dK ks n^ ckIT ;nd 1^4 

iiMMXiikBgdmaaHaftlw bodtf. The ii|iper |Mfl of Uke ana «ndd 
bate been tUeker tfam tbe lower, the th%h« brger th«a thr kgi^ tk 

bodjr largtr tbu tbc th^ba, ia a am taken &«■> 1 iw 1 nmov ; W 

bcatataltn inn ibe finat natsre tbcy woaU bm beea ao in tlv 
iMWrjropon i oB, (mid, aad nuaBcr, ■§ in tbc (atac of the Tbcwss u 
ibc lltncMaanwntoibri^of ib« fiatai BKon; Ibr the kl«a ■»! 
the reatky nmt be the same t oalir, we coatend that the idea u ffc'-" 
nron tbe tnSttff m atc an 01 cxntn^ vj iCaeUf cf being ihc creature w 
haej. That U, there woold be tbc nne ptodeat of proponioM 
and parta in a caM taken fram finely derclofted naiare, «uch aa thr 
GreA tcdpton had cocutaatly before tbeni, naktd aad in nctioti, thai 
we find bi the limba and aiaasn of boKt flcah, and louaclc, in iho« 
ORich »d jfutly adnuml teindaa. 

Again, and jnconteiubly, there would have been, bcaidc* the 
(raadev of form, aD the mma^ ind iodiTidu^ detaiU ja the can 
tha* (ofanK la natarc) and that find do ^ce in the theory of idea/ an 
— ^ tbe omiuioo of which, indeed, k* rery graodcur ia made to 
cannai. The Elgin Marble* gire a flat cowradi cii o n to thia gratidtoui 
arpiraiioa of gr^enr of detign and exacatat «f detail, u incaiD' 
padbJo in lawk* of an, and we cOMetvc that, with their whole 
ponderoua we^ht to cnuh it, it will be diCcvU to aet thia theory on 
ita leg* again. In thcae majcauc coioMal l>g«mt nothing ia omitted. 




ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 

nothing t« mwJe out by negation. The vein*, the wimkles in llir 
•kin, the iniiictiiianit of the mutcic* undci the «kin (whicb appear as 
plainly to (he anntomin a* the expert angler konws from »n undula- 
don on the surface of the water what (iih is plaviog with hit kiit 
bcne:ith it)|the(ingcr'joiDts, theoaiUiCvcry the*ai3lle«(pancogniiahlc 
to iho naked eye, is j;i«-en here with the same c*»c and rK^cincH, 
with the wme prominence, and the woie mburdination, that it wodd 
be in .1 cast from nature, i.t., in nature itself. ThercTore, bo far thnc 
thing;, t;is., nature, a caw from it, and the Elgin Marbiei, are the 
tame ; and all three arc opposed to the fashionable and fastidiunt 
hcory of the iilfitl. Look at Sir Joshoa'B picture of Puck, one of 

'lis fines [-coloured, and niosi spirited perfonnances. The finger* are 
mere ipuJs, and ue doubt whether any aac cat) make out wbcihcr 
there arc four toes or five allowed to each of the feet. If there had 
been a young Silcnui among the Elgin Marble*, we don't know that 
ID tome particulars it would have surpnuKij Sir Joshua's masterly 
sketch, but we are aure that the extreniitict, the nails, &c. would 
have been studies of natural history. The life, the spirit, the character 
of the grotesque and imaginary little being would not have made an 
abortion of any part of hit notiu'al growth or form. 

Farther, in a cant from nature there would be, as a nuuer of 

Lcpurse, the same play and Hcxihility of limb and muscle, or, as Sir 
Thomas Lawrence expresses il, the same* alternate action and repose,' 
that we find to admirably ditplayed in the Elgin Marblci. It seems 
here as tf stone could move: where one muscle i" strained, another !s 
relaxed, where one pan is raised, another sinks in, jusi as in the 
ocean, where the wares ate lifted up in one place, they sink pro- 
_ ortionaily low in the next : and all this modulation and alTcciion ol 
the different parts of the form by others arise from an attentive and 
co-iiutantancous observation of the pans of a liexible body, where the 
muscles and bones act upon, and communicate with, one another like 
the ropes and pullica in a machine, and where the action or position 
given to a particular limb or membiaDc naturally extends to the whole 
body. This harmony, this combination of motion, this unity of spirit 
diffused through the wondrous mass and every part of it, is the giory 
of the Elgin Marblci;— put a well-formed human body in the wmc 
poticion, and it will diiplay the name character thruu]{h°"t ; niakc a 
cast from it while in that position and action, and we shall still see 
the pamc bold, free, and comprehensive truth of dcngn. There is no 
alliteration or antithesis in the style of the Elgin Marbles, no setnew, 
squaieness, affectation, or formality of appearance. The different 
muscles do not present a «ucce»«ion of tumulit each heaving with big 
throH to rival the other. If one is raised, the other falls quietly ioio 

3*9 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE A&TS 



inpbce. rriiilm ilii ilii iKlSiiB ibiii nf ilii 1i Ij !■!■ 
Mtfer, like AwMwkaofi aa m tKatef^ am at ifcv 

of s bviUbi^ Tb« «i%*or iota aoi praccd •■ 
I pfmcnan. nn ^nvK. nt ne pwebo^iu uv T^rietTr ami 

There b no ptiwac or fnk m^itwT'ti^ m » vnc of tbe lanr 
wn^BM, vban At trax waned to ibiaii dtK inlt wm gUat or aocK 
oAer brinb wb«aM> i nd tl« if it mrfv oudf iu exact •bapc 
ii trooid fanak in pieon. Htra, « d» coMrarr, if tbe fiaot of oat 
Vj IS bflH wwlCT tw booTf tac lc£ rtMo QMC^oo jHB ctUjjc Anci^ 

tioa. IfcBCNcIeef tbebodj bniMd aboTC ibeotlier, tJKangtn4 
or liMtrac^ or iJtat brm of tbe two «da ■■ aot jvcmttoI nnci aad 
mf i oMDi e ^ DBC Tanes aa tc oitctwMvj muvt do is tivoiufBuiy u> tar 
law 0^ gravitatiai^ to arfakb all bodic* uc nbjcct. In thii rnpectr i 
ca« fntn aanit vobU be ibc nina. Mr. Chantrry odw made a 
CB« EroiB WUmo the Black. He pot hiat inio an attttudt at fim, 
aod nade tbe cait, bat doi bkiaj ibe cSect wbea docci got bim to « 
■ijliB and nude vm of tbe plaHter of Pvii ooce more. He waa 
■Blirfed viiii tbe re«nh; hot Wilno, wlw waa tired whfa going 
throagh ibe onendoa, a* tooo a* it <»• tntt, went and leaned upon a 
Uock of mante with hi* hand* corcring bb £Me. Tbe iMaciou 
acolptor wu to iitvck with (he luperiority of tUt nanral amndc oaa 
Aott iaio wUcb be had beM aibonuilj jnt that be begged hiat (if 
poHiUi) toeaMJMeio it for another pouter of n bovr, and aaoihct 
M Mfr awi on wm taken off. All tbiee caaU remain, and tbe last ii a 
ftoofof tbe nperioritjp of noisrc orcr tn. Tbe effect of laaMOafe k 
riaiUe in ererjt |iart of the frame, ind tbe Rrai^ feeliog of tbii 
affection, ia^ireaied oo cTcry limb and muKlc, and Tentsog itaelf 
iMtvally in an inTokiiufy uutudc which gave tnimediKe relief, » 
ihM winch ftrikc* every one who hat aeco ibia fine arady iroai the 
life. 1*bG caaia from thia man's figare bare been macfa adnmcd : — it 
ia from mt mpei ioriiy of form : it a merely that, being taken froin 
naure, they bear bcr * tmajit and npenciiption.' I 

Aa to exprenion, tbe Elgin burble* (at lean the lliaatf and ' 
Tbettnt) afford no examples, the head* being gone. 

Laitly, a* 10 the i^fru/ font), w« contend ti is nothing but a adectiaB 
of fine nainre, mch m n waa accn by the ancient Greek actilptoni 
and we tay that a mlScicnt approxinutioo to tfat* form may be found 
in oar own counttyt and itiU more tn other couatriea, at thia day, to 
warrant the clear coacluaion that, under more lavourable citam- 
Maacea of climate, mstmeri, &c. no rain inclination of tbe hnona 
mind cnuM come up to entire natural formi i and that actual cani 



ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 

from Gcrck roo<icli would rii-al ifae comrooa Greek itiitun, at 
murput Uvcm in the tame pro[xiruot) and mvincr at the Elj^in Mublei 
do. Or it ihti coaclu«ion ihould be doubted, wc are ready M «^ 
lime to ptoduoc BE lean one catrc from lifiag luture, which it it doc* 
not fumith peacUcal nroof of all lliat wc have here advaacedt we Ut 
willing to foffeil the iMt tiling we can atford to pait with — > theory I 

If then the Elgin Marblei tue to be considered xb autltority in 
subject* of art, wc conceive the following principle*, which have not 
hitherto been gcrcnily receired or acted upon in Gn-at Britaioi will 
be found to result from them : — 

I. That an ia (lirat and laM) the imitation of nature. 

I, That the hif^hcst art ia the imitation of the fine«i nature, thai ii 
to My, of that which convey* the ttron|;eat KOte of plcaiute or 
power, of the lubiimc or beautiful. 

3. That the iJiii/ in only the selecting a particular form whtcli 
cxpTcstc" moKi completely the idea of a givco chafscler or quality, a* 
of beauty, strength, activity, voluptuousness, ftc. and which preserves 
that character with the ^^rcatest coniintcncy throughout. 

4. That the futtarual is nature 10 action. Witli regard to the fac«, 
it is expretnon. 

;. That gruidcur consi*t* in connecting a tnimber of part* into a 
whole, axiA not in leaving out the part*. 

6. That as grandeur is the prioctple of ooanrxioa betwvn differeBt 
pans, beauty is the principle of aHinity between different forms, or 
rather gradual conversian into each other. The one harmonize*, the 
other aggrandiiea our itnpreasions of thbg*. 

7. That pace is the heautilul or haimonioun tn what relate* to 
position or motion. 

B. That gT'-indeur of motion i* unity of motion. 

9. That etreogthiithc giving the extrefnes,softncss, the unitiDgthcm. 

10. 'i'hat trutli is to a cctiain (tcf.rec beauty and grandeur, since all 
diings arc connected, and all thin^nt modify oue anoUier in nature. 
Simplicity i* alto grand and beautiful for the same reason. Elegance 
is ease and lightness, with prccition. 

All this wc have, wc believe. Mid before ; wc shall proceed 10 such 
proof* or explanations as we arc able to give of it in another article. 

At the conclurioo of a fbnner viide oa this subject, we ventured 
to lay down some general principle*, which we shall here proceed to 
elucidate in such manner as wc arc able. 

t. The ^rst was, that art it {Jirit and latl) lit tnaiation rfnatim. 

By nature, we mean actually cxistini; nature, or some one objea to 
be found in r/rvn lutiunt, not ao idea of nature existing Miety in the 

331 



i 




ID tb 



, dw Beniane c/ Bj a^n or d 
gcMfal ides, nan 6cc &«■> 



■f o^KS via cowcy dc 

flV dcfccu nan sbt tv 

tfaica br pcateodbj 

TiK wonl Rn,far ! — ■ rr , €M Q»« yi i «eR 

,__ , Amneud, mi (aceanfioe » ^m farpotlMw) 

of tkciredn. dtai KidiMl Aagda'- Adw. oc aiy nd 

■ iiuwitli do. If iltM dwa a t^ am cbjecz of vt, tbc 

flar'Jadna wd t&c rm coMhI. tfcK HB»t («r(fcri7 ipexkiBg] d^ 
KK cxpvcH as; «iKfe iodmdnl, Mr the nol* skaw of tkiagi m 
thcj rxiH, fast s pOBil priac^k, > jumcU^ rw^mm m al) tfaoet 
lilMiiat Ike p iJmi dB^ dw ■>, all in which thn_ xrr aSke, ami 
iimedag dw ddeetiw aaMly, aO is vhich they £aa : m that, oat 
ofactul uore. we c owpowd *a anaSdal MorciDCTCf- aaaweriagn 
the bmer in any ooe pan of iu mock-CUMMOcx, ad whtdi liM a 
the irac obieci of bnitaiioB to die attifi^ aniK. L«t ■• adopt dn> 
priacble gf abatractiaa aa (he rale ot feMtioB, and aev what bam 
K will laalu- in aD oar nottoM aad boaip ia aiich naacn. If the 
fnfia m ihr MMnaMGob', why not c oB feoail aO objrcta, aO fbmu, all 
CotlMn «l oac«? lancad of paaaiag a fandacapc with blue eky. or 
whit* ckiada, or gma canh, or gt«y rodu aad toweri ; what kboold 
we ay if the ^trttit (toiuiaed) were to treat all time 'fair varietica* 
a* w masy tmpnfectxMM aad miMakt* ill tbt creatJot>, and mast tbeoi 

a* 



ON THE ELGIN MARRF^ES 

aUu^tfcher, by mixing up the colours on hit fttktte in lli« kuuc dull, 
IcadcD tone, ind cill thit the true principle of e]MC tandicape-puntiitg? 
Woald not the tiling be abominable, an abortion, and wxirir than the 
vont Dutch picture? V.uicty then i» one principle, ooc bcmtj in 
I external DaturC) and not m\ cvrrUsiing loutcc of pettinesi and 
de(<>niiity, whicli must be got rid of at all events, before taste cao Mt 
it* tea) upon the work, or fancy ova it. 13ut it may be taJJ, it it 
di^enl in tbing( of the tame speciei, and particularly in man, who 
i* ca*t in a regular roovld, which niould i> one. What then, ate wc, 
on t2ii> pretext, to confound the diiference of kx in a «ort of hernia- 
phrodilc (oftneas, as Mi. Westall, Angelica Knutfman, and others, 
have done in their elfeminate performances ? Arc we to leave out of 
tlie scale of legitimate art, the extremes of infancy and old igv, ai not 
mitiJ/e itrms in man's life? Arc wc to strike off from tlic list of 
available topics and sources of iniereat, the vuricticn of character, of 
pauion, of strength, activity, &c.? \t everything to wear the name 
form, the same colour, the lamc unmeaning face i Are wr only to 
repeat the same average idea of perfection, that is, our own want of 
otMcrvatton and imagination, for ever, 4nd to melt down the 
inequalities and excrescences of individual nature in the monotony of 
abstraction i Oh no 1 As well might we prefer the cloud to the 
rainbow ; the dead corpse to the living moving body ! So Sir Jochua 
debated upon Rubens's landscapes, aod has a whole chapter to inquire 
whether accidenli in nature, that is, rainbow*, moonlight, sun-sets, 
clouds and storms, are the proper thing in the clauical style of art. 
Again, it is urged that this ia not what ii meant, v'n. to exclude 
dinercnt classes or chuactert of ihingn, but that there is in each class 
or character a midiSt fmni, which is the point of perfection. What 
middle point i Or how is it ascertained ? Wlut is the middle age 
of childhood? Or are all children to be alike, dark or fair? Some 
of Titian*! children have black !uir, and oihcrs yellow or auburn : 
who can tell which ia the most beautiful ? May nut a. St. John be 
older than an infant Christ ? Mu*t not a Magdalen he different from 
a Madonna, a Diana from a Venus ? Or may not a Venus have more 
or less gravity, a Diana more or less sweetness ? What ibca becomes 
of the abstract idea in any of these cases? It varies as it does in 
nature ; that is, there is indeed a general principle or character to be 
adhered to, but modiiied everlastingly by various other given or 
nameless circumstances. The highest art, like nature, is a living 
spring of unconstrained excellence, and does not produce a continued 
repetition of itself, like plaster-cants Irom the same figure. But once 
more it may be insisted, thai in what relates to mere form or organic 
siniaure, there is necessarily a middle line or central point, anything 

33S 



ESSAYS ON' THE FDS 






rflTin ijOi^i 
Mfaocflfs wlr>e» v ike ■iad af 
vUch UHK ■oriu « bcr aaea actd. Kd 
«4 tMHti*«KlB«tkif*crankai(fe«eaA via &?. 
A voIgmo it aor* pi»n> w nad ra^i sMier A^ ^k ■ 
i|iliJih£ pnca. Tiw tanrdmm «f < 
«Mc frigbtfoUf , or hopv tW back* of i 
tltfo* tlwr adet iaio w * rin n liiKi Bore 
«di^d/ of art. For ihcrc b ia i 

bnt (■! to iprak) gnauf knowledge Md aH^flf fvf^K. An' 
cew f i Mi Tdy wok ud nco^vow, faoag ar ■■(« a cuiKn mi 
ui it MMl t of Utyrr. We pmi tint ■ tottnUc «kru:)i «f Jkitfav** 
•eM« Mtd tkr edjointag «inv, it better tbas PiimnMr HiQ itad^ (de« 
PrinroH Hill '. ba ! fanhlew Des, ciiu> tfaoa G)r^ iti wtodi^ ilopn. 
•ad nUe7« fftt*, to which all ScothiMl can bamg ao perellcl 1) hm 
Ml wnril rinrrinifnnnnr rlinrflrPrinimw'HiHfnarfi fT ia ri n r i i aiiwi 
Hill I ) inco a tUag of equal cbaraoer and ^ Ba aty wiifa Ardia** 
•tat. It gm* D* MOM pua to make iiu> coa c rau oa t boi ia dobng it, 
we flatter onrtdf e* tkat ao Scctchnu will have tka Gbenltty in aaf 
wajr to rciura ua the eooqtliaicat. Wc do aot raeoBeci a more ofti^ 
tlhutiUMBofUwdiflereace between an and aatatt is lUa reapact,tkaB 
Mr. Mantn'a rery Mnj^nlar aad, ia wae tlungt, wktj rac thmi am 
ptcturci. But he HriTci to outdo natarc He wutit to pre more tiua 
■he doct, or than hit nd>ject rcqntree or admit*. He Rub-di*idca kit 
groupi into ialiiiiie linleno*, and exaggcrat«i hU )ocncr7 imo abeolice 
imnienMy. Hit figvrc* are like row* ofthiny piiu; hit movataiaa ate 

B'led ii|) one upon tlir back of the other. Eke the tunes of homei. 
e ha* no notioo of tlie moral principle in ill art, that a ran oaf be 
greater than the wlwilc. He reckons that if one ran^ of lofty tquaie 
hill* it good, another range above that with cloodi betwwn niu«t be 
lieiter. He thu* wearic* the imaginaiion, ioAead of exciting it. We 
•ce no end of the joomey, and turn back in ditguai. We arc tired of 
ilir elTon, wc tre tired of the aiaootony of thu ton of redupUcatioa of 
ika taaic obiect. We w*k MtttGed bedbre ; but it •ecmn the painter 
waa Dot, aad we natarally tynpthiae with hini. Tbi* craving after 
quantity b a morbid af&ction. A landscape it not an architectural 
536 



< 




ON TH£ ELGIN MAHULES 



dcWiiLuin. You may build a house u high u fos caa lift up »iAne« 
with ])u!]rya ind Icvtn, but you canaot raise mouoiaiat into die iky 
merely with the pencil. They Io«r probability and effect l>y nriviag 
at too much ; nnd, with their ceawleis tliroet, o|>pccM the ini3j;inalm 
of the ijicctator, and bury the 4itiit't func under them. The ooJjf 
error of Uioc pictUTcc in, however, thai art here puts on her tcicn-leaguc 
boots, and chink* it pombic to itc.il a march upon naiurr. Mr. Nfartaa 
might make Atthur*s Scat Kublime, if be chotc to take the thing 
as it is; but he would be for Mjuaring it according to the mould in 
his own ima^jinatioo, and for clapping anothet Anhur's Seat on the 
top of it, to make the Calton Hill staie I Again, with tetpeet to 
the human ligure. Thia has an internal structure, muscles, bocKSt 
blood-icstclri, &c by means of which the external surface it 
operated upon according to certain laws. Docs the artin, with all 
his gcncrnlizalions, understand these, an well ag nature does ! Caa he 
picdict, with all his learning, that il' a certain muscle is drawn up in 
a pMiticulir manner, it will prcicni a particular appeaiance in a 
diiTerent part of the arm or leg, ur bring out Other musclei, which 
were before hid, with certain modilicatiuni ? But in nature all thit 
is brought about by necctnty laws, and the effect is virible to tboK, 
and ihoie only, who look for it in actual objects. This in the grcai 
and master-excellence of the Licin Mar,bi.fs, that ihey do not seem 
to be the outer surface of a hard and immovable block of marble, 
but to be actuated by an inicrnal machinery, and composed i>f the 
same M>fi and flexible maicriale as the human body. The skin for 
tlic ouiiide) seeffls to be protruded or tightened by the natural action 
of a muscle beneath it. This tenilt is miraculous in art: in nature 
it is caiy and unavoidable. That is to any, art has to imitate or 
produce certain cfTecti or appearances without the natural causes : 
but the human undemanding caa hardly be so true co those causes 
a* ibc c.iutea to ihctnselies ; and hence the ncceaiity (in thta sort of 
tmu/alttt crtaMn) of recurring at every step to the actual objects and 
appearances of nature, tlanng shown ao fat how indispensable it 
is for art to identify it»elf with nature, in order to preserre the truth 
of imitation, without which it ia destitute of value or meaning, it may 
be K.iid to follow ai a necessary conAcqucnce, that the only way in 
which art can rise to greater dignity or excellence is by finding out 
mcMtcU of greater dignity and excellence in natare. Will anyone, 
looking At the Tbescus, for example, say thai it cnuld spring merely 
from the artist's btaui) or that it ctiuld be done from a common, til- 
made, or stunted body i The fact is, that its superiority coosins in 
this, that it is a perfect combtnatiun of art and nature, or an identical, 
and at it were spontaneous copy of an mdiridual picked out of a 
VOL. II. : V 3(37 



ESSAYS ON THE PINE AUTS 



fiaer rac^ o^ tntn tlun tfcp c ra liT ire^ tluA boll oA cnnii. ^^^n^ |( fat 
made of a Dotdanum't mnfc-hoK ? No. Conld n be made out a 
oae of Sir JMbn't DiKomn oa ifac «hG& jArat ? No. Hm 
iheni Out of n eye. a head, «id 4 l«B(t, with loue, iprit, ad 
caergir ^ IbDaw the fiaac Banrci U it apeared exeinptiicd * 
■d u p i ng fflMMi, and in nfjtle detaiU, witaoDt pcdjotry, ooonit, 
CDwaraioe, or >&ctatioR I Sane doc vatuLn^ at Mr. H — ji—n'* 
OK day. V a lew |cnaM were looking at ifac an from tbit figvc 
why ifac origiaal inighc aoi lu*c bcea dooc <w a caac &mn sainrt. 
Such a n^poaitioa voald accoiuii at Icui for what aeenia oihcreiK 
aiMccowmahic — the iocredible bbour awl Soidittg bestowed oo ^ 
back aod ibe otb«r ram of thi* fignrv, plaoed at a prodigioiM hc^: 
aguBtt ibc walb of i temple, where csey coukl (terer be aees rf" 
tfaey were oocc pet up there. If they were done by ciMraaa of a cu 
in ^ fir« iMtanccihc thiog appear* mtelltgible, other wTie not. Otr 
bOR •wudj raiwd thu i-'nputaiioet which tended to dcprirc ^n ot i^ 
of it* greatett tmrnptu. aad to make it a* nMcfaanical u a iludeJ 
profile. So £tr, ao good. Bat the teaHB he gave wu bad, v«*^ d» 
ibc timbi coaiil not tefflaio in thoae aaiou long enough to be am. 
Yet nitely thia woold take a iliDrtar ttmc than if the modd tat tc 
tbe iciilptor; and we aD agreed tbat notbiag but actiul, ■:ff »» HiiH , 
■ad interne obaemftioa of liting Daatre cnild give the aoliditi, 
complexity, and tttatmat of imiiatioa which we uw io the iSh 
aumatrd, alnoit tntfrii^ figine bcibre uk.> Be this aa it may, ikt 
pritiuiplc bete Rated doc* not reduce an to the inutaiioD of wiat it 
uodentood by common or low life, [i riici to aay poim of bcnn 
or Mhlimiiy yon pleaie, bet it nttt only ai nature nsea exalted wi^ 
il too. To hear thete ctitica talk, ooc would luppooe there w» 
DOtliiog ia ibe world really worth luokinf; at. Tbe I>iitch pictstn 
w«rc ilie beu thai they could paioi: they bad no other bndiaBO 
or face* hefort ibem. //«u tab qai mat jfmje. Yet who m DM 
alarmed at a Veou* by Rcmbrindt' Tbe Greek atanic* were {am 
gra»a /n/u) Grecian yooth* and oymplisi and the womefi m ibr 
itrect* of Rome {it ha> beta remarked -} look to thia hour a« if thej 
had walked out of Raphad'* picture*. Nmute ia alwj^-a tnflli^ 
at iu be«i, it i* beauty aod mbltmity aa well ; thoogh Sir J<nhiu icL: 
ui b one of tlie paper* in tbe Idur. that in itaelf, or with refcrxTO.: 
to bdiviiiuali, il it a eicrc tiuue of meanaeia and dcfnnBity- 
Luckily, tbe Elgin Maibtr* *ay ko lo that concluaion i for ihey air 

' SaoM on* toitt •PPU«* ^ '^ '^f" «* "I"* "*"« ^^ "nmh ( 

■ StdM. la ewnwaaiat tttMl, 

Iaf<tia Ttmoii.' 
■ Ry M>. C«4triilct. 

3J« 



ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 

dcodcdly ^ri ami partti ihrrfof. What Constitnlct iiDC bUure, w« 
•lisB inquire undtt anoihtr head. But wc would remark bet*, that 
it can hardly be the miiUlt form, lince tliii priociple, bawercr it 
might determine certain gmeral propottiona and outlioci, could never 
be inielligibtc in the details of n»ture, or applicable to thotc of an. 
Who will wy that the form of a tinger tuii it ju»t midwiiy between 
a thousand others tbai he hat not remarked : wc ate only struck with 
it when it is mure thiin ordinarily beautiful, from *ymmetryi an 
oblonji shape, &c. The suunch partitant of this theory, howerct, 
get o»er the diflicuhy bete tpoken of, in practice, by omitting the 
delailo nliogcthci, and making tbeir work* sketches, or rather what 
the French call tiaaehts and the Englinh dauhi. 

J. I'he loBAi. )( only the tetttliag a parlicular Jorm ^tUh txtrttitt 
mOil (OmfUltly lie iitta of >i givrti elaratlrr or quaUtj, at of itauty, 
ilrtngtfi, wiiviiy, volupuoumeu, i^i. and wAi-i priierva that 
thariulir •oAlh ihr gritilut tonitilmcy l/irm^/ioul. 

Instead of its beinj true in general that the iJfoi is the mliiiiU point, 
it is to be found in the ixtrtrntt ; or, it is carrying any idttt as tar a* 
it will go. Thus, for instance, a Silenui it as much an ideal thing at 
an Apollo, a* to the principle gn which it is done, vtc, giving to 
every feature, and to the whole form, the utmost degree of gTo«iQe*i 
and BCDiiiuility that can be imagined, with thit exception (which has 
nolhbg to do with the underetanding of the cjueation), that the tdad 
means by cusioni this extreme on the &idc of the good and beautiful. 
With this reierve, the iifra/ means always the lomtlbaig mart of 
anything which may be anticipated by the fancv, and which must be 
tound in nature (liy looking toog enough for ii] to be expretied aa 
it ought. .Suppose a good heavy Dutch liice (we speak by the 
nroverb) — thi«, you will say, i> grot* ; but it i* not grow enough. 
You have an idea of wmMhing grower, that i«, you have fccen 
sonietiiing groMcr and must »eek lor it again. When you meet with 
it, and have ttantped it on the canvat, or c.irvcd it out of the block, 
thia is the true ideai, namely, that which answers to and satislies a 
preconceived ideai not that which is made out of an abstract idea, 
and answers to nothing. In the Silenut, also, according to the 
notion wc have of the properties and character of that figure, there 
must be vivacity, (lyncts, wantonncit, &c. Not only the image in 
the mind, bat a real face may expresK all the«c combined together ; 
another may expteai them more, and another mo»t, which last is the 
iiltal; and when the image in nature coalesces with, and gives a body, 
force, and reality lo the idea in the mind, then it is that we we the 
true perfection of art. The forehead should be 'liliaiaoui lovri' 
the eyc-brow» bent in { the eyes tmail and gloating ; the aote fagjftd, 

539 




wt mmmt pfmr f it 



ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 



I 



ihc Apollo >« tiaely implied and found more grace thiiD uniil ; 
io th* HffCBlc* more nrcngth than uwal ; in the Mercury mote 
iip.htnesk than usual ; in iIk: Vcdiis morr laftnru thin uiual. li it 
not 9i>! What thro becomes of tbc jiretcndcd miiifft /ormi Om 
would think it would bt tuiTident to prove thii, to atk. * Do not the«e 
itatues differ from one another? And is this ditfereoce a defect?* 
It would be ridiculoui to call tbem by dilferent name*, if ihcy were 
not «uppo*cd to represent different and peculiar cluractcrt : nculptor* 
should, in thai one, never carve anything but the ttatue of « nair, 
the statue of a vjeman, ttc. and thii would be the Riimc of perfection. 
This theory of srt is not at any rate justified by ilir history of 
art. An extraordinary i^uaotity of bone and muscle it ai proper to 
the Hercules at his club, and it would be Wrance if the Godd««* 
of Love had not a mure delicately rounded form, and a more 
languishing look withal, than the Goddesi of Hunting. Thti 
a form combining and blending the propcnics of both, the downy 
softness of the one, with the elastic booyaricy of the other, would 
be more [wrfeci than cither, we no more st.-e than that grey a 
the moiit perfect of colours. At any rate, this is the march neither 
of nature nor of art. It is not denied that tbete antique sculpture* arc 
models of the iAtiii nay, it is on them that thi« theory boos ii of being 
founded. Yet they gire a flat contradiction to il« insipid mediocriiy. 
Perhaps tome of them hare a slight bia* to the false iJeaf, to the 
smooth and uniform, or the negation of nature : any error on this side 
is, however, happily *ct right by the Eumm MtMtia, which are the 
paragons of sctilpture and the mould of form. — A* the Ural then re- 
quires a difference of character io each figure aa a whole, so it expecti 
the ume character (or a corresponding one) to be stamped on each 
port of crery lif;ure. A* the legs of a Diana ihould be more mtucular 
and adapted for running, than those of a Venu4 or a Minerva, m the 
skin of her f.ice ought to be more ten»c, hen! on her prey, tnd 
hardened by being exposed to the winds of heaven. The respectifr 
character* of lightness, softness strength, ftc. ahonld pervade each 
part of the avrfice of each figure, but nil] varying according to the 
texture and (tioctioos of the individual pait. This can only be 
learned or practised from the attentive ob«er*ation of nature in thoM 
forms in which any given character or excellence is mow tfrlkingty 
displayed, and which has been Klected for imitation and Rvdy on that 
account. — Suppose a dimple in ihe chin to be a mark of voluptuous- 
ness ; then the Venn* abwild have a dimple in the chin ; at>d she ha* 
one. But thi4 wiJl im^y certain corretpoodeot indicalioai Jn other 
pan* of the feature*, about the comer* of the month, a gemle 
unduUiioo and sinking in of the cheek, a* if it had juai been piiiched. 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



^ti 



i 




ffU r^wW m ife J^ a 



Knry 
Hedoeii 



ukcaaMa^ 



body. Wte 



M oat 7a w M ts be i Muimi ai with tfae 
HWImIiiiw. tmooClineM, tec wfakk bcl(H{ W tbe idc 
Wlw win e« oil thii and rmbody it a« «f the ide 
I OBMt nj : n auj be, ad lu> Ivea, {■! am 
taanba of duunci cacliaaiig gncci ia the 
bewrenhr obitct niblded to tW i^n I 

4. Ttal lie JirtehMf u m^ l mtr : 
it eatruam. 

Hogxrtn A iM c ui rcf ate ttse imtoc|'a 
(ro«pi i* iDMnct witli Efe ndiDobcMt. 
pbc* it ia a poeiiioa, lilcc a by fijpBre, in vbtd it tun 1 
joim. Tbc tceoe more* before ym : the bee ii Bkc a frame-— t rf 
AexJhIe nwcfaincry. If liic nioiiik it £mned vidi baaf^Ka, the eyn 
•wtsn IB Iwj^iW. If the brvhcad ii Ut ngeihtTr dw cfcob k 
pKkend up. If a leUow Muitta ao« boniUy.tfae r^ of kv Steam 
awry. Tlw anMcfet jmU di faea i wijr*, or ifae one way, m tfa 1 
daw, 00 tltc orftce of tlie picture, M thev tfe ia cbe I 
yoa Mc ji tbe revcne of jinV jE^. Tbcre n a 1 
actioD ud tc«ciMe of oat eariahk pan ^ob aa oi bq . aa tWe ■ 
IB itie EuH* MuBLai. If jma poll tbe M aa g of ■ bow, vbe h»« 
BKlf ■• beni. So it it ia the wiagt aad witra tfaat miwe ifae k^H> 
frame. The acdon of any one pan, the UNumiioo or iitaiwtiM rf 
any one naucle, extend* ttKxe ot leu pcfctfObly to every site: 

' TluiU* in each firrrt, «nil lim aleog tW Bate* 

Tkui tbe eelefaraled Ifl of Correjipo ia i™*»n<, m 1 jm < I. laamaHia 
thr timr rnlnjtTinin frrKii| iW nr r t hr iimr paiajna I ii n ai Jwj iakr 
whoie frame, ind coaunBOicace* the iafifctiow to ibc fieci, tfar bci. 
isd tbe reclined pontXMi of the head. Thi* i> hiaiory, bck caip^Ur') 
work. Some pauiun ianq' that ihry paint Uatary, if tb^v get ^ 
meaaurancBt fiotn tbe feat to tbe koee and pot font boon vben 
tbecc are fmr booea. Tbti i> not oar idea of it t bat we thjn^ ■ ■ 
to (bow bow one pan of tbe body iway* an ot be r ia actaoo awl ■ 
paanoo. Tbe laM rriatca cbicSy 10 the exprcadoa of tbe &ce, tbo^ 
MK ah<mther. Pu*ioa imy be thown ia a cleaciked fin aa weB m 
in ctrtKBcd teeth. The faec, bowercf . i* the tbrooe of 1 mii 1 aww 
Character iaqiBea the iiBeiiB|^ wUcfc i* Sxcd aad paiaiimai ; cx- 
pt M iioa that which it occwioBal aad l a o awa tt r y, at IcMt, tc^unolf 
^takiag. Portrait trcaa of objeOa aa tbey are 1 hiatory of the era* 
md cb Mg ci to irinch thn are liable. And ao far hntery hat > 
double Mperiority 1 or a <!oable dificahy to tntnomt, «n. ia tfe 
rifad ibnccoKTa tuaabn of p«n*«ibjcct to the ■mafaaae«»c aoina 
3*" 



ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 

of the Htme Uw, and in the tcope of feeliog required to njmipathiic 
with ihe critical and powerful movcmccu of pMiion. It require* 
greater capnciiy of muKcular motion W follow the progreit of a 
carriage in violent motion, than lo Icjr upon ii standing still. If, to 
(IcDCribe pauion, it wecc ntercjy necestary to olMctve its outward etfect*, 
these, perhapa, in the prominent points, become more visjlilc and more 
tangible ai the pauioD it more inlenie. But it in not only necMsirjr 
to tee the effects, but to discern the cauK, in order to make the one 
true to the other. No painter givet more of inielJectual or impamoned 
appearance* than he undcr*tand< or feeli. It is an axiom in pain<iDj> 
that sympathy is iniii sponsible to truth of expression. Without it, you 
gel ooly caricatures, which are not the thing. But to nympnthise 
with passion, n greater fund of scnsilnlily in demanded in proportion to 
the strength or tendorni-ss of the pasiion. And a* he feela mo« of 
this whose face expreesi-'K most patsion, to he alxo feeU rnosi by 
sympathy whose hand can describe mon paxsion. This amounts 
nearly, we take it, to a demonstration of an old and very disputed 
point. The tame teaKiDing might be applied to ponryt but this is not 
ibc place. — Again, it is easier to paint a poitrait than on historical 
face, because the bead ntt for the first, but the expreiiion will hardly 
irl for the lust. Ferhapt tliose pataons are the bcRi lubjccii foi 
painting, the expreatton of which may he retained for tome time, «o as 
to be belter caught, which throw out a sort of lambent tire, and Into 
a rejected glory behind them, aa wc ace in Madonnas, Christ's beads, 
and what i* undcnRood by ucred iubjccis in general. The violence* 
of human pa*«ion are too toon OTer to be copied by the hand, and the 
mere codception of the internal working* is not here sul!tcicnt, ai it 
!■ hi poetry. A portrait i« to history what atill'lire is to portraiture: 
that is, the whole remainf the aanic while you are doing it j or while 
you are occupied about each part, the test wait for you. Yet, what 
a dilference ia there between taking an original portrait and making a 
copy of one ! This shows that the face in its most ordinary Hat* is 
continually varying and in action. So much of history is there in 

Esnrait ! — No one should pronounce definitiTvly on the superiority of 
istory over portrait, without [ccollccttnK Titian's heads. The tineat 
of them are very nearly (lay quite) eaual to the fincA of Raphael'*. 
They have almott the look of itil/-iift, yet each part i* decidedly 
influenced by the reM. F.serythiog is rtlaiivt in them. You caoiiot 
put any other eye, nose, lip in the same face. As is one part, so i* 
the rest. Yon cannot fix on any particular beauty i the charm it in 
the whole. Tbey ha»e leaat action, and the moti exprewion of any 
portrait*. They are dobg nothing, and ret all other bunncai «rem) 
mtipid in compatiaon of their thoughts. They arc silent, retired, and 

S43 




ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 



OtTUin ckaractCT Mamped upon tbe diAcrcDt featurcK. In th« Hi|>[>o- 
lito de M«did ihc eytAmw* an mgidu, ihc now h ptfiktd, the 
mouth has ihvp cointrt, thr bee ia (*o to *pnk) » pointed oral. 
The (tntwtDK in eacli of thc»c i* u car«Ad and ditttna tt cut be. 
But ihe unity of inietttioD in utture, and io the attm, doM Dot the lew 
tend 10 produce a genenl ji'^odeui' ind trap«cwi*cnew of effect! 
which M fim «if>bt it i( not e^ to account for. To combine i 
ftumber oi psrticulan to one end i* not to cimii ihrm aliogcihct t *nd 
is the be«t way oi prodociog the grtnd *tyie, becauic it doe* this 
inihout either affedaiion or tlorrnlipc**- 

6. The uxth rule we propoied to lay dcwa wu, that ai grmtJair 
u tktfriaafJt of tonnrxha irtuvrw cli^rrml partt i ttaitj it iht fr'umplt 
of a^folybrt^ien dlffermi firms t or itrir gradiia/ MinwntM tnlo tad 
other. 7£r one bamamzii, lir mber a^raadizft, our tw^retiioiu ofl^agt. 

There a a harmony of colour* and a haiBiony of toundt, ua- 
c)Uc«cion3b]y : why then there «houtd besli ihi* K|ueainishcieu .itwut 
.idmittiog 3D origioal harnioDy of forms as the principle of beauty aod 
Murce of pleasure there we cannot understand. It it true, that there 
ii in oiganized bodies a certain (candard of form to which tbey 
approximate more or le»», and {ioro which they cannot very widely 
dcriate without thocking the lerttc of .cuxtom, or our ictilcd expecta- 
tions of what they ought 10 be. And hence it has been pretended 
that (here in in all such cases a miiHlt emtrai fortn, obtdncd by leavin); 
oat the pecutiaritic* of sJ) the others, which alone it the pure standard 
of truth and beauty. A conformity (o custom is, we sraot, ooe 
condition of beauty or source of satisfaction lo the eye, becauite an 
abrupt tranaitioii shocks ; but there in a eonfomiity (or correspond- 
ence) of colonrsi Mundi, Unen, anicing ihcmieU'es which is son and 
pleaBtOK for the same reanon. The averajje or customary form merely 
determine* what is natural. A thing cannot plea*e, unlns it is to be 
f<:iund in nature ; but that which is natural is inoM pleasing, according 
ai it has other proprnie* which in ihemsclves pleste. Thus the 
colour of a check must be the nauinl complexion of a human facei— 
it would not do to make it the colour of a Sower or a pirecioos wone t — 
but among complexions ordinarily to be found in nature, that is moti 
beautiful which would be thought *o abattactedly, or in itself. Yellow 
luir is not the moit oommon, nor i* it a mmn faraportion between ihc 
di^rcnt colours of women'* hair. Yet, who will say that it is not 
the tnon beautiful i Blue or grt^n hair would be a defect and an 
anomaly, not because it i* not l\\c mtiHum of oaluie, but because it is 
not in oaiuie at all. To »ay that there is no dilTcrencc in the sense 
of form except from cuKtom, is like uying that there u no difference 
in the tecMtion of smooth at rough. Judging by analogy, a gradation 

945 




I 



fhsvi M diM (he Borif Mi^pH NBC coBnnad finn tfe 
fiMMt w A Bwi ■Fopoftm fCracs bcCttfiA cl» two csimMn ■ 
c o Bi i M <a4 CM m » EoniiB dm tamt of tbcbce. Tlmv hmk, 
diBcMni br iMBK ddHf fnaeifit ■ RMnetn, ooociaMKy, ftc u 
■ctW fiar iW nriiiiM Bvmdmjnxmi rvie. Once amn (an 
M imIi^ (tMtMKO Mrfi0BdT], a dMfak cOT b nadiMfawdly tk 
foJhcliiM of bottv in the haa at tfcc kg. B«t ttus b a on thiol- 
Nor It it dM im I mw Im w mi tva cawitnn cxtmnec For the 
nMcIc* *eUoiD iwcll eaoagh ra fndmcx M» txcrocencg, if it 0*7 b» 
w ciUeda RBcl ontt nni ut ao txeem thertf m a*, bj dimiaialnnK the 
niimiitj, 10 niNide iMo profnnioii mhI bnntr. na ifal> Mcoad « 
Hravr ^f ii « coMMCting mlt betwcca itw mer calf and the muII 
«f Um leg, ami ii ju like ■ wcokI chord or htui-tune to muic. Wr 
uacein (hat aav doc who (1dm om peredn' the beauty of tbe Vccai 
di Medicii, Cur nuunce, in tbti rcipcct, hat not the proper percepaoa 
of form in hi* minil. Ai ihi* it the moM ditMtable, or at Icui ilie 
matt ditimtrrl |iart of our cheoryt ire maj, perbapc, hare to rtc« n> 
it asiia. 'nd ihall Ipate mi openinfi for that paqmar. 
$♦6 



ON THE ELGIN MARBLES 



7. TKaf graet h ibt htamt^mi or barmoi m ni im vh<a rttattt M 
fosilien «r RwCran. 

There need* not much be laid oa ihu point 1 u lire apptvhend k 
will be granted that, uh.itctcr beiuty U a* to the fwro, Krace » the 
tame thing io relation to ibe ate that u made of it. Grace, in writing, 
relate* to ihc iranBiions that arr made from ooe wbject 10 another, 
01 to the moremeni th« it given to > pUMjgc. If one thing Icada to 
another, or an idea or illutuation ia brODghi to without cfTecti or 
without nukisg a %x'' "^ '^^ mind, we c»]l thit a graceful ttrle. 
Tnnntioni mutt in Ecnen) be gndual and pieced together, cut 
Minietiinei the moat nelent ire the inott graceful, when the mind it 
fairly tired out and cxhauKcd with a subject, and i> glad rn leap to 
another at 1 rrpotr and re1i<-f from the lirst. Of thete there are 
frc<]ucDl inst;incet In Mr. Burkc'i writings which have something 
Pindaric tn them. Thai which i* not beautiful in itself, or ta the 
mete fomi, may be made to by poiitioo Of noiion. A fi^ute by no 
mtiiis elegant may be put in an elegant podtion. Mr. Keaa'i figure 
i> not good ; yet we have icrn him throw himtelf into attitudej of 
infinite tpitit, dignity, and grace. John Kemble'i figure, on the 
contrary, ii fine in ittielf ; and he han only to >how himself to be 
admired. The direction in which anything is moved hat evidently 
nothing to Ao with the shape of the thing moTed. The one may be 
a circle and the other a Mjuare. Little ud deformed people teem 10 
be well aware of thi* dbtinaioo, who, in spite of tbdr imvromuiiig 
appearance, usually atnime the most imponng altitudec, and give them- 
«clvc» the most extraordinary airs ima;;inable. 

8. GraniUttr of molien it vmly of molioit. 

Thi* principle hardly needs illuttraiion. Awkwardness ts cootra- 
dicioty or dii jointed motion. 

9. Strength in art it gmag lit rrtrenri, nfiittit tit uniting 
litm. 

There it no incompatibility between sircogUi and saftnets, as It 
Bonieiirnes mipposi-d by frivolous people. Weakness is oot relineraent. 
A shadow may be twice ai deep in a finely coloured picture a» in 
another, and yet almost imperceptible, from the gradations that lead 
to it, and blend it with the tight. Corrcggio had prodigious strength, 
and greater aoftne)^. Nature is strong and toft, beyond the reach of 
art to imitaic. Softness tlien docs not imply the absence of consider- 
able extremes, but it is the interposing a tliird thing bctwe^-n them, 
to break ihe force of the contrast. Guido is more soft than strong. 
Kembrundl is more tlronfc than Kfu 

10. And lastly. Tiat truth it, to a rerlaiti dtgrer, Ifoaly and 
grandrur, liic/r all thingi arc ntuuiliJ, and aU ihingi modify ene anolitr 

S+7 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

m (WHY, Simfiititf « Wm gmJ 011J itauifit/ Jor At »wm rtnm. 
EUzoKit u tat* atd Bfilatf, ^akh fmitim. 

Tbn lux bead Bppnn to COMaia a Dumber of froth Jitta, p* 
tpgctber for the take o( completing a decade of propcMttiatu. Tlwt 
bxTc, hovcTcr, tome diow of tnMit, and we thould ai!d little ckv- 
arM to them bf aitf naaotaog opoo tbe matter. So wr will a» 
dsdc here for the pmnt. 

FONTHILL ABBEY 

Tms old iafcwm— Our {pHAM fn j>Mn6» fti — caniMt be JMlf 
ajifiieA here. Fokthiu. Anav, after oaag eavrlopcd is tn^aC' 
tnible myitcry for a Ira^ of yean, haa been utwxjiectcdJf thron 
open to (he Tulgar gaic, and hai Ioa none of its rcpuation W 
magniltceixc — tboo^ pcrtap*, iu nuonary glory, it* clasnc reoom, 
ban laniabcd from tbe piUic miod for ncr. It is, to a word, t 
daart of magnUicencc, a gliticriaj waatc of labonaoa jdleocai, 1 
catliedral ninied into 3 toyibop, *n itunxtue Mtweum of all tte 
ia mott cttriooi and costly, and, at cbc tame tine, moK wortUcM, 
in tlie prodiKtioiw of att and natore. Ship* of pearl snd aeat cf 
amber arc acaice a fable here — a oaoiiliu'a *hell aurmonntcd wiiba 
gilt uiunipfa of Ne^une — tablet of agate, c^ocu of ebony W 
precMiM MODM, piioMNl viodow* 'tbcddbg a gaudy, crtniaofi light,' 
tttio border*, marble lloots and lampa of wtid gold — Cboor 
ngoda* and PerHan tapeitry^all ibe roioiature tpleodour of Solomoa't 
^^clllple it dii|>lRytd to the view — wbatever !« far-fctcfacd nad dear 
bov^lt, rich in ilie maietial*, or rate and diiHciih in ih« worknuadnp 
— but Kcarce ooe gcnnine work of art, one >olid proof of tasie, ooe 
loAy tclic uf aeouincDt or tnuginaiioo '. 

The dtlScuIt, the uiuttaiaiUv, the excluiiie, ore to be found here 
to proliiHoa, in perfection) all eUe 1* wuatiBK, or ia bronglii ia 
merely a* a foil or at a (top-up. In tbi* feipect tbe collccbca 11 
aa latitfactory aa it U iM^ur. The •pccimeoi exhibited «c the faco, 
the moft highly linifched, (he mo«t coctly and curiooa, of that kind 
of Oftcntatiou* magniliccocc which i« c^cuUtcd to ;;rattfy the tenv 
of property in the owner, and to ezdte (be «-oodehng curiodty <f 
the ktiaogcr, who it permitted to tee or (aa a choice priTilege and 
favour) even to toech Uiobin to dazzling >od of eucb exmintc 
nicety of execution ; and which, if broken or defaced, it voiJd br 
next 10 impomibic to replace. Tlie aame cbaracier extcodi to thr 
pictures, which aie mere lumilurc-pictutn, remarkable chlcAy fa 
their aoti>quity or paioinl (inubiog. witliout beauty, without nHcrat. 



FONTHILL ABBEY 

aod witli about the Mmc pKUntioni to xitract the rye m delight thi- 
fnncy an a well-|ioliihed mahognny ubic or a waxed ook-ftoor. Not 
one gicat work by one gicai nanic, kaccc one or two of the won) 
tpcciiiicn« of the tnt msttteii, Leonardo** Laughiag Boy, oi a copy 
from Raphael or Corngfpo, M if tv niak« the thJn^, remote aod fioical 
— but heaps of th« mott elaborate \aectt of the wor«l of the Dutch 
manen, Breuj^hel'i Sea'hotie* wjln coati of moiber-of-pearl, and 
Rottenhammer'a ElemcnliturnedintoaFiower-pieoc. The Catalogue, 
in F>hori, ie guiltlrsii of the namct of any of lho*e works of an 

■ Which like a Ininipct niaicc the tpirit* daner ; ' 

and ii tacred to those which rank no higher than reneeriDg, and 
vbcra the painter i> on a prcciiic par with the carver and gilder. 
Such 18 not our tatte in ait t and we confeu wc should have been 
a little di^Appointcd in viewing FontbiJI, had not our cKivciattons 
been disabused beforehand. Oh I for a glimpte of the Etcurial 1 
where the ptleH of Tttians lie: where nympnt, fairer than liliec, 
repose in green, airy, paitoral landscape*, and Cupidi with curled 
locks pluck the wanton rinc ; ai whose beauty, whoK uplendour, 
whoic truth and rrcghneKs, Meng) could not conuin his aslonithmcai, 
Qor CuraberUod lus raptures ; 

* While groves of Eden, nnith'd now so long. 
Live in (luciiptioit, anil look green 1ft tong i ' 

the very thought of which, in that nionastic tecluaion and low dell, 
curroundetl by craggy precipices, gire* the nitnd a calcntare, a 
longing desire to plunge throui'.h waitei and wildi, to visit at the 
shrine of cuch bcatity, and be buried in the bosom of «uch verdant 
swretncM.^Get thee behind un, temptation t or not all China and 
Japan will detain us, and th'n article will be left unliniahed, or found 

iaa a volume of Kcacs'it pmcms was carried out by Mr. Ritchie to be 
ropped in the Great Deiari^ in the sotrie»t inn in the farthest pan 
r of Spain, or in the marble baths of the Moorish Alhambra. or imnUt 
the ruins of Tadnior, or in barbaric palacei, where Bruce encountered 
Abyssinian (juccns ! Any thing to get all thin frippery, and finery, 
and tinsel, and glitter, and embossing, and system of lanulilation, 
and frct'work of the imaginatinn out of our heads, and take one deep, 
long, oblivious draught of ihc romantic and marvellous, the thirst 
of which the fame of FonthlU Abbey has raited io us, but not 
satisfied! — 

Mr. Becklbrd has undoubtedly shown h'icself an industrious 
h'ljouiier, a prodigious virtuoso, an accomp' shed patron of uopro- 
ductivr labour, ^n enthusiastic collector of expensive tritlcs — (h« 

349 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

onlv proof of taKe (to our thinking} he faa< tbowa in thi* collection 
tB lit xHt'oy; rid «f k. What iplendoor, what £race, what grandcvr 
■nt^bt he lubtfttutc in Iteu of it ! WbM a handwriting might be 
ipKad out upon (he walli ! What a cpirit of poetry ^nd pKilcwophf 
might brrathc there! What a loleiRii gloom, whnt gay vtatu of 
fsacf, like chequeicH light anil shade, might gmius guided hy ati, 
ihcd aronnd ! The luthor of Vathek t* a tcholar ; the proprieioi 
of Fonihill ha« traTclkd abioad, and ha* (ten all the daaa. rcmaiM 
of antitiutiy and boasted ipeciment of modem an. Why not Uf hi> 
hand* on wnie ofibcK? He had |xivcr to carry them away. Ooe 
iDt^t hare expected to tee, ut leut, a few fine uld [HCtBrea, marble 
copie* of the celebrated ttatues, tlie Apollo, the Venus, the Dyinj; 
Gladiator, the Antinoiu, antique vam vitfa their elegant •culpnira, 
or ca«t« from them, coint, rnedaln, baa-rcl>c&, •omething connrcud 
with ibc beautiful forms of external nature, or with what ii great ia 
the mind or memorable in the history of man, — -Egyptian hiero- 
alyphicti, or Clialdt-e manuKriM*, or piper made of the rcedi of the 
Nile, or mummies froni tl« FyrnmidB t Not k> i not a trace (ot 
scarcely «>] of any of these ; — H little as may be of what i* cla«ical 
or tmponng to the ima^inatian from association or well-foooded 
prejudice ; hirdly an article of any corifei^uencc that docs not •con 
to be lahcilcH to the following effect — ' Thu u mini, am/ there it mo mi 
rkt in iht vuholt wvU in tetam ii MB iiufirt iht Irart ttitere.rt, or awj 
/itSng IryimJ a mumrnlttry mrpritr!' To *how another jviir MOpeitj 
n an act in itfclf uo;;racioas. or null and roid. It excite* do pleaamc 
from sympathy, iitery one niuiti have reniatktxl the dilfcrencc in 
hii feelioj;* on entering a veoerable oI<l cathedral, for instance, and a 
modcTD-tniilt private mansion. The one seems to fill the mind and 
expend tbe form, white the other only producer a sense ol' lisdets 
vacuity, and diEpoac* ut lo thrbk into our own littleness. \\'bence 
is this, but that in the lim caw oar HiaociaiiotM of power, of ioteiea, 
are general, and (end to nggrandiie the specie*; and that in ilie 
latter (t«b. the caae of pritate property) they are exclusive, and tend 
to aggrandize none but the indindual? This most be Utc c^ec^ 
unless there ii looiethiog grand or beautiful in tlie objects tliemsehei 
that maken us forget tbe diatinction of mere property, aji from (be 
noble architecture or great antiquity of a building ; or tinlesa tkei 
remind us of common and uniretal nature, at pictures, names do, 
like M) many mirrors, reflecting the external landivape, and canrioj 
u9 out of the mngic circle of self-love. But all works of art coiw 
under tbe head of properly or showy fiimiiurc, which are neitlirr 
dininguithed by sublimity nor beauty, and arc cuimated oa\j by tbe 
bbour required to produce what is trtdinj or ivonhlcss, and are 
SSO 



FONTHILL ABBEY 



ccnaeaucntljr Hdini);; niocc ihun obirufiiic iiroof* gf the wealth of the 
JBuncdiatc po n ewot. Tlic motive lor ibc produciion of such tor* it 
mrrornary, and ihc adminttion of them childish or servile. 'Ilurt 
which ple.t^ca merely from its noveliyi or bccauee it wua ti«v(t seen 
befon-t canooi be expected to please twice : tb^ wliJch !■ renuikahle 
for the (ttiliculty or coMltneu of the execution can be inteicuing to 
00 one but the maker or owner. A vbet!, howcicc r»clj to he met 
with, however highlf wrought or (]uainily embellished, can only 
flatter the sense of curiosity for a monicnt in a Dumber of fcTMiu, 
or the feeling of Tinity for s greater length of time in a md^Ic perioa. 
There are better ihiogs than thi« (wc wili be bold to say) in the 
world both of nature and art — thtnga of uniiersal and lasting intenit, 
ihingi that appeal to the imaginalioo and the alfeciioiii. The rillagC' 
belt that ringn out as sad or merry tidings to old men and maiden*, to 
children and matrons, goet to the heart, becaone it is a tound >ignilicant 
of weal or woe to all, and has borne no uniotercsling intelligence to 
you, lo me, and to thousands more who have heard it perbaiw for 
ccnturici. 1'hcre ts a seDtiment in it. The face of a Iiudoooa (if 
equal to the subject] has alto a tentimeot to it, ' whuM price is above 
rubies.' It it a ahrine, a consecrated source of high and pore feeling, 
a wdl-head of lovely expreuion, at wbtcb the soul drinlts and ia 
refreshed, age after nge. The mind conierse* with the mind, or 
with thai nature which, frani long and daily intimacy, has become a 
sort of second self to it : but what tcmimcDt lies hid in a piece of 
porcelain? What soul can yoo look for b a gilded cabinet or a 
marble slab ! Is it possible there can be any thing like a feeling of 
littleiw^a Of jealousy in this proncncfs to a merely ornamental laate, 
that, from not fympathisiog with the higher and more expaoaivc 
enunatioBS of thought, ahrinke from their display with conscioua 
weakncK ami inferiority i If it weic an apprehension of an bvidioos 
comparison betweeo the peoprietor and the author of any signal work 
*" •eiHiu, which the former did oot covet, one would think he must 
It ci]»dl7 iiHMtitied at sbking to a level in ustc and puisails 
Dutch 'lu. Mr. Beckford, however, has 
Mte in works of art as well as 
aiih'« comedy declares that 
elesl of tune* — Water f^niJ 
— M it was supposed that thi& 
me but the iineti Claudes and 
•iai) master. The two Claudes 
■e teb a little out of ibeir place 
where they are, by tbe ttrj 

J5» 



i the 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE AKTS 



We ancc luppeiiMi to hat« the plMHue of tcciog Mr. UccUiitd 
io th« Great Gallery of the Louvre — he was verjr pUinly drcMcd n 
B looM great coat, and looked tomewbit pole ana thin— but wkn 
broogki the circmnsiuice to our mimb, wu that we were lolt) on ihi« 
occuion one of thow thnmpin^ nutter-of-lact lict, which arc prcnj 
oodunoD to ether I-renchtncn beside* GiKonft— viz. 7)kM li imi 
«find il" Firii Cwu»l iM itu a tvm ih<m M« Imniirtii litiuaiid jfmmemi 
fir ibi [nirclfiiie of i(n Si. PiUr Martyr, Wovld that he bad ! and 
that Napul«oo K»d uken him at hit word I — which vre think not 
Milikeiy. With two hundred thoutaad gutoeaa he might havr taken 
Kxne almoii impregnable fortren. ' Magd^HUg,' said Duona]>anc, 
■ la wonh a hundred queens : ' and be would luve thought MCh 
another nronghold worth at Icut one Saint. A« it it, what as 
oiiportunity have we lo«t of ginog tbc public an account of tbb 
picture ! Yvt why not dcacribe it, at we we it ittll * in our mind'* 
eye,' uondinj; on the floor of the Thuillcrics, with none of its brigfatDen 
•inptred, through the long penjiectiic of waning ymi \ Tbrrc it 
Mand*, and will for ever ttaml in out itnaf^nattuo, wttli the dark, 
•eowling, tcitilK face of the murdered monk looking up to fait 
aiaaMin, the hottor-muck feature* of the 6vmg prien, and the tJuRa 
of hi* TCK waving in the wind, the thaueTcd btartcbe* of the antumBal 
tten that feel the coming gale, with that c<^d convent spire riaqg 
in the dinanoc ainidat the npplijrc hillt nod golden ^y — and over- 
bead are aeen the cherubim oria^ng the ccown of raanyrdom with 
raty fingers i and (nich b the feeling of trath, tbc aoul of faith in tbr 
pciuTc) you hear floating near, in dim hartnoniea, tbe pealing antham, 
and the hrarctily choir ! Surely, tbe St. Peter Martyr iiiiiniimi all 
Titian's other work*, at he himwlfdid all other poiotcr*. riad tlui 
picture been trantferrrd lo the ptocni colkciion (or nny picture like 
it) what a trail of glory would it hare leli behind it ! for what a 
length of way would it have hauoitd the imaginauon I bow uficB 
ibould we have wiihed to rcTitit it, and how ^ndly wcmid the rye 
have turned back to the uately tower of Fonihill Abbey, that irotn 
the wcftcm hori/on gives the Mtting tun to other climes, lu Oic 
beacon and guide to tbc knowledge and the love of high Art 1 

Tbe Dukcof Weiiingion, it ii said, hat declared I'onthill to be 
' tbe finnt thing in Hurope.' If so, it is since tbr difpereion of the 
Louvre. It ia alto tatd, that the King it to viiit it. We do ooi 
mean to uy it is not a fit place lor the King to visit, ot for the Dokc 
to ptaite : but we know this, that it it a very bod one for us to 
deacribe. The lather of Mr. Chritite wat tupposcd to be ' c(]it^ 
grot on a ribbon or a Raphael.' This it unfoticnaiely not ok 
CMC. We are oot 'great' at all, but leait of all in litde thiagi; 

3S> 



4 




I 



FONTHILL ABBEY 

We have tried in vaiiutis waya ; we C4d make nothing of it. Look 
here — thit it the Catalogue. Now what can we ay {who are not 
auctioneer*, but critics) to 

Six J*pui htrwn-paiicm embottcd iliiheti or, 

Twelve bumi-in diiliw In compartmtTiti ; or, 

Sixteen dtlto, enamclleil wilh iniecti itiil birdij oi, 

Seven tmbowd MUp-plntei, with planti and rich hordeRi or. 

Nine chocolate cupi aiid laueeri of egg-ihell China, blue lotiu paltera i or, 

Two butter poti on fret, and a baion, cover, and iiand, oi Japan i or. 

Two baMm and cuven, ten-green mantlarin ) or, 

A vcty rare ^cinien of the iNukct-wuik Japan, uniainenled with flowen 

in relief, of the (iocK kind, (he inude gilt, from (he R^laniJ 

Muteuin i or, 
TWo fine enamelled dishei nollopcd j or. 
Two Mut boltUi and two red and fcold cupa — cxcts line ; or, 
A very curious egg-she!! lantetn j or. 
Two very laie Japan cupi mounted ai milk buckelt, with lilver rimi, ^It 

and chased ; or. 
Two mitchlcii Japan diihei; or, 
A very lingular tray, (he ground ^' a turieut luaad artifiii^ly luaveJ, 

wtdi iiurks ill various attiludei on the ihorc. mouii: border, and 

avanturinc back i or. 
Two extreinely nrc bottle* with chimxrai and plant*, mountcid in ulver 

gilt* or, 
Twcncy.four line OLn itvi deucn plaleij or. 
Two preciout eiuimelled bowl diihei, with lilvcr handle* ; — 

Or, to «ick to the capita) letters in this Paradise of Dainty 
DeTices, leit we should Iw suspected of singling out the meaneii 
article*, we will just transcribe a few of them, for the satts&ctioo 
of the curious reader : — 

A Rich and HifiitLY Onkauentsd Casket of the very rare goMjAPAK, 

completely coveted with ligurei. 
An OftiESTAL Sculptured Taua of L^pi« Lazuli, mounted in lilrei 

gilt, and set with lapis latuli in(ag!io>. From the Garde Mcuble of 

ilie late King of France. 
A PsR»iAH Jab Vaii: and Cover, inlaid with flowera and omimenlt, 

(>)iiipflied n( erifulai miiri, anJemrraCJi ait arms ijfjint giid. 
A LARCE OvaI. Engraved Rock CRVSTAt. Cup, with the ligutc of a 

Syttn, carved from the block, .md embracing a part of the vewfl with 

her wings •« as to form a handle; ftom ihe Royal Collsction of 

Francs. 
.^n Oval Ct/p and COVER dp Oriental Mamillatbd Acatb, richly 

marked in athurticent mucoa, elaborately chased and engraved in a 

very luperior manner. Jn lurfiif anitli. 
vou ». : I 35J 



ESSAYS ON THK FINE ARTS 



Stan w* (i m wkk tida fb^iif[{ We tmwut. Tht foiki 
M tirra of melt vi iiuuvaouui^ aocswtt <■ cniMy J"' "* 
CMkca- -it rcMli w like Ddh CraKm pamy- They at« odt na 
M^* Cswfv. The picnim an nwch in tlie ■ainc a^aMMM^^ii^nr 

HAvitk 



i 



Pot iwttuce, ia tiie dru ad wcoad daym' ale 
the fallowing:— 

A Ugb-fiBuM Minwwrihswiag af ■ Baly pMtiit]r, gadrnfaroae: mt 
«f dnat witti wkich 1^ pa«n itf the Vesetaa nofaiJi^ ^m ^Mh 

A (Dull hndnopc, bf BRoffaeL 

A anall Mi«i«iBgpain<intrfiwTilMa,hySc»fc. 

A CHMM* poiMmg, by P«CT Pncn Bcn^fM, Ihc i hi Jn|,i ii iiw gf Tnj 

—4 dMtec yedmp at tin* icafcr nartn. 
A pionn bjr Fiviki, nfmoiiBg the Mpnti i w of Sc flmlMMj 
Apictuir % old Bttugbri. wp mcKJa g s Ebe — « wnjiilt | himi rf 

hb fine mMMT- 
Locai Ctandi— The Uadonu and OiiU— hi^i^ ^^nt 
A audbatm, pmaittd upon a gold |Hn«d, bj Amr* OrcagnM, > tvtai 

early ycuma of IlaKin an. Fvoai the Caapat SaaCawPuv. 
A lad*'* pottrah^ hj Cannj, 
NmdMT— a Uy «and, pl^teg on ih* I wp iichwd, &c. 



Who cam any Umg attotf MCh frippcrr, time out of amai de 
tule tmeaaettu cf a pawnbroker'* tbof ; or abooi oU Breoghd, « 
Stelh, or Fnudu, or Lncaa Oanadi, or Netecber, or Cmwbv!— 
Bat It that laa nune we pnue, and imHt be excnrd if we couta ' t 
to bim a frtit mvooot in our hat vmmutt : fut be was Fancy'* cUi 
AH oUtcT coltcctori arc TnoU to htm: ibev go aboat with sdU 
aoxiety u> fiod out the re^lhin : — lie imJ be bad ihrm ami in 
a nomail mack tbcfn of iJie bnxih vi hi* noatiQa » m| the SoKt 
of a Uvely imagiudoo. Hi* was the cnidfix thai Abdanl n>q«i 
to — tbe ordinal maBmcrip of the Rape of the Lctck— <he Sqp* 

with which Feltoa nabbed the Duke of Bockingtun the bm 

Enisiml tketch of the Jocttodo — TttiaD** large rnlrwail i^w ^r -d r it 
Ptxct Arctioc — I rauBuny of ao Egyptian king- — an alligatar mated. 
Were the anicle* Miheatic i — no mancr— hii &ith in tbem wm trv. 
What a fairy ulac* wat hi* of tptdatto* of art, aaommi^^t, 
Bod firfs, jamued all together is the richest dtaoracr, teiy, 
ihadowy, obacttre. with awcb left to tbe imaginatKin (how 4i Htfi " 
from tbe finical, poHibcd, petty, perfect, niederat*ed air of Foothill 1) 
and with coBte* of tbe old matter*, cracked and danuged, which far 
toocfaed and retouched with hit own hmdt and ycc awocv tfaej weft 
the gcauiae, the pore originali ! He wm {;ilicd with a aar^i^^f^ 
tn aodi matter*: be bcUeted vhaicecf wu incrediUe^ Hifpy 

^5* 



FONTHILL ABBEY 

motul ! Paticy bore tway in biiu, vid io vWiJ wen: hit iniprcMioaB 
iliat they incluacii (be reality tn them. The agreeable and ihc true 
with him were one. He bcliercd in Svedenborf^tmi— he 
bcIicTed in animal magnewm^hc had conrvrtcd with more than 
ODc (KTeOD of the Tiinily — he could talk with hi» htdy st Mantua 
through *omc line vehicle of »ea«Ot an wc i|>cak to a tervaitt dowo 
etaitB through ao carpiiM:.— Richard Ccmwuy viaa nut the aiaa to 
flioeh from ao iJ^al proposiiiun. Once, at an Academy diraef, 
when some <]uestion was loade, whether the ttoiy of Lambert'* leap 
was true, be ttartcd up, and uid it waa, for he wai the man that 
[>erformcd it ; — he once auared u«, ihiii the knee-pan of king .Istnes i, 
at Whitehall wax oinc feet acioss (he had mc^sutcd It ia canccn 
with Mr. Cipriaoi) ; he could read in the book of Revelations 
without spectacle*, and foretold the teturn of Buonaparte from Elba 
and from St. Helena. His wife, the most lady-like of English. 
women, being aaked, in Pari>, what sort of a man her huihacd wat, 
answered, Taujmiri rianl, laujaari jai. Thia was true. He mull 
have been of French extraction. Hi* toul had the life of a bard j 
and such was the jauntincsa of hie air and manner that, to »cc him 
fit lo have hia lia.lf'boot« Uccd on, you would fancy (with the help 
of a figure) that, instead of a little withered elderly Keitl^m^ni it waa 
Venus aiiiied by the Graces. His miniature* were not f;iEhioiiahle 
— L^y ^ct^ faahion iiaelf. When more than ninety, be retired from 
piestion, and uied to bold up the paliicd right hand that had 
i lords and ladies for upwards of (ixty years, and smiled, with 
unabated good humour, at the vanity of human wishes. Take hin 
with all his latilti or follies, ■ ve scarce shall look opon hi* like again I ' 
After iqicaking of him, wc arc asbamed to go back to Fonthill, 
lest one drop of gall should fall from our pen. Mo, foe the rest of 
our way, we will dip it in the milk of human kindness, and delirer 
all with charity. There ate four or live very cunouv cabinets — a 
triple jewel cabinet of opaque, witli panels of tmniparect amber, 
dazxlci the eye like a temple of the New Jerusalem- — the Nautilus's 
shell, with the triumph nf Neptune and Amphitritc, is clcgaoi. and 
the uhlc on which it stands superb— the cupt, lases, and iiculpiutes, 
by Cellini, Berg, and John of Bologna, arc as admirable as tiiey ate 
rare — the Betghem (a lea-poit) is a fair specimen of that master — 
the Poulterer's Shop, by G. Douw, is passable — there arc some 
middling Bassans— the Sibylla Libvca, of 1.. Caracci, is in the 
grand style of componition — there is a good copy of a head by 
Pitracgiano — the painted windows in the centre of the Abbey ha»e 
a surprising etfect — the form of the building (which was raised ^ 
loicb-lighi) is fantutical, to say the least — and the grounds, which 




or FQcnrxEs 




flf « IB ibor a«a pSMHi ia tie 
■me otfcen. 

1 OKc kaew ■ vcrf nHvkaUe iaKMce vl^m. 
kad w?Mtcs s uBiLJ— af m cxUimb. Is Am 
um «f dK btfifeco F*'** *^ «irt> ^ t«« 
M^ tadced, ID h>*c wiiitprt, ow ««dd hnc 
toauiaM. I WM SW| ilo«n too the tomaaj to tb^ 
dicae bfotten &*c4« aad [ waa asfced to be the bemr of tfe wt 
b wbidi tfce crkMpe appeared. I vaa •a, and aeat * cny » ^d 
of tbns. Sane daja a fie n agd a 1 oSkA on one of tka^ «ir 
begM 10 ipctk «f the rertcw of In jwiwca. He r^T M—t^ nw 
ikaBk* for wbar vaa taid of tbcn, b«t c o w p hittl ilat tfat wmr ^ 





JUDGING OP PICTURES 

it had fallen into * vcfy common error under whidi he had oJten 
sufTcrcil— the coaToundinj;! (umcly, his piccum with his brother's. 
'Now. mjr de>r m,' amtiitued he, ■ what it uid of ise ia all tery 
well, but here,' mreiog to the biKh-wroup.ht UHoejij-rk oo hit brother, 
■ thu it all in alhision to my Uyle — tbii a all uitji lefeTcnce to my 
pictures — this in all meant for me.' I could hardly help exclaiming 
before the man'* face. The ptaitc which wa« given to hinuclf wai 
nich as would hare called a biuih to any but a paiaier's face to speak 
oTi but, not content with this, he imistcd on appropriating bis 
Itfothci't a!ao : How tntitiatc is the pictorial man I 

But to come to the more general lubject — I deny u Imp and at 
once ibe exdusire right and power of painters to judge of picture*. 
What is » picture meant for ? To convey certain idcai to the mind 
of painiert f cfiai is, of one man in ten thouiond ! — No, but to make 
them appirent to the eye and mind of all. If a piciurc be admired 
by none but painters, I think it is strong presumption that the 
(ucturc is bad. A painter is no more a judge, I suppose, (ban 
another man of how people feel uod look under certain pasiions and 
erenls. Erery body tees as well as htm whether certain figures oo 
the canvas arc tike such a roan, or like a cow, a tree, :i bridge, or a 
windmill. All that the poinicr can do more than the lay spectator, 
is to letl tt/iy and inm the merits and defects of a picture arc pro- 
duced. I sec that such a figure is ungraceful and out of nature — be 
shows me that the drawug is faulty, or the foreshortening incorrcct. 
Hc then points out to me whence the blemish arises ; but he is not 
S bit more aware of the existence of the blemish than I am. In 
Hogarth's * Frontitpieoe ' I see that the whole businesi is abmird, 
for a tnao on a bill two miles off could not tight his pipe at a candle 
hcM out of a window clow to me — be telii me that it ii from a want 
of pcTspcctire, that is, of certain rule* b^ which certain cfTeci* are 
obtained. He shows me tc/>j> the picture it bad, but I am just as 
well capaUc of saying ' The picture is bad ' as he is. To lake a 
coarse illusuation, but one most exactly appome, I can tell whetlier 
a made dish be good or bad, — whether its ia»e be pleasant or dis- 
agreeable.— It ia dretaed fot the palate of nntnitiaud people, and 
not aloM for the disciples of Dr. Kitchener and Mi. Ude. But it 
needs a cook to tell one lety h i» bad ; that there is a grain too much 
of this, or a drop too much of t'other — that ii has been boiled rather 
(00 much, or itcw<>d rather too little — ihc«c thiols, the wbercforet, 
as 'S<jBire Western woutd say, I require an artist to tell me, — but 
the point io debate — the wotth or the bad quality of the painting 
or potage, I am as well able to decide noon as any be wbo eter 
braadsshed a pallet or a pan, a brush or a sktminingJadlc. 

3S7 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

To f^ into the higher breocbtt of the Art — tbe poetry of paiiHiog 
— I deny Kill mcirc pcrcmpiorjty the cxcluiircne» of the iniiiatrd. 
It might be ai well said, ihnt nooc but ihotc w-Jio could write- a play 
have any t\jf» to tit on tht- third row in the pit, on the fir« nigbi of 
a new tragedy. Nay, there it more plausibiliiy in the one than the 
other. No nurn can judjtr of fotity widiow pofscuinfi in tome 
meorarc a poetical miou. It ce«d not be of that degree nccenanr 
to create, hut it mud be equni to lute and to analyse. Now n 
painting there i« a directly mechanical power re<)nired to render thote 
rin;(giiuiiion>, to the juclging of which the mind ma* be perfectly 
comprirnt. ( may know what it a juM or a beautiful rrprcicotatioa 
of love, iinp,cr, madn^M, dccpair, wilhout being able to draw a iiriijiln 
lioe— and I do nut tee how that faculty add* to the capaUIity of lo 
judging. A very great procottioa of paintifig it mrchaaical. The 
higher kindi of painiing nceJ first a poet's nnod to cooceire : — Very 
we]!, but then they r\crii a draughtsman'* band to execute. Now be 
vlio poMCUct the mind ntonc i< Ailly nble to jud;!e of what ■* pro- 
dncM, even though he is by no mean* endowed wkh the mechartica] 
power ofprotiacing it bimtelf. I am far from laying that wiy one 
18 capable of duly judging pictnrc* of (he higher cUiB. It rrauim 
a mind capable of eMimating the noble, or touching, or terrible, oi 
aublime aubjccia which they pre»eot — but there ii no aort ofneoeaiity 
that we ihould be able to put thera upon the caorat ourwlvn. 

There i* one point, even, on which painter* oinally judge wor«e 
of pictures than the general (pectatOT ; I ny nluaJty, for there are 
fDnrr painters who are too iboeoughly intellectual to run into the ctfor 
of which I am about to speak. I menn that they are apt to ovctiook 
the higher and more mental part* of a picture, in tWir haute to 
criticitc iu mechanical propertiea. They forget the exprrtiim, in 
being too mindful of what i* more atrictly manna). They talk of 
(uch a colour being skiUully or tiDakill fully put in opposition to 
another, rather than of the moral contratt of the couitenancea of a 
group. They nay that the lleah-tinti are well bronght oat, before 
they tpeak or the face which the Iteth formt. To a«e a French 
term of much cond en nation, they think of the f^M^ before they 
bestow any attention on the moralf. 

I am the fanbest in the woild from falling into the abattniity of 
upliolding that paitiierx should neglect ll>e mechanical pari* of their 

Erofennion ; for without a maitery in them it would be impoMtblc to 
ody forth any i map' nation*, howerer ttrong or beautim. I only 
wiih that they KhouM not overlook the end to which these are the 
mean»_and give them an undue ptefercnce over that end itcclf. Still 
more I object to their arrogaiiDg to the poMcwort of theac quaUtiea 
3S8 




I 



THE VATICAN 

of iiand and «yc all power of judging that which i« eomtytd tfarottgh 
the phytical viaion into the inward toul. 

On looking ov<rr what I haw wttit^n, I lind that I Iutc uttd 
some cxpr«>iunE with re)[.LTd lo puinicn ut u body which miy suite 
it xppenr tbut 1 hold them in liglit esteem t whcrnu no one can 
admire ihcir art, or ^ipprccintc their puriniit of it, more highly than 
1 do. Of what 1 have saiii, however, with regard to their paltry 
denial of each other's merits, 1 cannot bate them an ace. I appeal 
to all those who arc in the habit of aaioduieg with painten to tay 
whether niy aaaertion be not correct. And why diould they do 
this i — rarely the iield \» wide enough. Haydon and WiUue can 
travel to fame together without ever jostling each other by the way. 
Surely there ^re p;iriillel coadt which nuy be followed, each leading 
to ihc lame point — bni Dcilher crossing or trenching upon ooc 
another. 

The Art of Tainting la one equally delightful to the eye and to 
the mind. Ii has very nearly the reality of drumaiic exhibition, 
and has permanence, which th:it i* wholly without. Wc may gate 
at a picture, and pitie to think, and turn and gaze a^n. The art 
in inferior to poetry in magniludc of extent and nucceiinon of detail— 
but it» power over any one point it fat tuperiot : it teizc* it, and 
figurts it forth in corporeal existence if not in bodily life. It givci^ 
to the eye the phy«jc»l semblance of thoae figuret which have floated 
in vagueaoa in the mind. It condcotei induiinct and gauzy vitiont 
into pdpable foims — as, in the ttory, the monung miit gathered into 
the embodying a apitit. Uut shall it be taid that the enchanter alone 
can judge of the enchantment — thai none shall hare an eye to aee* 
and a heart to feel, unlMt be hare alio a band to executed Ala*, 
our inherent pcrccptionn give the lie to this. As I used 10 go to 
the I.ouvre, day after day, to glut myself and rcTel in the con- 
gregated genius of pictorial .tget, would any one convince me tliat 
it was necessary to be able to paint that 1 might duly appreciate a 
picture i 

THE VATICAN 

I,. Thb Vatican did not quite answer your expecUtion i 

H. To tay the truth, it was not nich a blow ai the Louvre : but 
then it came after it, and what ii mote, at the distance of twenty 
years. To hare made the tame imprcBiioo, it ihould hate been 
twenty time* nt line ; though that wu scarcely pouible, lincc all that 
there is fine in the Vaiic.tn, in Italy, or in the world, was in the 
Louvre when 1 lirff (aw it, except the frrscoei of Raphael and 

JS9 





ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

Michael Angdot whidi could not be Inwiported, without takb^ tfae 
walU of the building, acroM the AJpi. 

L. And whkt, ma^ I atk (for I am cniiotu to hear,) did yoa 
think oftliFbe •am« TrrKoca? 

H. Mucli the Rami* ai bcTofc I «aw tbcm. Ac far as 1 couU 
judge, they are very like the prioii. I do not think the tpectator'i 
idea of them ii enhanced beyond thit. The Raphaels, of which jrov 
have a diidnct and admirable view, are »oaiei»faat faded — I do aot 
mean in colour, but the outline it injure d — <pd the Sibyln aod 
Pfoplicu in ihc Siniftc Cbapcl are painted on the ceiling at too greM 
a height for the eye to <li«ingui«h the faces m accurately m oar 
would with. The features and exprewioos of the figtircs near tbr 
bottom of the ' Latt Judgment ' arc sufficiently plain, aod honStfe 
enough ibej- are. 

L. What wai your opntoti of the *I^W Judgraenl' itaelf? 

H. It ii litctaliy too big to be seen. It tt like nn immcDM field of 
battle, or cbuneUhousr, tircwcd with carcase* and naked bodies : or 
it i( ■ shaiBble* of Atu You have huge limbs apparently toro from 
their bodies and stuck sguost the wait : anitomkal diBwctioina, bKkt 
and clinphiiKins, tumbling ' with hideous niin and con^bunion down,' 
neither intelligible graups, nor perspective) nor colour ; jroo di»- 
tinguiih the principal figure, that of Christ, only from ita sumding in 
the centre of the picture, on a ton of island of earth, Kcparsted Am> 
the rest of ihc tubjcct by an inlet of sky. The whole is a texat of 
cQornious, gliastly confusion, in which you can only make out qoaotity 
and number, and vast, uncouth masses of bones and muscles. It bai 
the intohcreocu and dittortJOD of a troubled dfcam, wttboot the 
ahadowinesK ; ererytbii^ b here corporeal and of Mlid dimennoni. 

/.. Bui Kurcly there muit be something line in the 8ibyls and 
Prophets, frnm the copies we hare of them ) juttifying tbc high 
cncomiumf of Sir Joshua Rcynnlils, .ia<l of to many other*. 

H. It appears to mc thai nothing can be finer tu to foiriD, attrtndc, 
and outline. The vhole conccpdon is so far inimitably nuble and 
juit I and all that is felt aa wanting, is a jiropottiooablc degree of 
cxprestion in The countenances, though of this I am not siare, for the 
height (as I said before) bu^ffies a mce scrutiny. They look to me 
UBfinidied, ragne, and general. Like lome fabulous figure from the 
■Dlique, the heads were brutal, the bodies divine. Or at moat, the 
faces were ooly cominuationt of and on a pnr with the physical forn^ 
tarp.e and bold, and with great breadth of drawing, but do more the 
teu of a vivifying spirit, or with a more powerful and aurked 
intelligence emanating from them, ihio from the rett of the tinibi, the 
hands or even drapery. The filling up ot the miad is, I suspect, 

360 



. 




THE VATICAN 

wanting, the iSvttu farlkala aare : there li prodigioun and Bughly 
prominence and grandcui and limplicily in tht^ fe:itur», but they are 
not surchnrged with meaning, with thouf^hl or puiion, like Raphael'*, 
' the rapt soul sitiing in the *)•««.' On the contrary, they leem only 
to be half-iDl'ormed, and might be almost thought wlcep. They ar« 
fine niouldg, and contain a capacity of expreasion, but arc not buTMing, 
teeming with it. The outward niatetial sliriae, or taberdRcle, i* 
unexccptionsble ; but there it nut superadded to it x reveUuoD of the 
working! of the mind within. The formi tn Michael Angelo m 
objccti to admire in thcmielvet : thoic of Raphael are merely a 
language pointing lo something beyond, md full of ihiE uliimate 
import. 

L. Butdoet not the dilferrnce arise from the nature of the «ubjeci*^ 
H. I Bhould think, not. Surely, a Sibyl in the height of her 
phren»y, or an inipired Prophet — ' seer blest ' — in the act of leceiviog 
or of announcing the will of the Almighty, is not a lesi lit subject for 
the most exalted and inipassioncd cxptcBtion thiin an Apostle, a Pope, 
i Saint, or a common man. If you say that these pcnton* are not 
represented in the act of inspired communication, but in their ordinary 
quiescent state, — granted ; but such preternatural workings, a* well as 

tthe character and frame of mind proper foi them, mu« leave their 
(hadowings and lofty traces behind them. The (ace that has oocc 
held communion with the Mo«i High, or been wrought lo madneti 
by deep thought and pasnion, or that inly brood* over it* Mcred or it* 

I magic lore, mutt be ' as a hook where oee may read strange matter*,* 
ih:it cannot be openctt without » corretpondcnt nwe and reverence. 
But here ii 'neither (he cloud by day nor the pillsr of fire by night;' 
neither the blaie of immediate innpiration nor the hallowed tadiancci 
the mystic gloomy lip,ht that follows it, so far as I was able to 
perceive. I think it idle to suy thut Michael An)r,elo painted man in 
the abstract, and ik> left the cxpreuion indetetminaic, when he painted 
prophets and other given charactem in particular. He has ])aimed 
them on a larger ictlc, and Cist their limbs in a gigantic mould to gire 
a dignity and command answering to their situations and high calling, 
but I do not see the same high character and intensity of thought or 
purpose impressed upon their counieoancet. Thus, nothtng can be 
nobler or more characteristic than the figure of the prophet Jeremiah. 
I It is not abstracted, but symbolical of the history and lunctioni of the 

I Individual. The whole ligurc bend* and droop* under a wnght of 

woe, like a large willow tree surcharged with shower*. Yet there is 
no peculiar expression of grief in one part mote than another ; the 
head hangs down dtipondingly indeed, but so do the hands, ihe 
clothes, and every pan Utaat to labour under and be involved in a 

361 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



complicatioc of diwcia. Agum the prophet I^ua ii nprncnwd 
rcadmg b a urilung attiwde of auefliioDi and with the book hM 
dote to him uif to lose m> port of il* conteait in empty Buace: — all 
thif is fiorly ima^Dcd and dnigned, but then the book reflecU bock 
none of iti pregnant, hieroglyphic meaning on the face, which, though 
Urge and nsicly, h an ordioa^, unimpa««ioncd, and ereo taaJtai one. 
Danic), again, ii mcaot for a ncc of inward thought and muaiDg, but 
it might teem ^t if ilie cumpicmioD of the feature* were produced by 
«uetaa) force » much ai by invi>1untury perplexity. I mijtbt extend 
theie remark! to ihii artitt'n other wotlu ; for inttance, to the Mo*ea, 
nf which the form and attitude exprnt the utmott dignity and 
energy of purpose, bw the face wants a aomething of the ioicUigeoce 
aod expansive iiew« of the Hebrew le^dntor. It it cvt from the 
nme bJock, and by the same bold aweepiog haad, aa the undals or 
the drmry. 

L. Do you think there i* any truth or value in the di«unctioa 
which atingn* to Raphael the dramatic, and to Michael Angelo the 
epic departmeM of ihc art ^ 

H. Very liulc, 1 confcaa. It i« no far true, that Michael Angdo 
painted tingle figures, and Raphael chieiiy groupn; but Michael 
Angclo gave life and action to htt tigures, though not the tame 
expression to the face. 1 think ihia arose from two circumuancci. 
FtiM, from hi) habits at a sculptor, in which form prcdonunate«, and 
in which the lixed lineamentt are mure attended to than the paaunx 
inflectioni, which ore neither ika easily caught nor no well given in 
aculpiure as in painting. Secondly, it nrikex nie that Michael 
Angclo, who was a strong, iron-built man, sympathiied mote with 
the organic structure, with bones and niunclcii, ih»n with ihe ntore 
subtle and xenaitive workings of that Aoc medullary subsinncc called 
the biain. He compounded mun admirably of brass ot clay, but did 
not succeed eauaily \n breathing into his nusirila tlie breath of life* of 
thought or feeling. He has lena humanity than Raphael, and I think 
that he ii alio less divine, unless it be aiaertcd that the body t* leas 
aLied to earth than the mind, l^xpremiion it, after all, the principal 
thing. If Michael Angelo's forms have, at 1 allow, an intellectual 
character about llieni and a greatness of gu>to, m that you would 
almost tay ' his bocltes thought i ' his faces, on the other hand, have 
a drossy and material one. For example, in the li;>ure of Adaat 
coming from the hand of hi> Creator, the composition, which goe« on 
the idea of a being stnrting into life at the touch of Omnipotence, it 
sublime: — the figure of Adam, reclined at caac with manly freedom 
and inHc]>cfidence, is worthy of the original founder of our race ; and 
the exprcBsion of the face, implying passive lesignacioo and the foM 

j6* 



4 
4 



4 




THE VATICAN 

coQ^ioustms of cxisteoce, is in Uiorough kecpinft— but I tee noUuog 
in the couDtenancc of the Deity (l«iocin^ suprnne might and imjeity. 
The Eve, too, lying extended M the foot of the Forbidden Tree, hit 
an cUiticicy and buoyancy about it, that »rcms a* if il could bound up 
from the eanh of itt own accord, tike a bow that hM been brat. It 
in all life and grace. The action of the bead throwo back, aad the 
upward look, correspond to the rest. The artiic was here at lioioc. 
Id like manner, in (be allegorical liiiutea of Night and Mora at 
Florence, the face* are uglv or difioitcd, but the contour and action* 
of the limbi expres* dignitv and power, in the very hij;hc*t degree. 
The legs of the figure of Night, in particular, ntc iwinrd into the 
iorolutions of a icrpenc'ii foldi ; the neck it cuncd like the horw's, 
and il clothed with thunder. 

L. What, then, is the precise difference betwccD bim and Raphael, 
according lo your conception ? 

//. As far a> t can explain the matter, it seemti to nie that Michael 
Angclo'i forms arc finer, but that Raphael** are more fraught with 
meaning ; that the rigid outline and disjinnablc manics in the f rxt are 
more grand and imposing, but that Raphael put* a greater proportion 
of sentiment into his, and calis into play every faculty of mind and 
body of which his characters arc susceptible, with greater subtilty 
and intensity of feeling. Dryden's lines — 

' A fiery vnil that working out its way 
Frrlttii ilie pigmy tiwly to decay. 
And o'cr-inform'S thf tenement of clay" — 

do not exactly answer to Raphael's character, which is mild and 
thoughtful rather than lirry ; nor is there any wxnt either of grace or 
grandeur in his figures ; but (be passage describes (he 'o'ef-informbg ' 
spirit tbat breathes through them, and the uno^ual struggle of the 
expreinion to *ent iuclf by more than ordin.-iry phyncal mean*. 
Raphael lived a much shorter lime than Michael Aogelo, who also 
lived long after him ; and there is no comparison between the 
number, the variety, or the finished elegance of ilieir works.' 
Michael Angelo postibly lost himself in the material and tnsttumenul 
part of urt, in embodying a technical theory, or in acquiring the 
f,rammar of diiferent branches of study, excelling in knowledge and in 
gravity of pretention ; whereas Raphael gave himself up to the 
diviner or lovelier impulse that breathes its soul over (he face of 

I The cil-pleturct *ltrlbule<l la Michael Angela tre metgre mil pitiful ; lucb i> 
ihil o( lh( Ftta SI Florencr. Anolhcr of Witches, at Cic^imJi! Foeh'i it Kome, 
i« likr whit the latr Mr. Barry wnulil han iflaiirvd ani imildtcil^Hin^y, eim, 
and ncsat. 

)6S 




THE VATICAN 



poitiut* iC-jBiMaK »tid cflrdinaU on ihc dghi-hand, which b»rt the 
Miwllft|<fnft| boldncM, and marked character, a if yoD could hive 
looked in upon the atBcmbled conclatc. Neiiher painttD£ nor pofery 
ever produced anylhiD^ fioer. There it the utmuti hirdoets *nd 
maicrialhy of outline, with a ipirit of lire. The School of Atheo* i* 
fiill of striking pAris nnd ingcniuus conttatiii ; but i prefer to it the 
CoD?oc3tion of Saints with that noble circle of Prophet* osd 
Apo«tIe4 Id the tky, on whose bent fotcheids and downon cyca rou 
see written the Ctiy of the Ble«t, the beatific prMccce of the Mott 
High and the Glory hereafter to be revealed, a wlemn brightnen 
and a (eatfitl dream, and that tcarce leiK inipired drcle of Hges 
canoniied hctc on earth, poctn, heroei, and pbilo«ophera, with the 
punter himself, rmering on one lide like ihc recording angel, imiling 
in youthful beauty, and scarce conicious nf the scene he hu embodied. 
If thete i» a failure in any of these frescoes, it is, i think, in the 
ParnaMus, in which there is soiucthing cjuaiot and atlecied. In the 
St. Peier ilelitered from prison, be lias burst with Rembrandt into 
the dark chatnben of ni);lit, and thrown a ^lory round ihcm. In the 
ttoty of Cupid aad Piyche, at the Little Farncie, he hu, I think, 
cTen surpniited hinitclf in a certain (welling and loluptuous grace, ii 
if beauty grew and ripened under his touch, and ihe Tcty genius of 
ancient fable hovered over his enamoured pencil. 

L. I believe you when you praiK, not alwayv when you coodema. 
Was there anything elae that you uw to giie you a higher idea of 
bim than the ipecintens we have in this country ; 

H. Nothing superior to the Cartoons for boldocM of deiign arid 
execution ; but I think bit ben oil pictures are abroad, though 1 had 
teen most of them before in tbe Louvre. I had not, however, teen 
the CrowniDg of the Virgin, which is in the Picture-gallery of the 
Vatican, and appears to me one of his very highest' wrou^t factoro. 
The Vir^o in the clouds u of an admirable sedaienen and dignity, 
and over (he throng of breathing faces below there is poured a ttrfiun 
of joy and fervid devotion thai can be compared tu nothing but the 
golden light that evening skies pour on the cdgei of the tureing 
waves, ' Hope clevalei, and joy brightens their every tcalere.' I'he 
Foligno Virgin was at Paris, in which I cannot uy I am <jiiite 
laiisned with the Madonna ; it has rather » pntitutt expresMon i but 
[ know not enough how to admire the innumerable heads of cberubi 
surrounding hcf, touched in with mch care and delicacy, yet bo as 
scarcely to be perceptible except on dose intpectioo, nor that ^gnre 
of the winged cherub below, oneting the casket, and with hia round, 
chubby face and limbs a> full of rosy heal^ and joy, as the cup t* 
full of the juice of the purple vine. There is another picture of his I 



T* €m 




ENGLISH STUDENTS AT ROME 

like ){oia|t a deli}:htful and various jpaiocy. Yon recall ot aoticipue 
the niMt interemn^ icenei 4od objecls. Out of ibe viaduwa of 
thcDc long stragi^Iing gTiHerie*, yoa look duivn into u labyrinth of 
inner and of ouwr courts or caich the Donw of St Pcta't adjoiDiog 
(like a huge •hadow), or gaze at the dinam amphitheatre of hilU 
Miriounding the Sacred Ctty, which excite a pleasing awe, whether 
considered at the haunts of banditti or from a recollection of ih« 
wondroui Kene, the hallowed bjjoi, on vfhich tbey hate orerlooked 
for ages Imperial or Papal Roine, or her comnian wealth, more au^M 
than either. Here alio in one chamber of the Vatican u a room 
itulTed full of nrtitu, copying the Tranritguratioo, or the 8i. Jerome 
of Domenichino, spilling, ihmgging, and wking muff, admiring th«ir 
own performances and sneering at those of their neighbour* ; aod OD 
certain dayt of the week the whole range of the rooms ia thrown open 
without reterve to ilie entire population of Rome and ita enTiroo^t 
pHeiti and peanants, with headt not unlike those that gleam from the 
walU, perfect in cxprewion and in coiiume, and young peasint giila 
in clotitcd chocs with look* of pleniure, timidity and wonder, lucb aa 
those with which Raphael himxctf, from the portiaii* of him, might 
be tuppo»ed to have hailed (he dawa of hfaven*bora art. nHiere is 
alftO (to mention tmall works with great) a portrait of George the 
Fourth in bis rohea (a preMrci to hi* HoUaest) turned into an outer 
loom I and a tablet erected by him in St. Peter's, to the iDeraory of 
Jaroea in. Would you believe it i Cosmo Comyne BradwanUne, 
when he naw the averted looks of the good people of England as 
they proclaimed hin Majrsty James lit. in any of the lawn* through 
which tbey paised, wotdd not hare believed it. PergUB Nfaclror, 
when in anawer to the crier of the court, who repeated ' Long liie 
King George ! ' he retorted, * Long live King Jamct ! ' would oot 
have believed it possible ! 

L. Haog your politics. 

H, Never mind, if they do not hang me. 



ENGLISH STUDENTS AT ROME 

* No whtt io bojr j nun «i hr Ihtr n'ss, 
And ytl bt ttmci baist than he wis,' 

frahpK ft lit Cfurhy Tnln. 

Rome is of all places the worn to Hudy in, foi the same reaMn 
that it is the best to lounge b. There is no end of objects to diven 
and distract the mind. If a persen has no other ricw than to posa 
away his time, to fill his fot^tiio or common-place book, or lo 

3*7 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

iamovc hit gAcnl tane anil knowledge, be nuy find employ mcac 
MM imiMcmccit here fot ever : if ttet be wubct to do any xbiog, he 
should Sj from it a» he would (iota the plague. There it a >peciet 
of malaria han|^Dg mtt it, which infccta both the tnind and the body, 
tl ban tweo the acxt of too much actidiy aod luxury fontkerlr, not to 
biTc produced u cotrct|>uadeDt toqwr aod nugaatioo (both in tbe 
phyiiciil and mural world) a> the natural coiu«|iKnce at pre«cnt. If 
Necctnty it the mother of Inrentioa it ntuit be stilled in iIk birth 
here, wikcic every thing i« already done and povnlcd to your hand 
thai you could pouibly wiih for or think of. You have no uimuliu 
to exCTiioD, for you hate but to open your eye* and fee, in order to 
li*e in a costioucd round of delight and admirstion. Tbe doon of a 
^Icndid banquet of all iliat it rare and cich in an uaitd ready opes 
ts you, Tou are innted to enter in and feaat your sca*e« and jagd| 
jBu^nation griu'u ; and it ii not Ukely that, under theie circomttaacM^ 
you will try to earn a tcnoty meal by bard labour, of even to gain m 
appetite by wholctORie excrcinc. The Eune thing occnra here <hn ii . 
objcacd to the inhabiunu of great cilie* In gcnetat I'hey hafH 
too many object* alwaya pasting before them, that engage tlu' 
aueniian and fill up their tinw, to allow them either niocb tenure < 
■nclinuion for thouf;ht or ttudy. Ronie it the great metropolia of] 
Art ; and it ia iioniewtiat to be feared that tfaoac who take up theicf 
abode there will become, like otbct toeiaty/, ignorant, conceited, 
and superRcial. 

Tbe queen and mietreM of the ancient and the modem world claiiMj 
rach a traniceodacii suj)criuiiiy orcr the mind, that you look down i 
it were from this eminence on the tett of mankind j and from theJ 
cooiem^ you feel for others, come to liate a mighty good opinioa of] 
yourtelt. The leing at Rome (both from the sound of the name Rod J 
the monumcnu of genius and magnilicence she has to show) is of' 
itself a nfficicDt distinction without doing anything there. Aitn 
viewing some splendid relic of antiquity, the cRoru of contemporary 
an sink into iDsigcificance and noihingncss : but we arc diapuwd to | 
occupy the vacant space, tbe clear ground thus created, with uur own ' 
puny pretcniioni and asptiing fanciea. As this indulgence of aheriMUe 
enthutiann aod reflected self-complacency is a neTer-&iliog aoorcc of i 
gratiticaiioit, and a much leu laborious one than the embodying our 
vain iniaginitioD* in practice, we caiily rest in the means a* the enil ; 
and without making any fanbcr progrcs>, are perfectly satisfied witli 
what otherv have done, ncd what we isre to do. We indeed wear 
the livery, and follow in the liain of greaincts; aad, like other lirary^, 
tcrvanu, despise tbe rabble, gtowtojt more lazy, aiTccced, luxurions, • 
insolent, iriHing, and incapable of gaining an hoocM livclibood eteryJ 

368 



ENGLISH STUDENTS AT ROME 



I 



hour. We are ihe dupe* a( flittering appearanceji and of hisc coni' 
parinonn between ourtclvc* and other*. Wc think ihiU t famjliaihy 
with great nnmcii and great workt i> >in ;ipproach to an cqiultiy with 
them: or fondly proceed to eftablith our own pretension* on the 
luiiis of other*! not considering thac if it were not what we lis, but 
what we itf, that i« the standard of proltcteocy, tboutaod^ of spec- 
tator* might give themBelvei the laiiie airK of telf-iiDpoctuice on the 
■anie idle icore, and treat us as barbariam and poor creature*, if they 
hid our iniperiincncc and prciumption. We sutnd before a picture 
of «omc gtcRt rnnaier, and Ucicy thcie is nothing between him and ut: 
we walk under the Dome of Si. Peter's, and it letmi to grow larger 
with a GOnscioutncss of our presence and with the amplitude of our 
coDcqitioos. All ttiis is fine as well as eaty work ; nor can it be 
luppcwed that we shall be in any haste to exchange tliis waking 
dream for the drudgery of inechantc;il exertion, or for the mortifying 
evidence of the disparity between our theory and our practice. Ail 
the great names and nchDoU of art nand proxy for lu, till wc choose 
to take the rctponsibility on our own shoulders ; atid as it happens in 
other cases, we have no objection to make oui faith in the merits of 
others a convenient substitute for good woiks and zealous cxeiiions 
in the caune. Vet a common Bionc-niasoo or sigo-paintert who 
uuderttands the use of bis tools and sticks close to bis busiaeM, has 
more ruembUncc to Raphael or Michael Angelo, and stands a 
better chuice of achieving something great, than those who visit the 
Corridor* of the Vatican or St. Peter'* once a day, return home, 
spend the cTeniflg in extolling what they hive wiincs«cd, begin a sketch 
or a plan and lay it aside, and taunter out again the next day in search 
of fresh objects to dissipjtic tmud and kill ihc time without being obliged 
to draw for one instant on their own resources or resolution. 

NumbcrletB are the inatances of tho»e who go on thus, while vanity 
and indolence together are conlirined iiito an incumble disease, the 
sleek, p.tmpc[cd time of which they mtslake for the matks of Uiste 
and genius. What other result can be expected? If they do anything, 
it ii all oTer with them. They not only strip off the mask from their 
own self-love, but expose thrmaclve* to the piiy and derision of ibcit 
competitors, whom tliey before aAcctcd to decpisc. Within ■ the 
vast, the unbounded ' circle of pretension, of vapouring, and inucndo, 
they are safe : the future ivaald-be Raphaels, Correggios, Sec. have 
nothing to dread from criticism whiie they hatch their embryo 
conquests and prepare a distant triumph : no one can apply Ilburiel's 
tpcar 10 delect what is confesacdiy a shadow. But they must waive 
(his privilege when tliey descend into the common list* ; and in 
propotrion as ihey have committed thcmwlve* in eonveriation or in 

VOL. II, : I A 369 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

idle fincy, tbey an uhsmcd to commh tbenMclvc* in rciiliiy, \xaatt 
■ny thing they could do tt (a» matt nuTwdsbty fatt thon of tha 
lugh Kandanl of exedleacct which (If si sill) can only be atuiocd by 
the bboQf and experientt of a whole Ufe. Thrit ml rocafachy 
thrinks from ihr pomp of tbeir profeatioD*. The magnificeace of 
tbc air-dtawn ediMc of their reputattoa pievcDU (twm frorn layioe the 
fim none Hi downright wnttt; aod dtey bare no other moik of 
cxcming the delay, am) the indccitian it betoVcos, than by ufumiag 
•till greater delicacy of Uite aod loftineu of ambition, and by that 
aggraDdiang their imfouaded achcmcs, rcnderiog their execution mare 
hopelet* and impoHible. Should they begin aoniethiDg, a ne* 
Ihov^t «irikc» them, and tbey throw aaide a very promiaing *ketcb 
to tolirge thcii cantaM aod pvcecd npon a acalc more tronhy of 
them : to this enlarged deiign aome object ii tDdiipcouibly ncorfiirj, 
which ia Boiuckily waodog :— tbna time i« gained, a new leaae of 
credit b grast«d> and instead of jntiing tbc la*t hand to (he origimi 
afcctch, they take merit to ihentaclrcs for the cnUrgement of tbdr 
view* and the deicrroined pursuit of ihe higber walk of art. Haft' 
time, the imalter picture Mind* unfiaithed on the ea*e], and nooiU 
coimniuiaot pour in for new and more extended project*. Thee 
comei a new Kcrei of colounofii a new prbciple of groupitig, a onr 
theory, a new book — alway* (uroethinf; to diaw off the anrntion from 
iia proper object, and lo lubttititte laborion* idlencM for true pw 
and profltabte stody. Then a picture it to be copied 3» a preforHi 
for undeitakiiis a gitco fubjcct, or a library to be ranxxcked 
aaceruia the pccciie truth of the bitioricat facta or the exact coon^ | 
lion of the cbaiactei* ; and after a year thus tou in denihory aM ' 
•cruputou* teiearcheii, the w-huk- plan is j>tvco up, either bccaiiw oO 
one coTDci fofwiitd etTectvuUy to patxoniae it, or bccaaae tome nun 
lempting protpcct in opened into the realm* of art and high renowik 
1'hcn again friend* ate to be contulted; (ome admire one thiK 
•ome another ; some recommend the ttudy of nature, others are a 
far the aoti^ue ; aomc insitt on the utmon finithing, othern explode 
all attention to nrinnfiit ; artitta lind one fault, the uninEtTucicd tpectatcr 
another ; and io gomg backwaid* and forward* from one to anotber, 
litteniog to new leaiivo) and new objectigns, in reconciling all putiet 
and pigling none, life la pawed in cndleaa doubu and diffic(iUie% 
and we ducofcr that our moat Taluable year* have lied in baay '. 
prcparaciont to do — cothing. It i* then loo late, and wc coonoM ' 
the remainder in vain rcgrcta and queruloui repining*, aa we did the ] 
flower and marrow of our time in fsnciful ^culation and egregioua r 
triHing. The xudcni ihouJd of all thing* Acer clear of the characKr] 
of the diletiiir.ti— it i* tlie rock on which he i* mo«t likely to «|llbJ 
J 70 



ENGLISH STUDENTS AT ROME 

Pleasure, or cxtrava|;aRCc, or positive idleneM, arc lc«« duocrous; 
for theae he knowa to be faul to hie succcm, aad he induljief m them 
with bin cye» open. But in the other case, he is thrown off hi* gustrd 
by the most plausible appearantct, V»nity here potii on the garb of 
humility, indecision of long-iigtiicd pericTcrance, and habiiu.il sloth 
of constant induHry. Few will reproach u», while we are accumu- 
lating, the means of ultimate succew, with neglecting the end ; or 
remind us that though art is long, life is short. It is true, tliat art ii 
a long and itccp ascent, but we must learn to scale it by regular, 
practical stages, and out by a hasty wioh or util! mure futile calculo- 
tiona .ind mcasutememi of the height. Wc can only indeed be 
sensible of its real height by the actual progresi we have made, ind 
by the glorious view* that gradually dawn upon uk, the checrcrs of 
our way, and the harbingers of our succeM. It is only by ailcniptinj; 
something that we feel where our strength lies, and if we have what 
Iravelleri call a /orir joumet to perform, it ts the more indiiueniablc 
that we should set out betimes and Dot loiter on the road. What ■< 
well done is the conse<]ueDce of doing much — perfection is the reward 
of numberlcBE attempt* and failuren. The chief rcquiiitcs arc a 
practised hand and eye, and an active imagination. Indolent taste 
and passire acc^uirememt are not enough. They will neither supply 
our wants while living, nor enable us to leave a name behind u« alter 
wc are dead. Farther, the brooding over excellence with a feveriRli 
importunity, and ttimuljting ouraelvei to great thing* by an abnract 
love of fame, can d» little good, and may do much harm. It it, no 
doubt, a very delightful and eniiable it.-ite of mind to be in, but 
neither a very arduous nor a very ptoiitabic one. Nothing remarkable 
was ever done, except by following up the impulse of our own mind*, 
by grappling with diflicultic* and improving our adrantages, not by 
dreaming over our own premature triunipha or doaiing on the achievc- 
menta of others. 

If it were nothing else, the haviog the works of the great maKert 
of former times always before ui is enough to discourage and defeat 
all ordinary attempts. How many elegant dctigna and meritorious 
coocepiiona must He buried under the high arched porticoes of the 
Vatican 1 The walls of the Sisiinc Chapel must fall upon the head 
of inferior pretensions and crush them. Whst minor pencil can 
stand in com;<eiition with the ■ pelf I lie mace' that painted the Last 
Judgment ? Wliat fancy can expand into blooming grace and 
beauty by the side of the Heliodotua ? What is it -we could ;idil, or 
what occation, wh.ii need, what pretence i* there to add anything to 
the art after thi> i Who in the pretence of such glorious works does 
not wish 10 shrink into bimaelf, or to live only for iheni \ Is it not a 

37' 



ESSAYS ON THE PINK ARTS 



pn&BttMKi to drak Ik an Inm tv do wit iUbv ^kc tfaem? Aad 
vfaOt hmag ODce mcb, taa twak witfc eamtaon pMieacK or «s& 
ledbw catfaaBMR of iau% w^ bn tnndke is ihrir iboMcp! 
If Utt adiit Iw ■ gate ad Mm «f miMl «t all snoUr, il«r (nft 
and damp bin b^ cfarir inpoMBg nady iwj^ : if faim talent Ucs k i 
diSereat aad kBMti wih, tkry dhcn and o&KtUc Inc mnd. Ifk 
koontcnied U lookoa and adntc ■ Tigae aad ^^MtmnUe akarf 

cqoallf vain hope* and wuba- If be copioi he la miiiiii a aackaac; 
aad t>ffiittf , rani aaodter mk. He fiod* be ^m vkb caac pr it F Tf 
m ibraeday* an t na» w| «ratly fan- efea dun te oaaU da«iib^ 

Ml rfffini. lad ifirr "jlmr'Ti "fr — . n rf^g w iibiirt m mw ii 

He i* tbcrcfon diibcuiOMd and pntoM of coa^Bcaaoce, and nm 
wiib kIkobcc ta original ec mi o Miio B : fcr vhrrc m the anK rf 
tabnc tan ^mu% tbt ptiM and aadtrgoii tf m titne* tlae anitf^n 
■rodnce ooC onr baa d r t dih hr of the met I Wbra I waa yoa*^ 
I made one or two Radka of MTOOg ujmam of ligbt and ikadt Ji 
dN BaBBcr of Renbnndi with great circ and (aa n waa tbn^t] 
«ilb aonc mccvw. But a&er I bad oace coped come of Titaa*! 
ponraiu ia the I.owtc, tny M ob iti oo took a bigher tUfjbK. NotUai 
woold MTTC "•ynvB bo* bcada like T itian T aiaa cxwLiiiuMa, las 
eomybxioet, Titua drt«M« ; aod a* I eedd u*. find thcaa wIntt I 
vaf, aficT one or two abortive attefspt* to engraft Inlin »r. « 
Ef^tith natare, I Aang away taj peadl in dtignat aui dewair. 
Otberwiae I raixbt hiTe dene at «e8 a* otber*i I dare aay, fa«6aa 
a dme to do um tteU. I did not comider tbat Itentv h alwart At 
paai tbisg, or that * Fan ii a god, Apollo it no wan I * — ^Nor » ^ 
■adeat rq)clled aad ttaggcred ta hit progreM ody bj the d^ce tf 
excdkftcc, bat dioractcdaad pOEsltd by the eanny of w»-^«— | .raj. 
iMbm Open hb tngeanona aod liaccft csthmiiaam. WltBc aey ov 
atteodi to what circnnscancca bring in hit way, or ke«pa in the ptd 
tbat it poro w ed by bit own grnhw (inch at ii any be), be ttndi > 
Air cbaace, by ditvcdng all Ut cfibrti to ose potet, to conpaK dn 
atOMK bbJKt of fak anbkian. Bat what likeboaod ia tfaere of tha 
(ram the mooaent ibat all the peat tcbook, and aB tbc iMMt puciiM 
tbtf-d'avert* of art, at oace aareil their divernfied attnctitHM ta b 
attoaafacd agbt \ What P^otefua^ for taaiance, can be pnpefly 
and pernunently imbued with tbc fmmi demioa or aaiai-itkc paritr 
of the Catholic religion, or hope to irandcr tbe pride, pomp, oL 
Mgcantty of that detetted niperititioD to bk own canTaia, with ml 
Kcliog and laa a*ott\ What awdem can enter fully (nio tltc uit 
of the aacioK Gred; mythology, or rival the tymioetry of ita naked 
fbemt { ^^^lai tingle iodiTidiul wQl p rc wn ne to tmhe ' tha colaarna 
J7» 




ENGLISH STUDENTS AT ROME 

of Titian, the drawiog of Raphael, tlir airs of Guido, the learning of 
Pouiiin, the purity of DonieoicbiDo, the eorreggiatiiji of Cotn^o, 
and the grand contour of Michael Angelo,' ut Uie nmt compowdoci i* 
Yet ihofc who aie familiar with all theic diffetcct nylea and iheii 
excellences, re(]uifc them all. Merc origtDiliiy will not mSiee, it Ja 
e[oaint and Gothic — conim on -place perfection \» still more intolerable, 
it ia inaipid and mecbaoical. Modern Ait i« indeed like the fabled 
Sphinx, tliM impoie« imposaible tasks on lier votaries, and as she 
clasps tlicin lo licr bosom pietcc» them to the heart. Let a man bite 
a turn ami Unte for Und»c;ipe, she whitpen him th;tt nothia;; ti truly 
interesting but the human face : if he makes a nucceasful JtiiS in 
portrait, he snon (under the same auspices) aspirci 10 history ; but if 
painting in it* highest walks seems within his reach, she then phys 
olf the solid forms and shining surfaces of sculpture before his eyes, 
urging him to combine the simple grandeur of the Antique with 
Canova's polished elegance i or he is hauntctl with the majestic ctfeaa 
and Ecientilic rules of architecture, and ruined temples and broken 
fragments nod in his bewildered imagination ! What it to be done in 
this cnic ? What generally in done — Nothing. Amidst so many 
prclcntionh, haw is choice possible^ Or where all arc- equally objects 
of taste and knowledge, how rest satidied without giving some proofs 
of our practical proticicncy in all? To mould a clay-figure th.u if 
finislied might surpass the Venus ; to make a peo-and-iuk drawing 
after a splendid piece of colouring by Titian : to girc the picturctciuc 
effect of the arch of some ancient Kjueduct as seen by nioontighi ^ 
lonie >uch meagre abilructionx ;ind llimsy teSnemcnts in art are among 
the J0a£d epirna and ptch'Work trophies olfered to the presiding 
Goddeii of tpleen, idleness, and atfectacion! — 

Nothing can be conceived more unpropitions to ' the high endeavour 
and the glad success,' than the whole aspect ttnd character of ancient 
Rome, both what remains aft well as what is lout of it. Is this the 
Internal City? Is this she that (ama^on or votaress) was twice 
mistress of the world? la this the country of the Scipios, the 
Ctncinnati and the Gracchi, of Cato and of Brutus, of Pompey and 
of Svlla, is this the Capitol where Julius CxMcr fell, where Cicero 
thui\dcred against Catiline, the scene of combats and of triumphs, and 
through whose gates kings and nations were led captive by the side 
of their conctucrors' charioi-wbeels? All is tanisbed. The names 
alone remain to haunt the memory : the spirits of the mighty dead 
mock us, as we pass. The ^^lus of Antiquity bestrides the place 
like a Colossus. Ruin here liti on her iiedestal of pride, and reads a 
mortifying lecture to human vanity. We see all that ages, oations, 
a subjected world cuospired to build up to mo^iiicciice, overthrown 

SYS 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

or hancning Tmi into decay ; empiie, religion, ftcrdom, God* uJ 
mm tiampled in the duu or cooiigncd to the region* of butiq 
oblitrioB or of shadowy rcDowoi and what arc w tliat in thit nigk^ 
wreck we should tliink of caluvating oiu petty taleota und admidii 
oar indtvidal pceicodont i Rooe it ih« very tomb of aocient gRtf- 
tint, the grave of modera pcenitnptioa. The mere conKioonen of 
the prcKccc in which wc uand ou^ht to abaah «ikJ orcrnre on 
pnitmattcal >clf<on<:eii. Men here «eem no better than ituta 
crawling about : cvrfything hat a Lilliputian and inaignificant xpffn- 
aocc. Our hif, ptojeci*. our bloated egouHn, ahiinlc up withn t)ir 
cDonnaus ih;idaw of tranaitory power and apleiidunr : the tinew* itf 
demre relax and moulder away, and the fever of youthliil ambitioD it 
tnnwd iMo a cold ague-lit. There ia a lanj^uor to the ait ; and tbc 
coDUgioD of tisilcta apiihy infect* the hope* tlutt arc yet unborn. — Ai 
to what remain* of actual power and tpirttual authority, Hobbca tui 
well) thai ■ Popeiy wa* the ghoM of the Roman I£tnpiie, »itt)Djt upm 
the rub* of Rome.' The ody flouriihing thing to Rome (and tiit 
b only half Souriihing) h an old woatao i and who would with lo br 
an old woman? Gtcatnci* here i* ercatncas in tna»qaeradc m> 
know* not whether to pity or laugh at it — and the Cardinal*' ted lrg> 
peeping out like the teg* of Mme outlanditli •mlied bird in a Mtianiw 
excite much the «amc cariosity awl wrprtM. No one (no Ea^^ 
man at leaat) can be much edilied by the array of diadncttont, th» 
denote i consuiuniauun of art or wcakoet*. Still, pcrhap*, to tbc 
idle ind frircdout lliete may be tometbiog alluring in this tnrrccnciow 
mummery and tplendow, a* inotli* are attracted to the taper'* i^aae, 
andperi^ in it ! 

There it a great deal of gowping and U-aff going on at Rook. 
There are C^mveriaikiKi, where ihe Cardioab go and admire the bi 
con)p]rxion* and innocent tmilc* of the young Engl tub women ; mi 
where the Eojlinh ttudeota who haie the entrfe look at the fotim 
with utoniabmeot a* a tort of noD'detcti|its, and arc not the le«* uka 
with their pretty countrywomen for being the objects of aitentioa to 
Popish Cnrdinilt. Then come the tittle-tattle of who asd who'i 
together, the ciuaint and pitiuani inter-natioftal galliuitrtc*, and tfe 
•toryof the greatcit beauty in Rome tjid to be married to an FiiiiMi 
gentleman — how odd and at the same time how cncounging ! "fhea 
the nunner* and cnttonii of Rome excise a buzi of curioihy, and thr 
Englith inugination i* alwaya recurring to and leazed with that lack 
lea* queation of eitiitiiim. Some alTeci to be candid, while otht* 
pcniat in their original blindnc**, and would act on foot a rdbftaoT 
the Roman metropoti*— «n the model of the British one ! In therti 
there it a great drat too much tampering and dalliance with tDb)KC^ 

374 



ENGLISH STUDENTS AT ROME 

wiih which wc have lidlt acquainuncc and Icm bu«in«st. All this 
passct the time, aad ielievc« the mind citlicr alter the fatigue at la 
the absence of more aerioUB aiuily. Then there is lo be aa Academy 
Meeting at niglit, and 4 debate i> to take pl.ice whetlier the Academjr 
ought not CO have a Pfctidcni, and if >o, whether the Preddent m 
the Academy At Rome ought not (out of reipcci] to be a Royal 
Academician, chu* extending the links in the chain of profeEiioBal 
intngne and dbal from one side of the Continent lo the other. A 
Micecli is accordingly to be made, a niotton acconded, which require! 
lime and [)ce|>afation^-or a auddeo tbouKht ttrikea the more raw sod 
heedleva aJ<ct«urcr, but ia lout for want of words to exprca* it — /'«( 
Jmdiut h^iit, and the cast of the Thcicun looks dull and lumpinh as the 
diMppoinied candidate fur papular applause survcyi it by the light of 
hi* lamp in retiring to bis chamber, StJel infflix Thtinii, Sec. So 
the next day Gibbon is bought and studied with great avidity lo giTC 
him a command of tropes and figures at rheir next meeting. The 
arrival of some new lord or squire of high degree or clerical vinuoio 
IB announced, and a cabal iniRiediaiely comiiieiice<i, who ia lo share 
hii patronage, who is to guide his tuite, who ia to show htm the Jimm» 
who is la pasquinade, epigrammaiiM: or caricature him, and iix his 
ptacnsions to taste and libentity at culminating from the xeitich 
or sunk below zero. Everything here is transparent and matter of 
instant notoriety : nothing can be done in a corner. The English 
are comparatively few in number, and from theit being in a foreign 
country are objects of importance to one auothei as well as of curioMty 
to the natives, All ranks and classes are blended together for mutual 
attack or deiience. The patron sinks into the compnion ; the pme/ie 
play* off the great man upon occa«ion. Indeed the grand airs and 
haughty tcterre of English manncra are a little ridiculous and out of 
place al Rome. You are glad to meet with any one who will bestow 
his compassion and 'his tcdiousness' upon you. You want tome 
shelter from the insolence and indilfcrence of the inhabitants, which 
arc Tcrjr much calculated to repel the feelings, and throw you back 
on your re»outcei in common humanity or the parti^ility cf your 
(ellow-Gountrymen. Nor ia this the leutt inconvenience of a stranger'a 
residence at Rome. You have to squabble with every one about you 
to prevent being cheated, to drive a hard bargain in order lo lire, to 
keep your h.inds «rd your tongiK within strict bounds, for fear of 
being stilettoed, or thrown into the Tower of St. Angelo, or remanded 
home. You have much to do to avoid the contempt of the inhabi- 
Unta ; if you fancy you can ingratiate yourself with them and play off 
tht amiablt, you have a still more charming pursuit and bait for vanity 
and idleneat. You must run the gauntlet of sarcastic words or look^ 

J7S 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

for a whole (treei, ot bugfaur or wwi of comprebeaiion io njij U 
«U ikc qncwoot jot uk; or if a prcuy bbck-brovrcd girl p«i ca i 
{ncio<M Mpcct, and scrmt to iniercft hen^lf in your )M:rplexit«, jot 
ihtnk youTicIf in higb lucki tod wrtl repaid for a tfaonund affiina 
A »»ik fiuiu ii KonuQ beamy omit be well nigh fatal to bobjx 
Ei»tHb MndeM at Ronne. In abort, while abroaii, and while pb 
tdtiote » cooliiMally coniDg bti> colliciun with rhat of othcn^ lod 
Dtilher know* what to mikc of ih« other, we arc necca«arily tK ^n dju j 
of 0<Bt9clT«t and of ihctn, mil in no picaunt or profitable way. E<m 
thing )( ((r.in]^ nnd rww ; we teem beginning life ovvr again, and M 
like children or ruitic«. We luve not learned the idpliabet of cii&t^ 
tion and hunuoity : how, then, *hould we aipire to the height of An.' 
We arc taken up with ourcelm at Engliab travcllcra and EngU 
Kudent*, when we (bould be diinkbji of •oir>cthing elw. AU ik 
petty iotrigae, vexation, and irataittrie of ordinary deajit^a, theuU 
be baaiabed ai much at pouiblc from the mind of the iludent, «te 
require* lo have his whole time sod EKultiet to himself: all ordiBiy 
matters should go on mechanically of ibcmselm, without giring Ina 
a moRKOt's uneasiBCW or inurrtiption ; but here they arc forced upM 
him with (enfold aharpOCM and fr«<}i)enc)', hurting hia temper n' 
hindertog bis tinw. Inatcad of 'learing from hia memory all trifiil, 
fond reeofda/ that be may derote hbnaelf to the service of Art, ud 
that * Ittr commandment atl alone may lite within the book lod 
Tohime of hit brain, unmixed wHb boaet matter,' lie is nerer ftn 
(ram the most pitiful annoyance* — they follow him into the coont.'^. 
Bt down with him at home, meet him in the street, ukc him by 4* 
button, whilprr io his car, prevent his sleeping, waken him before thr 
dawn, and plagne htm out of his very life, nuking it resemble a rc«- 
lc«« dream or an Ulwritlen romance. Under uich disadvant^Bt, 
ih««ld an atint do anything, the Academy which has aent him M 
■bottid loie no time in sending for him back again i for there it 
nothing that may not be expected from an En^ith student at Roae 
who has not become an idler, t fitlii-mailrt, and a buty-boijy ! Ot if 
he is uill unwilling to tyiit classic gromd, is chained by the soft 
feiiert of the clinute or of a fair face, or likes to see the morai^ 
miM rite from the Manbea of the Cainpagna and circle reimd tfct 
Dome of St. Peter's, and tbst to sever bim fron these wonld be to 
MtCT soul from body, let him so to Gennoo, stop there for five yevi, 
vbttiDg Rome only at iotcrrals, wander by Alhano'a eletuDiDC bkt 
and vizard grottoes, make sindics of the beada and iTttnci of ik 
pcaiant-gtrU in the ncigfaboorhood, those Goddeaae* of bcahh iw! 
good-temper, embody them to the life, and show (as the lemll} wis: 
the world nerer law before! 
S76 




FINE ARTS 



FINE ARTS 

OijEcn or TH^ AttTicu.— In the Eatjtbf»£« there » aonw 
UdOUtt, ander the head Arts, of the gcocril ihcoiy and hinory of 
Ibe Fiae Arit, iocluding I'octry, Hloqurnce, I'iiintiiig, Suiiuift and 
Aichilectuit. The tcim, in ita widett spplicatioo. would al«» 
cmbnK Muaic, Daacmg, Theatrical Exhibition; xod ia £enenl, 
all tho«e aru, in which the power* of tmiiation or inTcntion are 
exerted, chicll}' with a view to the production of picaiure, by the 
immcdi^atc iTiiprettinti vhich they make on the mind. Tbc ptirate 
hw of Utc, we ihink, beeti restricted to a narrower and more 
technical significiiion ; namely, to Pftinting, Sculpture, r.Dgraving, 
and Aichiicciure, which appeal lo the eye as the medium of pleaaurc ; 
and by way of eminence, to the two firtt of thete arts. In the 
present article, we shall adopt this litnited «en« of the tCTin ; 
and shall cndeiTnur to dcrclope the principles tipuo which the great 
MilRetii haie proceeded, and sIm) to ini^uitc, in a marc particular 
manner, into the (taie and probable advancemcfii of ihoe aru in ihit 
Country. 

RuMKO PniycirtJ! of thi Fwi Arts. — ^The great works of an, 
at pretent extant* and which may be retarded a> models of per- 
fiection in their tcveraJ ktndi, are the Gicek statues — the pictures of 
the celebrated Italian Masters — those of the Dutch and Flemish 
schooli — to which wc may add the comtc productions of our own 
countryman, Hogarth. These all stand unriialled in the hitiory 
of ntt; and ihcy owe their pre-emioence and perfection to one 
and the same piinciple,— ^/ir imnm&ifr rnalali«a of lutlurr. This 
principle prtdontinated equnlly in the cUsncal forms of the antique, 
and in the ftrotcsque Sgatet of ilogsnh i the perfectioo of an b 
each arose from the truth and identity of the imitiitiuo with the 
reality i the di/Tercncc wa« in the nibjccu ; there was none in the 
mode of imitation. Vet the »dvocjtes for the dim/ lytlrm ef art 
would persuade their disciple*, that the difference between Hogarth 
and the amitjuc does not consist in the diftcrcnt forms of natuic which 
they imitated, btit in this, that the one ts like, and (he other nnlilcc 
nature. This is an error, the most detrimental, perhaps, of :dl other*, 
both to the tbeorv and ]»actice of art. As, howerer, the prejudice 
is very strong ano general, and supported by the highest authority, it 
will be necessary tu go somewhat elaborately into the question in 
order to produce an impression on the other aide. 

What has given rile to the common notion of the liliiit, as some- 
thing quite distinct from attaai nature, is probably the pcflectton of 

371 



i 



FINE ARTS 

the individual, or rackiog the inrffltioQ of the artiat. Thit tendency 
of Greek art to repose his indeed been r«?f•toacb^d with iiiMpidiiy by 
those who had not a true fecKng of beauty and tctiimieiH. We, 
however, prefer ihc4c moilcU of habdiua) grace or ioietnal gnndeur to 
the Tioleni diitoriioox of tu^ering in the I.aocoon, or even 10 the 
iupercitroos sir of th« Apollo. The Niobe, mote ihan any other 
antique head, combines truth and beauty with deep paiiion. But 
bete tlie paHtioD is lixed. inten»e, liaintual ; — it U not a sudden or 
violent gesticulatioti, but a settled mould of fcatutes; the grief ii 
expreiKcs is such a* might almost turn the buman cuuntcoaDce itself 
inia marhli ! 

In general, then, we would be understood to maintain, that tbc 
beamy and grandeur so much admired in the Greek siarues u-cre not 
a voluntary tiction of the brain of the artist, but existed subttantially 
in the forms from which they were copied, and by which the arlifl 
waa lutfounded. A itrtking authority in suuport of these ob«err»- 
tioni, which has in lome measure been lately discovered, is to be 
found in the Elgin marhiti, taken from the Acropolis at Athens, and 
fuppo«cd to be the works of the celebrated Phidias. The procesa tS 
fastidious tegDentcnc and indefinite abstraction if certainly not finble 
there. The ligures have ;i!l the ease, the simplicity, and variety, of 
individual nature. Even the details of the «uboidinate partt, the 
looK hang^nj folds in the skin, the veitis uodcr the belly or on the 
•idea of ibe horra, more or Icsa swelled as the animal it mote or 1cm 
in action, are given with icruptitous cxactni-sB. This is true nature 
and tiuc arc In a word, thcie invaluable remains of antiquity vc 
precisely like caM taken from life. The idiai \% not the prefercDce 
of that which exists only in the mind, to that which cxirta m nature ( 
but ibc ptcfctence oftliai which it fine in nature to that which is lew 
to. There in nothing fme in art bat what it taken almost immediately, 
and, as it were, in the maw, from what it fiwr in aauire. Where 
thtrc have been the enesi models in nature, there have been the 
finest works of an. 

As the Greek statues were copied from Greek foran, m Raphael's 
expreuioni were taken from Italian faces; and we have heard it 
remarked, tliat the wom«n in the Kfccta « Rome accm 10 have walked 
out of his piauret in the Vatican. 

Sir Jo^ua Reynolds constantly refers to Raphael at tbe highest 
example in modera times (at least with one exception) of the grand 
or ideal ityic ; and yet he makes the esteoce of that style lO consist 
in the embodying of an abiiraci or general idea, formed in the mind 
of the artin by rejecting tbc peculiarities of individuals, and retaining 
only what >* cotnmoo to tbc specie*. Nothing can be mote incon- 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE A 
«U Kiffc^t {icam (s ite Vi 




I 



PINE ARTS 



tion may aftrrwartlt magoify, at it ptcatc*, but ii i« aaturr i.\oac 
which combJDM them with perfect truth and drlic«cy, m all the 
vacieties of moiion and cxprcuion. It u fottniiiEc thai we can refer, 
in iUuittation of our doctrioe, to the admirable ftajiiaent of the 
Thetetui at Lord Elgin'*, which shows the pouibtlity of uirittn^ the 
erand and natural nyle m tli« hijiheiit dej^iee. The form of the 
limbii, as affected by prcsmrc or action, and the general iway of the 
body, arc prcoervcd with the mott oanmuiunate ma«ery. We ibosld 
prefer this BtatDc as a model for fotming the ftyle ot^ the atudeat to 
the Apollo, which strikes ua as having something of a theatrical 
appearaoce, or lo the Hercules, in which there is an ocientatioat and 
orer-labouied dkplay of aoatORiy. Thta last figute is so overloaded 
with sincwi, that it has been sugfrested as a dovbt, whether, if tile 
could be put into it, it would be able to inotre. Grandeur of COD- 
ccption, truth of nature, and purity of laitc, (ccm to hare been at 
Uicir h*ight when the masterpiece* which adorned the t«n[de of 
Minerva at Athene^ of which we baxe only thetc imperfect fngntau, 
were produced. Compared with thcac, the later Creek statnet 
display a more elaborate workmaoship, more of the artifices of uylc. 
The lereral pons are more Qniroi-mly balaoced, made more to tally 
like modem periods: each muscle is more e<]ually brought oat, and 
more highly fioixhed ai a part, but not with the taroc subordinaiioo of 
each pan to the whole. If aotnc of these wonderful productions have 
a fault, it ia the warn of that cmirc atxl naked limpliciiy whidi 
perradea the whole of the ElgtB marbUt. 

Works or thk GasnAN ako Itauan Aanm. — Havinj; spoken 
here of the Greek atatuea, and of the works of Raphael aod Michael 
Aagelo, ai far aa relates to the imitation of nature, we ^all 
attempt to point out, to the bete of our alulity, and u oonciscly 
aa puotiUe, what we conceite to be their general and chanctCTinic 
excellences. The ancient! excelled in beauty of form ; Michael 
Angelo in grandeur of conception ; Raphael in expression. Id 
Raphael's face*, particularly his women, the cxpfcfsion ia rery 
superior lo the form ; in the ancient turtles the form ia the priocipu 
thing. The iniereit which the latter excite, is in a manner external i 
K depends on a certain fjuct and lightneM of appearance, jobed with 
excjunite syinmetry and refined lusccptibility to rolupiuou* emotions ; 
but there is io general a want of pathok. In thdr look*, we do not 
read the worlUDp of the heart ; \rt their beauty they teem raised 
above the m^ingt of humanity, ny their beauty they are deified. 
The pathos which they exhibit is rather that of present and phyticaJ 
diMrcsa, than of deep internal sentiment. What has been remarked 
of Lcooardo da Vinci, ii alio true of Raphael, that tlicre is an angelic 

581 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 




potatn 



periups 



man imeDigihlCi m. that ibc oe* gaic grcxter iSgnc j of Jo, ■< 

Aagde, in <ac^ borrowed hi* Kvle from ic u l u t w r. He g 
ia gcnenl, oaly nugfe ^urr« (witti taboRltaHc acEoawnn^^ 
M>d tud not to rxprcM the tu i ill i Lliin Ktioi and pMHiM rf* 
iffrf^— *- oJ* p«Ti«M«. Ii b Thatfan a mac ««iihi w mf dv hi 
i-rtiTifiTi"""- anaatdnnutK. Hv ia nucfc narc pinanafKikB 
R^phacL Tbt wbatt tgarc of h» J* r tm! a h diwona a>d h^p <» 
Hike a BajeMk Dee sBr^ai{cd vitfc ahiMinL Hia dnwi^ af ^ 
faaana fbnn ba* ibc dunctcriiuc Bvrdon and '—iHinw «f Tnaf* 

AAer Ukkad Aagelo and R^fcaej, tbere *a bo ^irii tb 
Laeaacdo da VWi, aod Ccna g io. are tfae m imu'iihh, fa ^dna 
OBca. wbo have carried hiwoncal cxfmaioa to tlw fc^p>— ifal 
pctfccooa : aad |«i it t> eqaUy oenna that thm bnda an ar^tt 
cacied from face* and cxpraaMat ia aaurc. LcoaardD acoSd 
pnodpallj ia faia woaea and daUrca. Wc find, ia hw fe^dB l^h 
a peocfar ctoai of eiyriw Joa t a ckaracter «f natmal mmma^m^ 
mder flnfitloeN, BBxed Bp «iik Ibe pride of cooaciaaa awilhi r. mi 
ikc pioinl laaene of penoaa) ^fpi^' Hr bleada pntf aai 
volqanaiMEa*; aad ibe i^ywaiioa sf liii aiaaiii ia c^^h cbafr 
iai«icef 'dc aoKnaa or tltc ant.* Htapacmea are woaMva 
Ike h^ of Uk ite Ik hnl caaofifid, wafc an cUwrv Uat^i 
bat tU* «ka ant nidatly firs ag a t d, and ifmnjtJi 

j8i 



FINE ARTS 



compared with oaiure. This wa» hia excelicocc. His fault ifc, ibat 
hia iiyle of execution it too inathematica] ; thai it, hit pencil (iocs oot 
follow the graceful variety of the detaili of object*, but lubititute* 
certain refined gtadation*, both of form and colour, produciag c<iaal 
chaDg«« in equal dituncn, with a mcchanica) uniformity. Leonardo 
wsi a. man of profound learning as well aa j;cDiua, and prrhap* iruM- 
ferred too much of the formality of science to his favourite ait. 

The maMcqiiccc* of Coni-ggio have the »amc identity with nature, 
the ume stamp of truth. He Iiub indeed jpieo to bii piauiei the 
utmoRt ujfcnciis and idtnemeni of outline and cKpretsioa ; but thia 
idc^ at which he constantly aimed, is filled up with all the details and 
Tsrietirf which such heads would have in nature. So far from any 
thing like a naked ahsiract idea, or middle form, the inJiviiiuti^ty of 
hia faces has something peculiar in it, even approaching the grotesque. 
He has endeavoured to impress habitually on the countenance, those 
undulatin)! outlines whicU rapture or lendernees leave there, and has 
chosen for thia purpone those fornii and proportions which most 
obvioudy assisted his design. 

As to the colouring ofCorreggio, it u nature Jtcelf. Not only the 
general tone is perfectly true, but every speck and particle ■< varied 
in colour, in relief, in texture, with a care, a felicity, and an elTcci, 
wbicli u almost magical. His light and shade arc equally admirable. 
No one else, perhaps ever gave the aame harmony and toundoeM to 
hU compoiitions. So true are his shadows, — equally free from 
coldneti, opacity, or false glare;' — 40 clear, to broken, so airy, and 
yet M deep, that if you hold your hand so as to cast a shadow on any 
part of the flcih which is in the light, this part, so shaded, will 
prc«ent exactly the tame appearance which the painter has given to 
the shAdciwed pari of the picture. Corrcggio, indeed, poiiLcucd a 
greater variety of excellences in the dilfrrcnt dep.irtiiicnt( of his art, 
than any other painter i and yet it is remarkable, that the impression 
which his pictures leave upon the mind of the common spectator, is 
monotonoua and comparatively feeble. His style is b some degree 
mannered and confined. For intiance, he is without the force, 
pOKion, and grandeur of Raphael, who, however, potieucd his 
soitneis of cxprcsnion, but of exprcinon onlv ■ and in colour, in light 
and shade, and other qualities, wu quite inferior u> Coireggio. We 
may, perhaps, solve this apparcni contradiction by aaying, that he 
applied the power of his niind to a greater variety of objects than 
others i but that this power was still of the same character ; consisting 
in a eertatn exquisite sense of the harmonious, the soft and graceful in 
form, colour, and sentiment, but with a deficiency of strength, and a 
tendency to elfeminncy in all these. 





ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



AiW tlic niinn of Rapbael and Cocreggio, wc khall mf u t i m i tkx 
of Gnido, wboie fiemak bee* xrc cxcccdiogly btfauuful and idal, te 
ahowtbcr caKUDOwUev and vapid, comparlKi with ibcMc of Rqtel 
or Correggio i ind tlwy an m>, for no otlier rcaM>n bnt ih« it 
eeneni tdn tli«y coarey ii noi enriched and lu-engthencd b; ■ 
usunH cODttfDplatJoa of nxturc. For ihc tame reaaun, «c cs 
cooodve ootlitDj nwire unlike ibe amique than (h« figum of Nktoto 
PovHiB, except I* lo tlie {irc«cmdon of rhc custume ; ai^ ii > 
perhap chicly owing to the hibit of icwlying bia ait at tecouiitai, 
or by nauM of Kirmific rule*, that ibe great n»eriu of that ihb 
punter, wboac uoderatanding and gniut are aitqueattoiaablci at 
coolined lo hi* choice of nbWcta for hii pictnrex. and hia manna if 
teOin); the tturjr. Hi* landKapet, which he pnibably took &ai 
tutnre, arc superior aa paintiDgt to hit faUtorical pieces. The bon «f 
PouMRi want natural exprcwiou, aa hi* figurea want grace ; ba (k 
back ground* of hi* hiuorical compotiiian* can acarcely be sutfanot. 
In liH plagne of Atheni, the very buildtngs »etm ttiff with homr. 
Hia giaott, acaied on the top of their fabled roouotatnat snd pfariil 
on tbeir Pan'* [npe«, are aa bnuliar and natural «■ if tbej were tk 
ofdinaiy inhabatanta of the acene. lie fine«t of hia laadacape* i* hit 
picture of the Detugc. The tun i« jca >ecn, wan aod droopitts at ii> 
coarse. The aky ia bowed down wiib a weight of water*, and Hena 
and earth teem mingling together. 

Titian i> at the head of the Vcnctiui (chool. He ia the firtt «ld 
colouriKs. Id dcticacy and puftiy Corrcggio ia «<]ual to bim, bat Iw 
colouring hat not the tame warmih and gusto in it. Titian** lafc- 
colour partake* of the giowine nature of the climate, and J At 
luxnrtoutneti of the maoneri of hia country. He reprcveou obixo 
DM through a mcrelj' Iticid medium, but as if tinged with a HoB 
light. Yet tl It wonderfi]] in bow low a tone of local coloariDllit 
picinrea are painted, — bow rigidly hia meiM are hiiibwided.^Hii 
raott gorgeoua elfecu arc produced, not ha* bjr keeping dowti, than if 
heightening hb colour*; the fiotneta of bia gradadotu add* to thai 
variety and fiorce i and, witli hini. troth is the tame thing a* apleaikv. 
E^Tcry thing ia done by tlie tcTerity of hit eye, by the patieiKc of kit 
touch. He it enabled to keep pace with nature, by nerer hurtying oa 
before her; and ju he forms the broadeai maatea otu of innMnnakk 
varying parta and minute iRrokri of the pencil, to he unita Md 
harmoniiet the trtiongeu contrastt by the tnou imperceptUt 
truMtiona. Uvery diminction t» rehcTcd and broken by aomr oiba 
intermediate diatiaclion, tike hilf notet tn music ; and yet all ilai 
accumulation of endless variety ia to BUDiged, aa oaij to feuduct tht 
majestic rimplicity of nature ; to that to a cominoii eye there ia i 

384 




FINE ARTS 

c'Xiraotdinury in hU picture*, »aj more ihnn in ruiiure itself, [i u, 
we believe, owing to what has been here tilled, tiiat Titian is, of all 
painten, it once Uie casit»i and the mo« difficult to copy. He it 
the moat difficult to copy perfectly, for tlic artifice of hh colouring 
and execution a bid in tt» apparent aimplicity ; and yet the knowledge 
of nature, nnd the arrangement of the forms and maMci in hit piciurci, 
is 80 maMctly, that any copy made from them, even the nide« out- 
line or eketch, can hardly fail to have a look of high ait. bccauK 
he was tlie )i>.reaie«t colourist in the world, this, which was hit most 
prominent, hub, foi sliurineaii, been considered as his only excellence; 
and he has been said to have been ignorant of drawing. What he 
wai, generally speaking, deGcient in, was invention or composition, 
though even thin appears to hare been mote from habit than want o( 
power i but his drawing of actual form*, where they were not to be 
put into momentary action, or adapted to .1 particular expression, was 
as tine as possible. His drawing of the forms of inaniniBtc objects !* 
unrivalled. His trees have a marked character and physiognomy of 
their own, and exhibil an appearance of strength or Aexibilitv, loliditjr 
or lightnets, as if they were endued with cunscioui power and purpose. 
Character was another excellence which Titian pometscEl in the 
highest degree. It is scarcely speaking too highly of his portraits to 
lay, that tbey have as much cxpreision, that it, convey as nnc an idea 
of intellect and feeltog, as the historical head* of Raphael. The 
chief difference appears to be, that the expression in Raphael ia more 
imaginary and contemplatiie, and in I'itian more peraooal and con- 
stitutional. The hcadi of the one teem thinking more of tome erent 
or nibjcct, those of the other to be thinking more of themselvei. In 
the porraitt of Tiii.tn, as might be expected, ilie Italian character 
always predominatet ; there is a look of piercing sagacity, of com- 
manding intellect, of acute sensibility, which it would be in vain to 
eeek for in any other portraits. I'he daring apiiii and irritaUe 
paixions of the age and country, arc dintincily stamped upon their 
countenances, and can be a* little mistaken as the costume which they 
wear. The portrait* of Raphael, though full of profound thought 
and feeling, have more of common humanity about them. Titian** 
portrait* are the most historical that ever were painted; and they are 
so, for this reason, that they hare roost conuitency of form and 
exptessioo. His portraits of Hippoiito de Medici, and of a young 
Neapolitan nobleman, lately in the gallery of the I.ourrc, are a 
Jtrikmg contrast in thit respect- All the lines of the face in the one, 
the cye-browi, the no»e, the comeia of the nioutli, the contour of the 
lace, present the same thaqi angles, the Kune acute, edgy, contracted, 
violent expression. The nih4:r portrait ha* the (ineM expansion of 
vol. Jt. : SB 38$ 



TTTB 




FINE AKTS 



faaUitic Tuicty of hi) allogoiical groupi. Bo(b hi* colouii&K ui>i lu* 
drawing were, howetet, ideal exag^etauaot. B«n both hki ranioilu' 
^uxlitiec of the highcit value. He has gireo to hi* Ann greaMr 
UxctpMcocy and frcthncn than any other painter ; and thii excelleace 
he had from nature. One of the linen imunce* will be found in hi* 
Ptatan) Fanalj ^wig n Marktt, in which the ligutes have all the 
bloom of health upon ihctr coufitcDODce* ; and the very air of the 
turouadii); laodtcape Krikei thar]i and «holcM>mc oa ibe Ka*e. 
Rubeoi had another excellence ) he has ;^eo all that relates to the 
expreadon of motion in hi* allegorical figuiei, in hit children, hit 
animala, even in hia ircea, to a degree which no one cite has equalled) 
or indeed approiched. Hi* drawing it often delicictit in proponioci, 
in knowledge, and in elegance, but it w. alway* picturcaque. The 
dtawing of N. Poumid, on ihe contrary, which haa been much cried 
up, is nietely learned and anatomical : he hai a knowledge of the 
itnicturc and meaturement* of the hiunan body, but very Ilitle feeling 
of the grand, or beau'iful, or nriking, in form. All Ruben*'* forma 
have CMC, freedom, and exccwiTe claiticity. In the groceaquc style 
of history, — at in the group* of aalyn, nymph*, bctcchanala, and 
a&bnals, wIiCTc Mriltiog contiaMS of form Are combined with every 
kind of rapid aad irregular movement, be ha* not a rival. WitncM 
hi* Silrnuii M BJenbeiin, wIick the IIm* aeein drank aod tuggcrioft t 
and hii ptoceuion of Cuptdi riding on animal* at Whitehall, with 
that adventurout leader of the iiifantioe crew, who, with a ipear, i* 
urging a tion, on which he ja mounted, over the edge of the world ; 
for beyond we only tec a prednce of doodi and *ky. Rubcoa'a 
power of cxpre«tiog motion pethap* kro*e from the facility of bit 
pencil, and hi* habitaatly tnutiag a good deal to memory and imagina- 
tion in hit compoiitiona ; for this (|Bality can be given in no other 
way. Hi* portraiu are the leaat valuable production* of hi* pcndl. 
His landKapea are often delightful, and appear like the work of fairy 
huda. 

It reniaim to apeak of Vandyke and Rembrandt, the ooe the 
di*ciple of Rubrna, the other the entire founder of hit own acbool. 
Il i* not pouible for two painter* to be more oppoaitc. The 
cluracteriaiic mcriia of the former are very happily aunimed up to 
a (ingle line of a poetical critic, wliere he tjieak* of 

■ The loFt pneition of the clew Vandyke.' 

The general object of thi* analyu* of the works of the great 
masiert, haa been to ahow, that their preeminence ha* conKantly 
dependeiJt not on the creation of a fantMtic, abstract excellence, 
cxiiung laowbere but in their own nHnda^ but In their aeleciiag and 

S«7 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

embodjring lonM one new of lunure, wliicli came iinincdiuely aniifi 
ihrir hxbiiuil obwmdon, and which thctr particular gmiw \ed tha 
to Rudy and itnitaw wkh tucccM. This i* certainly the cue vtA 
Vindykc. Hi* portrait*, mo«tly of I^ngtiah women, in the coticoieB 
IB tbc Lourrc, liivc > cool retrv^ing air about them, a Icok rf 
nnplichy and tattdKity wra lo (he Trry tone, wliich Tarnu a foe 
oootrut to the loluptnou* glow and mellow golden luitrc of Tiua't 
Italian wotneo. There it a quality of fleiih-colour m Vzadjkt alkk 
i« to be fotind in no other painter, and which exactly cotmyi tk* 
idea of the toft, nnootti, (.Hding, conttnuona, dehcatety varied mhet 
of the akin. 1'he objecu in hii piaurea hare the lean iiimjlili 
difference of light and ehadd and ate preieoted to the eye whiw 
paMiiig tbrougb soy indirect mcdiuiii. it it this extreme purity >^ 
■ilvery de>rMM of lone, togethet with the facility and preci«ioa tf 
hit particular forms a^id a certain air of bahionable elenocri 
chancierittic of the age in which be fiaurithed, that pjacca Vudtit 
in the 6m rank of portrait paiaiera. 

If ever there waa > tdbd of geniua in the art, it wsa Rrmtrriwk 
He might be said to hate created a ntedium of hia own, t)iro*efc 
which he aaw all oblecti. He waa the groMeat and the \cia «tJgir, 
that IB tu Miy, the leaei common- place in liii groaatteaa, of all dm& 
He wat the molt dowitrifiht, the lent liiEidioua of the imitatofi cf 
nalare. He took any object, he cared not what, how mean toenr 
in form, colour, and exprenion, and from tbc light oikI abade wfaid 
he threw upon it, it came out gorgcoon from hia hands. Aa Vandyb 
made u*e of the amallcsi coniraMa of light and ihadc, and pcumea ai 
if in the open air, Rembrandt u»cd the moat violent and ahnot 
contrast* in thit retprct, arrd painted hi« objccin aa if in ^ dungcw. 
Hia piciurei may be *aiA to be 'bnglit with exccaaive darkaMt.' 
Hia viiioc liad ictguired a lynx-eyed abarpneM from ihe aniSml 
obacurity to which he bad accuitomed hinuelf. • Mystery i^ 
nilcncc hung upon hii pencil.' Yet be oauld pass rapidly from oar 
extreme to another, and dip hit coloura with e<]ual succen in tk 
gloom of night, or in the blaze of the nootv-day lun. In rarrouodw 
difTeTcot objects with a medium of tnugination, nulenin or dazilta^ 
he wat a troe poet ( in ail the rcu. lie waa a meie painter, bai a 
painter of do coninioo stamp. The power* of hia hand were emtl 
to thote of his eye i and indeed he could not have aitctnpced At 
tiubjectx he did, without an execution aa masterly a* hia koowledie 
was profound. Hit colourt are aomctimet dropped to lompa on ibe 
caoToa : at other timet they are laid on at smooth as gUaa ; and bt 
not unfretjiiently painted with (he handle of bit brash. He l>ad n 
eye for all objects as br aa be had teen thctn. Hia hbtory attJ Uod 

388 




FINE ARTS 

*upr> ,-tre ectually fine in their way. Hi* bndicapei we could look 
at for evft, though ihetc in nothing io them. But 'they m of Ae 
catth, tarthy.' It nwnis u if be had dog ihcm tnn of natiiK. 
Every tht[ig is so iruf, so ten.], to f^ill of all ihc fcciingi and aModa- 
lioDH which the eye can sup^eit to the other icoKt, that wc 
immediately take aa sttong an affection to them a* if they were our 
home — the very pLice where we were brought up. No length of 
ume could adtl to the inicnnty of the impmtiort they coovey. 
Rembrandt in the least claMicaJ and the most romantic of all painters. 
His Jacob's [,a«lder ts moie tike a dicam than any other picture that 
eter wan painted. The lijture of Jacob himself is thtown in one 
corner of the picture like a bundle of clothe*, while the angels hoTcr 
abore the darkncai, in the shape of airy wings. 

It would be needless to prove that the generality of the Dutch 
painters copied from actual objects. They have becume almost a 
bye-word tor carrying this principle into its abuse, by copying crery 
thing they saw, and having no choice or preference of one thing to 
another, unless that they preferred that which was most obvious and 
common. Wc (brgivc them. They perhaps did better in faithfully 
and skilfully imitating what they had seen, than in imagining what 
they had not seen. Their picture* at least ihoWt that there is nutiiing 
in nature, however mean or trivial, that has not ita beauty and nome 
interest belonging to it, if truly represented. We prefer Vangoyen't 
views 00 (he borders of a canal, the yellow-tufted bank, and passing 
Milt or Ruytdaci's woods and sparkling waierfalli, to the most 
dusical or epic eompoiiiions which they could have invented oat of 
nothing ; and we think that Tenieri't boors, old womeRi and children, 
are very superior to the little carved ivory \'enusea io the pictiuct of 
Viindcrnecr ; ju« as we think Hogarth's M.irr'mge a la Moot It better 
than hii Sigismunda, or ai Mr. Wilkie's Card-Players is better than 
his Alfred. Wc should not assuredly prefer a Puuh Fair by 
Tenicrs to a Cartoon by Raphael i but we suspect we should ptcler 
a Dutch Kail by Tcniers lo a Cartoon by the same master; or wc 
should prefer truth and nature in the siniplett dress, to atTcctaiion 
and inanity in the most pompous disguiie. Whatever is geautoc in 
an niust proceed from the impulse of nature and individual genius. 

FaxHcH AND SpANtiH PAtNTtRi. — In the French tchool there are 
but two names of high and established reputation, N. Poussin and 
Claude Lorraine. Of the former we have already spoken ; of the 
latter wc shall give our opinion when wc come to speak of our own 
Wilson. We ought not to pass over the names of MuriUo and Velas- 
quez, those admirable Spanish painters. It is difficult to characterise 
their peculiar excellences as distinct from those of the Italian and Dutch 

3«9 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



tdmol*. Th«y mav be uid to boid i mtddie rank between tiie 
fUBUn of nUM IM body. Thcjr cxprra dm to morh thoogbi and 
■tnimeat, nor vm tbe mere cxurnor, at the life and (|nrh of the man. 
MdHDo is proliiMv X tbc head of ihu cIsm of p«iDCcr« who biTc 
trcntisl i^^KCtt of cmnmon life. After nuking the coloura an iht 
c*ovu( feeJand think, the next belt thiof! U to tiiak« tbem breathe and 
lire. But there ii in Murillo't pictum of this kind a look nf real lifc^ 
a cordial Dow of lutife animal tpitia, which we find nowhere etae. 
Wr mijht here refer particul.-irly to hi* picture of the 7w« Spamii 
Btgrar B«yi, in the colicctioo nl Dulwich College, wliich caMM! 
rauiy be fbr^otten by thote who have ever •cca it. 

Pkockem ok Ait ik BaiTaiw. — We come now to speak of tbe 
progicia of art ID our own CoKouy,— oTiu present tt*tet—ai^ ibc 
meaiw propoKd for adraneing it to •till ht^cf perfectioti. 

Ho<uRm. — We aball tpeak firK of Hogatthi both a* he ia the fint 
name io tbe order of time that we bare to boan of, and as be ia ibe 
gKUCst comic painter of any age or country. Hi* pictures are not 
ioniuiions of still life, or mere iraaicnpu of incidcntnl scene* or 
custom) ; but powerftil moral satiret, cxpoaing nee and fullj' in tfaew 
most Wictoui points of view, and with a profbvnd insight into tbe weak 
tidei of character and manoere, in all tbetr lendcncies, combinatiocu, 
and cctiiratti. There is not a tingle pictuie of his, cootaining a re- 
praacBtatioD of merely natural or domenic scenery. Hiu object is not 
ao mwb *to hoM the mirror op to oaiure,' aa 'to show vice her owe 
feaiuic, scorn her own image. Folly it tbcie seen at the height — 
ibc moon is at the fvll — <t u the very error of the time. There b 
a perpetual cotliiioo of eccentricitin, a tilt and tounument ef 
absurdities, pampered into all autt* of aficciation, airy, exiravagaa. 
and ottentatioua ! Yet he is as little a caricaturist as he is a painter 
of still life. Criiicitm has not done bint iwnice, though poblir 
opaoion hat. Hi* woik> ha<c received a nnction which it wooU be 
Fsin to dispute, io ibc uniivrsaJ delight and adnintiaa with which 
they have been regarded, from their lirtt appearanoe, to tbe preseal 
moment. If llie quantity of amusement, or of matter for reflecticm 
which they hare alFordeil, it thai l>y which «c are to jodfe of 
precedcDce among the intellectual benefactor* of ananktiMi, there are 
pcrbapt few perion* who can put in a atnMgCT dlilB lo our gradtvdr 
than Hogarth. Tbe woodcrful knowledge which he posKMed of 
huntan lite and manners, ia only to he turposaed (if it can be) by the 
powers of iotentioo with which he hat arranged hii materials, aad 
by the mastery of execution with which he hat embodied and made 
tangible the wry thought* and passing raoretneiKs of the mind. Some 
persona ohject to the Myle of Hogarth's picusrea, or (be cUas to 



{ 



N 



FINE ARTS 

which they beloDg. Tim. Hogarth Mongi to M dtls, or, if he 
belonct to toy, it i* to the *xmt cUm u FieldXag, SmoHelt, Vubrvgh, 
and Moiiire. Oetidea, the merit of his picture* doei Dot depend on 
the nature of hi» nibjecti, but on the knowledge duplayed of thetit, 
on the number of idrat, on the fund of obwrvation and ammeiMiit 
contained in them. Make what (ieduciions you pJcaK for the 
vulgarity of the subjects — yet in the rc»ciirch, the profundity, the 
absolute truth and precision of the delini-ation of character, — in 
the invention of incident, in wit and humour, in life and motion, 
io eTetUsiing variety and originality, — they ncTer haxe, and probably 
never will be, surpaued. Tfacy tlimulatc the facultiei, aa well >i 
amu»e them. * Other pictures we (ee, Hogarth's we read.' • 

There is one error which has been ftctjupntly entertained on this 
subject, and which we wish to correct, namely, that Hogarth'a 
genius was conlioed to the imitation of the coarse humouri and broad 
farce of the lowest life. But he excelled quhc as much in exhibiting 
the rices, the folly, and frirolity of the mhioaable manners of his 
time. Hii line ladi" do not yield the palm of ridicule lo his waiting- 
maidi, and hii lotdi and his portcn are on a very reipcctabic footing 
of ci^u.ility. He is (juite at home, cither in St. Gilex'i or St. James's. 
There is no want, for example, in his Marriagt A la Modi, or his 
Taiir in H'l^h Lift, of alTcctatioQ wrginj; into idkHcy, or of languid 
sensibility that might 

' Die ofa roae in araanalk pain.' 

Muy of Hogarth's chartcter* would form admirable illiuttaiion* of 
Pope's Soiirct, who was ooetcmporary with him. In short, Hogarth 
was a painter of real, not of low life. He was, as we have said, a 
tatifitt, and conscauently lua pencil did not dwell oo the grand and 
beautiful, but it glanced with ei^uaj tuccea* at the absurdities and 
pecutiaiitiet of high or low life, < of the great rulgar and the small.' 

To this it must be added, that be was as great a master of patHon 
a* of humour. He succeeded in low tragedy, as much as in low or 
genteel comedy, and had an absolute power in maiin;; the affrcdona 
and rending the hearts of the spectators, by depicting the effccti of 
the motit drcuiiful calamitiei of human life, oti common minds and 
common countenances. Of this, the Rait'i Pr^mi, panicularly the 
Bedlam accne, and many otheri, are unaniwerable proofs. Hogarth's 
merits, as a mere aitiit, arc not cooliticd to his prints. In general, 
indeed, this is the caae. But wbeo he cboae to take pains, he could 
add the deticacic* of execution and colouring in the bighcit degree to 

■ Sm in idinlnble Euiy un iht gtBiai ol HogSfih, by Charles Lint, in a 

f<f >a<)l(«l irork, otlca Tfa RiJUttn. 

$9' 



ESSAVS ON THE PINE ABTS 

thoK of character and corapoiitioa { a* U cvidrnt In hb wrict of 
pictures all cqull^ well painml, of the Marri^e a b MtJr, 
exhibited lately at Uie Briti^ Imtittnion. 

WiL'.oK. — Wc ihatl next «|«tk (if Wilson, whfMC picture* ma* be 
ilividcd inio three cUmcs : — his lialian laadecspes, or itniiBUOU oltbe 
nuDDu of CUudc. — bia copict of Englith accncry, — and bit bworicd 
compoHtioDi. The fittt of (bete are, b our opinion, by macb the 
bcti t and we a):>pea), in nipport of (faU opinion, to ilic ytfoBt imJtir 
Stiuoai, arid tn the Pfsattm. The figvret an of coutk oat of t^ 

JBTttion (tht«e being aa oncouth ancl din-cnty as Claude** xn iiwipid aoJ 
tacaX) i but the !findscap«, in both piciurrt, it deJightful. Iti loot- 
■ox at ibem, we bmthc tbe air which the scene tnnpircfi, and feel iW 
SCIUU8 of the place pretciit to u). In the lir«t, there is ilie cool 
fTeahueH of a tmAy tpring niciitng: tbe sky, the water, the ^ 
horizon, all conver the Ktitie feeling. Tbe fine grey tone, aiMl wyiii{ 
outline of the hilu ; the graccfiil form i>f the retiring lake, braid 
•till more hv the haty »liadowa of the objects that repOK ob i& 
bowro; the light iree* thsi expnnd their br^ncheii in the air; mi 
the dark ttonc fi;;uie anil mouldering temple, that contrast mODglf 
with the broad clear light of the riung day, — Rtve a charm, a troA, 
a force and Iinrinony lo ibis cuoipoiittun, which produce tbe pxtM 
pleswre the lun/,er it is dwelt an. The distriboiion of light unt 
•hade re«enii>lei ilic elfca of lieht on a globe. Tt>e Ptaeion hat tk 
dazzling fervid appearance of an autuninal crcnin);; tlie nUa 
radiance ttrcuns in tolid inaiKe« IVoni behind the flickering cToi^i 
every object is baked in the •oi ; — the brown forc-jtround, the thki 
ibiiage 1^ the trcet, the •ticams, shrank and ttealing along befaiul tht 
dark high banks— combine <*> prodnce that richnea*, and cbaracttnuic 
unity of etiect, wliicli it to be found only in nature, or in an deriml 
front tl»e ttudy and ifflttatioR of nature. Tbcte two picttire*, at tber 
hate the gieutct.t guoeid edecl, are alto roore carcfimy finnbed than 
any other pictutei we hare lecn of his. 

In pencnl, \Vil»on't views of Eng&jh itenery want almoA e«tlj 
thing that ou^hi lo recommend ibcni. The subjects he has cheica 
arc cot well tilled for the bndfcapc-paioier, and there is nothing in 
tbe execution to (Ck'Iccn) them. Ill-thapevI mount.tint, or great bow 
of canh, trees that grow agiinat thetn wiihoui character or elcsoKf^ 
motionlest waterfalls, a want of retiefi of transparency and dismay 
whhout the impoiing gtandeitr of teal magnitude (which il it 
scarcely within the proiince of art to give], — are ilie chief feuvtt* 
and defecti of this clan of his ptcturct. In more conlined scenes, the 
effect mott depend almoit entirely on the ditfercncc in the executieo 
and the details ; fot tbe diiferencc of coloor alone is not sulficteiu to 
39' 



n 



FINE ARTS 

gJTc relief to objecit placed xi a Einatl dittance from (be eye. Bui, in 
Wilson, there arc commonly no details — all i« lootc and gcDeral ; and 
this Tery circum^Mncc, which might atiisi him in ming ibc, ma»jr 
COD[ra»ts of light »nd »hade, deprived his pencil of ul force and prc' 
ciMOD within ,t linuied space. In general, air is nccctMTy lo the 
landscapi: pintcr ; and, for thiii reatoo, the lakes of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland aifurd few subject* for laodicipc-painting. However 
itupcndoui the tccncry of ihat countt}- is, and howcicr powerful and 
tinting the impression which it mi»i always make on the imagination, 
yet (he effect h not produced merely through the medium of the eye, 
but arises chiefly from collateral and associated feelings. There it 
the knowledge of the physical luagaitude of the objects in the midst 
of which we arc placed, — the ilow, improgiessive mocioD which we 
make in traversing them | — there it the abrupt precipice, the torrent's 
roar, the houndlets expanse of the ptORpect from the highest mountains, 
— ihe ditliculiy of their ascent, their loneliness and siTencc ; in ihort, 
there is a constant sense and superstitious awe of the colleaivc power 
of matter, of the gigantic and eternal forms of nature, on which, ttom 
the beginning of time, the hand of man hat made no impression, 
aod which, bv the lofty rcilcctioni they excite in ut, give a tort 
of intellectual lublimily even lo our sense of physical weakness. 
But there ii little in al! these circumstances that can be translated 
into the piiturtjjut, which makes its appeal immcdiaiely to the eye. 

Wilson's historical landscapes, his Skbt, Crlaihn and AnuHa, &C. 
do not, in our cttimaiioo, display cither trac taste or iinc imagioatiaD, 
bni are affected and violent exaggerations of clumsy common nature. 
They are made up mcdiaoically of ilie tame stock of materials,— an 
over-hanging rock, ban thatlcred creet, black rolling clouds, and 
forked lightning. The Aeuret, in the most celebrated of thc«e, are 
not like the children of Niobc, punished by the Gods, but like a 

5 roup of rustics, crouching from a hail'ttorm. We agree with Sir 
oshua Reynolds, that Wilson's mind was DOi, like N. Poustin's, 
tulliciently imbued with the koowlcdjic of antiquity to iransport the 
imagination three thouoanci years back, to give natural objects a 
sympathy with preternatural erentt, and to inform rocks, and tree*, 
and mountains with the presence of a God. To sum up his gerwral 
character, we may observe, that, besides hi* excellence in aerial per- 
tpeciive, Wilson had great truth, harmony, and depth of local 
colouring. He had a fine feeling of the proportions and conduct of 
light and shade, and also an eye for gracefii] form, af far as regards 
the bold and varying oudincs of indcSnitc objects ; as may be seen in 
his foregrounds, &c., where the aniit is not tied down to an imiutiou 
of characteristic and articulate forms. In bis figures, trees, cattle, 

393 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

ud ia eTTTydMBg luving i dc w unaic jad rcgaiat form, ba pad) 
«M DM oely deficient in accuracy of mitlLbr, but crcn in p ai j Kdiw 
isd actukl relief. HU um, to ]Mnicul:ir, freqacnily teen) pnuda 
the caDTM*,ltkc boUiucal tpedmcM. In fine, v« uooot fsbicTibclt 
the opiiuoa of tbo«e who asten, dm Wiltoa «ras tuperior to Cbode a 
a RUB of geiUBt ; nor can we diicen) xoy other grounds lor tliii apnK 
than what would lead to the gcncnl condcMoa, — that the more dom'f 
(he peHonnance the finer the pcturc, and that that which ia in^ 
feet it fluperior to that iriiich it jierieci. 1 1 mtghi be uid, oo tlK ■■ 
priKblr. that the coancM B|[n-paBuio{ la bettrr than the refleOn* 
a [sMlmpt- ID a mitrort aod Uk ohjtatOD thai i* totneuoxa mA* 
the mere imitatioa of aature, cannot be made to the Undicm*^ 
Claiule, Ibr en them the Grace* thennelvea haTc, \ritfa tlirir own Uifc 
iMiitcdin«e{cctiagMidditpoaiMeveiTobjecc. I«thc gntmlcActi 
&u picttirci io^cd by the detailt i U the truth tncansincni with d> 
beauty of the imiiatioD ? Doe* the pctpetual prof uxioa of objecci at 
wencry, all perfect in themsclTei, bterfere with the aimple gnate 
and ami|irehe[uire nuKnificence of the whcJe ? Don the uniiai 
with which a plant ii marked in the fbrc-Bround, take xway fnm ib 
air^drawn tlictitvction* of the bloc ^tnunertog horizon ! l» ifaoc b) 
want of that cndlcn airy tpacc, where the eye wxoAen K Bctn 
under the open fky, explorci diiuni objecta, and retarm back « 
from a delightful joiuiiey i There ii no comparison between Cb^ 
and WiltoD- Sir Jothua Rcynolda uwd to say, thai then WtM 
be aaother Raphael befurc there would be another Clande. Kii 
landacapea bafe all that ii exijuiiUe and refined in art and luncc- 
Every tbtne U moulded into grace and bamony j and, ai the tdid 
of his pencil, ibepbcrda with their flock*, temples and groto, wi 
winding gla^Iet, and (caiicrvd hamlets, rite up in imti laTu 
MBCCCMioD, under the anre sky and the rctplcndent son, wbUe 

• Uoiirenal Psn, 
Knit nith the Grace*, aod the baurs in dance, 
Lesdi on the ciemoJ spring,—' 

Nf ichaci Angcio has left, to om of his sonnets, a fine apoatrofk » 
the eitiiest poet of Italy : 

* Fstn WMiU 1, (o be what our Dsntc waL 
F<mfo (be bsppicn fortune* of mankiiKL' 

What landscape-painier does not feel this of Claude.* 

I Jiit punwr'i book at iDt^ie* fr»« aanrsi conananly oiled Littr /Wsaa^ 
Jlipiovci the tmih ot the (cocnl opinlan that hit lmil>a|wt tn nan ulJUA 
CMnpoaiUoni fur the Aoiilieil pUturei ut Marty btc-ianiles of iht v%iMl 
•krtcbct. 

394 




FINE ARTS 

Gain&borovoh. — Wo har« hcitril ui aotcdotc coenecttd with ihc 
rcpur^tion uf Gaintboruugh'a cictum, which ttttt oo prrtty {ood 
suthvrity. Sir imbua Rcyaold*, U one of the AcideRiy dimta'*, 

rkiog of Gainiborough, laid to « friend, — ' He ii undoubtKlly 
ben English kndgopc-p.-iinicr.' * No,' Mid Wjlaon, vho 
overhetird ihc conTeraation, 'he i» noi the best lAndscape-pjiimer, 
but he is the beet portrait-pninicr in I'^ngland.' 'I'hty were both 
wrong! but ihc *tory h creditable to tht veitattUty of Gsb»- 
bor«u];h'« tuleais. 

Those of Ins poriiaits which wt have «een are not in the lirii rank. 
They are in a good measure irait.itiona of Vandyke ; and hare mote 
an air of gcniiliiy, tiian of nature. Hit lanH*cap<-( arc of two clanct 
or periods j hin early and hts later picturea. 'I he former arc minute 
imitation* of nature, or of painters who imitated nature, such a* 
Ruysdaei, 5tc. some of which hare Rtcat truth and clearness. Hia 
laicr piclurei are llinisy caricatures of Rubeni, who himself carried 
iaaitentiun to the detaila to the utmost limit ihni it would bear. 
Many of Gniniborough's latter landscapra may he compared to bod 
water-colour drawing!, waahed in hy mechanical movement* of the 
hand, without any communication with the eye. The truth acema to 
be, that Gainsborough found there was aomeihiDg wanting in hts 
tarfy manner, that is, something beyond the literal iniiution of the 
details of nacural objects ) and he appears to have concluded rather 
hastily, that the way to arrive at that $miething mon, was to ditcard 
truth and nature altogether. Hi> fame recta principally, at pretest, 
on his fancy-pieces, cottage- children, «hephcrd-hoy», &C. Thcac 
have often great truth, great swreineM, and the subject* are often 
chosen with great felicity. Wc too often find, howcter, eren in his 
bappint cAbit*, a consciousness in the turn of the limbs, and a fvnsire 
languor in the expression, which is not taken from nature. W« think 
the gloss of art i* never so il! bestowed an on such »ubiect», the 
essence of which i» limplicity. It is perhaps the general fault of 
Gainsborough, that he prcicntx u* with .in ideal common life, of which 
we have had a surfeit in poetry and romance. Hi* mbjects are 
softened, and sentimentalised too much ; it is not simple unaffected 
nature that we see, but nature siiitug for her picture. Our arii*t, wc 
suspect, led the way to that masi^uerade style, which piques itaclf oo 
giving the air of an Adonis to the driver of a hay-cart, and models 
tlie tcaiures of a mitk-maid on the principles of the antique. His 
H^eodman'i Hmd is admirable. Nor can too much praise be civen to 
his Shepherd Boy in a Sl«rtn ; in which the oDCOnKnoua timpTicity of 
th« boy's exptession, looking up with bit baoda folded and with timid 
woodett — the ciMsy chattertog of a mafpie poched above, — and the 

595 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



roftliu of the COaUBj uonn io the bnncbctoftheirec*, pi 
most dcGgblAiI and romuiiic imprcasioa on tbc mind. 

Cunaboraugh w» to be «)Duderc<l, prrhapd mhcr a* a mau oF 
dtrLoie iMle, aod of an elegant an<l ftrliog miodi thin as a hud 
of gcniu* ; u a lover af the art, rather than in ant«t. Hr derated 
binmell' lo ii, with i view to amiue and >oothe hit mind, with th« cam 
of I genikman, not with the levcrity of a profeuional nudcoE. He 
wished to nuke hit pictures, Mkc himself, amiable ; but a too conMuu 
deure lo plmtv almost unavoidably Icidi to jfectation and ciTc-mitutcj. 
He wxnted that ligour of intvUcet, which perceives ih« beauty of 
truth i and thouf[ht that painting was to be g^edi like other 
minrcMe*, bjr flaiiery and imilet. It wu an error which wc are 
ditpcMcd 10 forgive in one, around whoK memoiy, both a* an »ma 
and a man, many fond recollect ions, many vain regret*, mun alvnjt 
linger.' 

SiK Joshua Rtysiouiu. — The auihority of Sir Joshua Rcynoldt, 
both from hii example and i nil ructions, has had, and ittll contiauet 
to have, a c»n>idc[,-tblc inDuence on the Mate of art in thin country. 
That influence hM been on the whole untjuettionHbly l>cnc6cial > 
itself, at well RK highly creditable to the rate talent* and «Le^nil 
Blind of Six Joshua ; for it has raised the art of painting riooi lit 
lowest state of degradaiion,^-of dry, meagre, litclei* ioaoJty, id 
something at least icupectable, and bearing an affinity to the roi^ 
nrengih and bold spirit of the national character. Whether tbe oDr 
implicit deference lo his authority, which has helped to advance ibt 
art thus far, may not, among other cause), limit and retard its fiiurc 
progress? Wlicther there arc not certain original errors, both ia hif 
principles and practice, which, the farther they arc proceeded in, tie 
farther tbcy will lead us from the truth ! Whether ihctr is aot i 
systematic bias from ilie right line by which alone wc can arritt 
■I the goal oF the highest perfection ?— arc questions well worth 
considering. 

We shall bcain with Sir Joshua's merits aa an artist. There ii 
one error which wc wish to correct at (ctting out, because we think 
it impotunt. 'l*hcrc is not a greater or mote unaccountable miMake 
than the supjiosition that Sir Jothua Reynolds owed hit taccen or 
excellence in bis profession, to his hating been the first who intro- 
duced into this country more general principles of the an, and wlu 
raised poitrail to the dignity of history from the low dnadMt 
of copying the peculiarities, meannesses, and details of indiTSdml 

' The i'iia o( tli< neiriiily uf inipiaviti£ upcn nituic, anil giviuc whM «s> 
citlcil > ^eru'nig iihnrti, wai univrrul b ihii cnuntty idy vein tgo ; to ihsl 
ClintboroDgh it not lo bi lO much blaau>l (or t^mperinj urilh hi> subjects. 



FINE ARTS 



n.iture, which wzs all that liad been aurnipted by hi« immediate pre- 
decessors. This is «o far from being true, that ibe very rcWTw i> 
the fact. If Sir Joshua did not give theee dccailx and peculiarities fo 
much as might be wished, those who went before him did not gi»e 
them at alt. Those pretended general principles of the art> whicb^ 
it it laid, 'ulone give Tsiue and dignity to it,' had been pushed to 
their exiremest abiufdity before his time; and it was tn getting rid 
of the mechanical tyttematic monotony and niJJIe famu, by the help 
of which I.cly, Knellcr, Hudion, the Preach paintera, and others, 
carried on their roanufacioriea of hiniory and race painting, and io 
returning (as far as he did teium) lo the troth and force of individual 
nature, that the secret both of his f.ime and fortune lay. The 
peda.ntic. servile race of artists, whom Reynolds lupcrurded, had 
carried the abstract principle of imptoving on nature to such a degree 
of tefinemcw, that they left it out altogether ; and confounded all the 
varieties and irregularities of form, feature, character, expression or 
attitude, in the aamc artificial mould of fancied grace and fashionable 
insipidity. The portraits of Knellcr, Ibr example, seem all to have 
been turned in a machine ; the eye-brows arc arched as If by a 
conipass ; the mouth curled, and the chin dimpled, the head turned 
on one side, and the hands placed in the same affected jMsiiion. The 
portraits of this mannerist, therefore, are as like one another as the 
dreiiet which were then in fashion t and have the same ' dignity and 
value ' aa the full bottomed wigs which graced their originals. The 
■upcriorny of Reynoldx conitsted in hii being varied and nararalr 
instead of being artificial and uniform. The spirit, grace, or dignity 
which he added to his portraits, he borrowed from nature, and oot 
from the ambiguous (juackcry of rules. Hii feeling of truth and 
nature was too strong to permit him to adopt the unmeaning style of 
Knt^llet and Hudson; but his logical acuieness was not such ai to 
enable him to detect the verba! falUcies and speculative absurditiea 
which he had learned from Richardton and Coypel ; and, from vome 
defects in his own practice, he was led to confound negligence with 
grandeur. But of ihii hereafter. 

Sir Joseph Reynolds owed his vast superiority over his con- 
temporaries to incessant practice, and habitual attention to nature, 
to ^uick organic sensibility, to coosidetable power of observation, 
and still greater taste in percciring and availing himself of those 
excellences of othcn, whicn lay within bia own walk of art. We 
can by no means look upon air Joshua as having a claim to the 
first rank of genius. He would hardly have been a great painter, if 
other greater painters had not lived before him. He would not 
bavc given a first impulse to the art, nor did he advance any pan 



ESSAYS ON THE FIVE ARTS 



of it brjead ibe pgiM where kc fiiMil h. Ue dxl aot pmeai ■; 
nrw firv of BKirr, bm ii iw to be phocd m ifae tane da* «iA 
iboae wbo did. Emt n colour, hit mQec wa* ifniwl fat Urn if 
tbc oU MiMen, anl hii rjn iihibcd its foil fmnt f t i oo of ^fA 
and haraMBf of feae, train i!ie Dwcb and Vca aim trfannit, niiw 
thtn from aamrc Hii early ficxsrea an poor and AinHjr. Kt 
ittdecd Icanmf to mv the finer qnlidet of Bature tfaroogb ihr «<d> 
of trt. which be, periupt, aai^ mem tmwK discovered k aflxn 
imiC He became ridi bjr ibt accHnobtioo of bano««d wolii, 
and hit tOHM vrat ibt oApruf (^ t««e. He comUaed aid m^ 
[fae wateriah of Otbcra to bu own purpOK', with adnwr^e ^Koii 
be wa* an uidoiHioin conpler, or •fctlrni translator, not aa onpa' 
invcnior in an. Tbe art wotdd retnam, in uil its — -T i ri al ckoian. 
jott where it i>, if Sir Joahna had mem tiTcd. He haa aopfliid *k 
indMlry of future plsgiaritu with no new materiaU. Bat it hM te 
well obaervcd, (hat the nlar of ertry wofk. of art, as wdl m At 
l^kit of tbc artiit, dcptndt, oot more on the drgr«c of fTftflfatT, 
Ihxn on the decree of otiginality diiplaynl b it. S'a Joafatu, howfts, 
wa* nnhap* tbe moM oHfpoal tnniacor thai ever appcarad ii tb 
world ; and tbe rtaaon of thit, in a great measure, waa, t|m he «> 
compelled to combine what he uw io art, with whjt be aw « 
natare, which waa oooMaatly before him. The portiut-paian a. 
in (hit rnpect. much k*i liaUc than the hiuofical Mtaier, to deiM 
into tlic cxtrcnoetof aniUMf and affectatioai for ^ canwc SksI 
naiue alta{ethei, vadtr the escwe that jU viJy pntt him oM. Hi 
miMt meet her, &ce to face : and if he it oot incorrigible, b( «3 
tee tomething there that caimot &il to be of aerrice to tea. 
Another ctramttai>ce which rouat have been favourable to Sir fpdiw 
was, that though oot the originuor in feiiU a/* thmr, he Wm the Bnt 
linglithman who truiiplantcd the higher cxccileocn of hit teoftaim 
into bia own country, and had the mcrii, if not of an isTcOati 
of a reformer of the an. Hti mode of paiatiag had tbe graooaf 
novelty in the a£e and country in which be liTcd ; aod lie *••* , 
thereiore, all the ttimului to exertion, which aroae from ik 
w ithuaiaatic apjiIaDte of hit cootcmporanea, aod from a deaite te 
exMod and rcNtic the tatte of the public. 

To an eye for colour and for effect* of light bikI thade^ Se 
Joihaa united a ttroog pefccption of iaditidaal character,— a frnjy 
feelio£ of tlie quaint and grotetque to exprcarion, and great mnty 
of exccutioo. He bad comparalively little knowledge of dnwW(, 
either at it rcf>atded proportion or form. The beauty of waie of 
hit finnsle (^tctt and figure* aritct almon entirely frotti their lofoww 
and fltahincM. Hit peoctl wanted Gnonew aod. prcciiion. Tfe 

S9» 



FINE ARTS 

cxprctiion, even of hin br» ponraiu, wldom implirt Hlhcr lofty or 
impu intoned JnicUcct or delicate Kuibtlity. He aUo wanted p»ct, 
if grace requim limplicitp. The mere ncgaiioa of sttfToeM and 
formality it nut {race; for loowDei» and dUtortioD are not grac». 
Hi* favourite attitude* are not easy aod natural, but the afTectation 
of eanc and nature. They are violent ddriaitoD* from a right line. 
Many of the figure* in hid fancy-piecet arc placed in podurct in 
which they could not remain for an inntant without extreme 
difficulty and awkwardness. We might instance the Girt ilrav/tng 
v/ilh a Ptac'il, and some others. Hi) portr^ti are hii bent pictures, 
and of these hi» ponraita of men are the beat : his picture* of 
children are the next in value. He had iine lubjecu For the 
former, from the maacuUne sense and originality of character of 
many of the persons whom he paintrd ; .ind he had alto n great 
adraotage (ai far ai practice went) in painting a number of poisons 
of every rank and description. Some of the finest and most 
interi-viing are those of Dr. Johnson, Goldsmith (which is, bow- 
erer, loo much a mere sketch), Uarctti, Dr. Buroey, John Hunter, 
and the inimitable portrait of Biihou Newton. The elegant 
•implicity of character, exprewion, and drawing, preiervcd through- 
out the Ian picture, even to the attitude and mode of handling, 
discover the true gcniui of a painter. Wc also remember to hare 
WCD a print of Thoma* Wnrion, than which nothing could he more 
characteristic or more natural. These were all Kcynoldt'i intimate 
actfuaintances, and it could not be said of them tlut they were men 
of ' no mark or likelihood.' Their trails had probably lunk drcp 
into the artist's mind ; he painted them as pure iitudieifrum nature, 
copying the real image cxisiinj; before him, with all its known 
characteristic peculbrities ; and, with as much wisdom as good* 
nature, aacrificing the graco on the altar of friendship, '['hey arc 
downright portraiu, and nothing more, and they are valuable in 
proportion. In his portraits of women, ot) the comiary (witli very 
few exceptions], Kir Joshua appears to haw consulted either the 
vanity of liis employers or his own fanciful theory. They have not 
the look of individual nature, nor have they, to compensate the want 
of this, either peculiar elegance of form, refinement of expressioo, 
delicacy of complexion, or gracefulness of manner. \'andyke'a 
attiiudes hare been complained of as stitf and confined. Reynolds, 
to avoid this defect, has fallen into the contrary extreme of ocgli- 
f>eocc and contortion. His female figures which aim at gentility, 
arc twisted into that serpentine lire, the idea of which he ridiculed 
•o much in Hogarth. Indeed, Sir Joshtia, in his Diueuriu f see his 
account of Correg^io), speaks of grace as if it were nearly allied to 

399 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



tffectadaa. Grace cignifiet thai which i* plcasrnf; and uconl ia 6e 
poMurc and modoiw of the btnun tonn, a» Beauty u raoce fn^Hi 
^iplM to Ihr fona itidf. Tlui which U nitr, tT"~fiti aj 
vMto« motioit, cawMx, thcfrTorc, be gnc«AiI ; bttt, to miffom te 
> fignret lo be snceful, and ooly be (nit into Bome lintiiiihin « 
extrangun |io«turv, it to miftake iuucr and aflVcutioo for am wi 
clnaoce. 

■Sir Jothua'i cbiUren, at we hare Ktid above, are anuog Ini i^ 
^mavrti. The faoM of children hatr id j^eoccal thu WM (T 
fnctuon or oullisr, thai promiocDce of rclwf. and Kroog coauM^ 
cohfur, which were pccsluriy acUpced to hia style of paiBtfaj. Tk 
arch nfflpticitj of exp««M*0D, and the grMe«c]iie character wticb kc 
baa givca to the btadi of bit children, were, however, borrgvd 
from Corrc^io. Hi* Puck ia the moK matcerly of lUl thoei ad 
the cotooring, executioa, and character, aUke ex<]uiKitr. The K^ 
figure of the In^t Hcrmlei \% alio admirable, Manv of tboK v 
whkh hia friend* ha*c Mtggcttnl hiaorical titJea are forrc txatmm 
Mttrutt or canal itudiet. Thus the lofaot Samod t* aa tnaxcc 
little child ttyiog its ptayrn at the bed's feet : tt haa doUubj to do 
with the Mory of the Hebrew prophet. The same objecboa «d 
amly to ntaoj of bis fancy-pMce* and hiatorical compo«itii» 
There ia often no connection betweeo like picture and the Hbieci te 
the name. Even hii celebrated Iphif^nii (hcDutiful at tbe t^<^ 
prodigal of her charmi) don not aruwer to rhe idea of the Mn- 
In drawing the naked figvre. Sir Joabna'a want of truth and firanoi 
of outline, became more apparent ; and hi* mode of la^no la b 
coloon, which, in the face and eitremitiei, waa relieved and bnks 
by the ahrupc incqualitic* of surface and nriety of tinta in each |ac^ 
prodoced a dej^rte of beanneai and opacity to the larger mane* 4 
Beth-colDnr, which can indeed only be avoided by cxtretDe ddicxj^ 
or extreme lightneo of execttnoo. 

Shall we vpcak the tmih at once? In our opinioo. Sir Jaka 
did not poifeu either that high intagioation, or thoac atroBg ftcfiip 
witboni wUch no painter can become a poet id hii an. Hi* bigr 
luMoiical cotnpoMtiOQa hare been generally allowed to fce moM Ub 
to objection, in a critical point of tiew. We nhall not yrrfy n 
judge thetn by icientilic or technical tvie*, bui make oim ot tw 
obtenratioM on the character and feeling dt^ilaycd io them. Tlw 
higbcR ndijrct which Sir Jocboa hu attempted wh the C^ 
VjgeSM, and ii was, at might be expected from the circmnataacci. 
a total failure. He had, it Kenu, painted a ctudy of an old ixrpt- 
min'a heud ) and tome peraoo, who miiM have known at Ikttof 
paintti^ aa of poetry, pemuded the mmapecting srtiat, that it *w 

400 



FINE ARTS 

the «X3Ct expnniOD oi Uaote's Count Ugolkio, one of the mott 
grand, terrilic»afld tnalltn;; ch^actett in niodfrn fiction. ReytMldi, 
who knew nothing of the matter but what he wa» totd, took hit good 
fortune for granted, and (inly extended f>ii wiifasii to admit the rwi 
of the f^rr*. The attiiudc and exptc&non of Count Ugolina 
hiiDKlf, are whiti the aiiitt intended them to be, tilt th«]r were 
pampered into somMhing e!«e by the oflicioui vanity of friend»~- 
those of a common mendicint at the comer of r nreel, wailing 
patientiy for tome charitable donation. The imagioaiioii of the 
painter took refuge in a parisli work-houie, intiead of aseendins Ae 
nep« of the Tower of Famine. The hero of Dante it a lofty, 
high-minded, and unpriiKipled Italian nobleman, who had betrayed 
hi* country io the enemy, and who, ai a punishment for hit crime, 
it shut up with hi) four none in the dungeon of the citadel, where he 
ihonly find* ihc doort barred agairiM him, and food withheld. 
He in Tain watches with eager feverish eye the opening of the door 
at the accustumed hour, and his looks turn to stone; his children 
one by one drop down dead at his feet ; he la wized with bltudncss, 
and, in the agony of his despair, be grupi-i on hia knees after tliemi 

. 'Calling each by name 

For three dayi after thty were deail.' 

E»en in ihe other world, he it represented with the same fierce, 
daunttcKS, unrelenting character, ' gnawing the skull of his adveraary, 
hii fell repa»t.' The iiubjeci of the Ijiacoon is tcarccly equal to thai 
described by Dante. The horror there ii physical and momentary ; 
in the other, the imagination fi!U up the long, obscure, dreary »oid 
of despair, and joins Its unutterable p^ngs to the loud cries of naiurc. 
What is there in the picture to convey the ghastly horrors of the 
tceoe, or the mighty energy of soul with which ihey are borne?' 
Hi* picture of Maehtth is full of wild and grotescjuf images ; and tlie 
apparatus of the witches contains a very elaburate und well arraoKcd 
inventory of dreadful objects. His Cardinal Beaufort is a line 
display of rich mellow colouring ; and there is something gentlemanly 
and ShakrtiH'aiian in the King and the attendant Nobleman. At the 
same time, we think the expression of the Cardinal himself is too 
much one of physical horror, 4 canine gnashing of the teeth, like a 
man atrangled. This is not the best style of bUtory. Mrs. Siddons 

' Why i(oct not thr British Inititation, inttts^l of pitionitinc pieliiKa of the 
■utile of WsKtloo, of nA coati, (ooliih (icti, an-l libil< of victory, offer ■ priir 
Tor ■ picture of llic lubjccl of Ugolino ibit (lull be e<)usl to the (roup of the 
Lsoeoon ? Thai wouH be the wgy to ilo loiRfthIng, If ibcre Is inythiiig to be 
done bji luch piirnaigc. 

VOU IX.: SC 4OI 



;^ 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

iu tbe Tragic Afitt, i* neither Uie ua^c miuc nor Mr>. SiiUoai 
itidi we have Ail) itroagn objecttom to Garriei htivtttra Tn^iJf 
C«mfdf. 

Tbcfe )« a (triking niniluity bnwMn Sir Joshua Rey&dUi'i 
tlxof J and hi* practice ; und su cmrh o( these haa been 3p]<nlcd to it, 
iMppon of ihc other, it ia necessary that we tiioold exaaiioe botk 
Sir Joabiu's pTnctice uru geoerail; confined to ibe illiuuatioa of tha: 
part of bis ilieor]r> wliidi reldtei to the mote unmcduw innutiefi d 
nature, and it is to what be tajt oe tbi* subject, that wc duD chic^ 
dtrrct OUT olwemiionK at piewDl. 

He lay* it down m a geoeral and inrariable rule, that 'tit ptg 
ttfti m 4Irt, anJ iht mail PEiriCT imitatiom of haxvuk, amujti it 
avoit £i ^ thi litiailt ami fftuSarititt ^ partictilar oijreU.' Tbn 
»weci)iDg priociple he appltn aloiOK tiidi»crimi(Miely to Partrmt, 
I/u(«ryt and J,aiidi{apr \ and be ajipeart to hare becu led to Ac 
ceuduitOD itieir, ftoni luppoeing the irnitaiioo of particuUrt to be 
incaMiMent with general truth and effect. It apipcara to &% that ibi 
biriiect perfiectioii of the art depend*, not on separating bx ee 
uniting general trath and elfect with individual dictiactseM ai 
accuracy. 

Ftrii, it in taid, that tbe great style in patating, as it reUtet to dc 
iminediaie imiuiion of cxieriul namre, consicta in arotding ik 
detail* of inrticular object*. It coosius ndther in giving nor aioidj^ 
tbein, but id somcthioi: quite dilTetcnt from both. Any one ^ 
avoid the details. So br, there ■* do difference between the Ctrmn, 
and a common aign-patntiDZ. Greatnec* comiMs in giving the Unci 
ouuet and pei^HHtioo* with truth ; — thia doe» not pccTcnt Ki>i«"S tk 
tnullcr one* toa The utmott grandeur of onuline, aod the btondM 
BiasMs of light and thadc, are perfectly compatible witb the imtH* 
BUnutcoes* and delicacy of deuil. ai may be seen in nature. It it 
Doti indeed, comcnoo to tec both qualitie* combined in the imitnivi 
of oaiore, any more than the combination of oifaer excdlencet; tu^ 
are wc here layiog to which the principal attention of the vti<H 
■bould be directed i but wc deny, that, contidercd in tbcintel>c«.' 
the absence of the one quality i* neccnutry or MiTicient tu tk 
produciinn of the other. 

If, for example, the form of the eye-brow ia correctly men, : 
will be perfectly indifferent to the irtsth or gnadeur uf the ' 
whetiicr it coosisis of one broad mark, or ia campoieii of a ' 
of hair-lioes, arranged in the nnie order. So, if the lights and riisdct" 
are diapomrd in fine acij lar^e mataes, the briadih ot tlie pjctsnc, ai 
it ia called, cmmot posiibly be aifcctcd by the filticig up of that 
nuiie* with the dcuif*, ibal i*, with the lubordinatc iliMinciioot «b 

401 




PINE ARTS 

app«u in nature. The uiatonuca] details id Michael Aogdo, the 
ever-TaryinK outline of Raphael, the perfeci execution of the Cieek 
uatue*, do not ileuioy their lymitictry oi dij^Dity of form i and, in 
the fineit >pecimeni of the compotitioa of colour, we mtj obtcrre the 
Uigcit matte* combined with the greate«t rariciy in the part* of 
which (hose mastet arc composed. 

Tbe^rvji «tyle co(i»i*ta in giving no dct.iiU; thc^ivii/ in giring 
DOtluDg else. Niitucc contains both large and »nialt paii», both 
niOMck »nd dcuiU ; and the lame niay be taid of the most perfect 
wotki of art. Tlic union of botli kinds of excellence, of ttrenp.tli 
with delicicy, m fjx na the limiti uf human capacity, and the ihoitness 
of human life would pcimit, is that which hac citabtishcd the reputa- 
tion of the most successful imitator* of nature. Farther, their niait 
linishcd works arc their bcii. The predomioance, indeed, of either 
excellence in the be«( Masicrt, has Tnricd according to their opinion 
of the cclatiie taluc of ihefic qualities, — the labour they had the time 
or the patience to bestow on their works, — the skill of the artist, — 
or the nature and extcoi of hia subject. But, if the rule here objected 
to (that the careful imitation uf the parts injures the clfect of the 
whole), be once admitted, >lovenltnc» would become another name 
for genius, and the most unfinished jierforniance be the best. That 
such ha» been the confused impression left on the mind by the perusal 
of Sir Joshua Keynolda't Discourses, is erident front the practice, as 
well ai con»etsation, of many (eren eniineot) artists. The late Mr. 
Opie proceeded entitcly on tliti principle. lie left many admirable 
studies of portraits, particularly tn what relate* to the diipoation and 
effect of li^ht and shade i but he never fmithed any of the part*, 
thinking ihem beneath the attention of a great artist. He went 
over the whole head the second day as he had done the lirti, and 
therefore made no progtcu. The picture at last, having neither the 
lighlDeis of a tketch, nor the accuracy of a finished work, looked 
coarse, laboured, and heavy. Titian is the most pcfteci example of 
high finishing. In him the details are engrafted on the most profound 
knowledge of eiTect, and attention to the cluractcr of what he 
represented. His pictures have the exact look of nature, the very 
tone and texture at flesh. The variety of his tint* is blended into 
the greatest simplicity. There is a proper degree both of solidity and 
transparency. All the part* hang together : every stroke tells, and 
adds to the effect of the rest. Sir .lo«hua seems to deny that Titian 
fitiiihed much ; and nays tliat he produced, by two or three strokes of 
his pencil, eiTect* which the moat Laborious copyist would in vain 
attempt to equal. It it inie, be availed binueli in some degree of 
what i* called atrnriim, to facilitate bis imitation of the deuils and 

4«S 



ESEATS cm THE I^N£ AWTS 




FINE ARTS 



dry, hard, and mioutr, — ihc other u giot*, gothic, and luifinickcd ; 
and thi-y will probably remain Ibi tvti ft,uUficd witli each other's 
defect!, u ihcy aflurd a very tolerable fund of coaiolattoo on either 
aide. 

Much ha« been aid of hiilari-a! puriraii ; »nd we hare DO objection 
to this phrase, if properly undcriiood. 'I'he giving hittoricJ truth 
to a portrait, mean*, theo, ihc representing the indiTidanI utxlet one 
cootlstvnt, ptobablei and ttriking view ; or showing (he difTereni 
feuum, retuRctei, Sec. in one actiuo, aod modified by one principle. 
A portrait thuu painted niuy be mid 10 be httlwital; that it, it cartie* 
internal evidence of truth and propriety with it ; and the number of 
individual jieculiariiiet, ai long u they are true to nature, cannot leiwn, 
but must add to the strength of the general imprcsiion. 

It might be shown (if' there were room in this place) that Sir 
Joshua has constructed his theory of the idinl in art, upon the same 
mistaken principle of the nef;ation or abstraction of particular nahtrt. 
The iJeal is not a negative but a positive thing. The leaving otit 
the decailt or peculiuritict uf an individual face does not make it one 
jot more ideal. To pniot hiniory, is to paint nature as answering to 
a general, predomin.mt, or preconceived idea in the mind, of strength, 
beauty, action, pxssion, thought, fee. ; but the way to do this is not 
10 leave out the details, but to incorporate the general idea with the 
detaiU 1 — that it, to bhow the same expteasion aciuatinft and modifying 
every movement of the muacles, and the same character preserved 
coosisteoily through every part of the body. Grandeur doe« iiot 
oODHSt in omitting the part*, but tn connecting all the paru into 
a whole, and in giving their combined and vancd action : abstract 
truth or ideal pcrlcction docs not consiit in rejecting ihc pcculiaritie* 
of form, hut in rejecting all those which are not consistent with the 
character intended to be g;iven \ and in following up the same gentrat 
iJrii of softness, volupiuouuncsK, strength, activity, or any combination 
of tbcM iluough every ramilicaiJon of the frame. But ihese modifica- 
tions of form or expresviun can only be leamt from nature, and there- 
fore the perfection of art muH always be sought in nature. The 
ideal properly applies an much to the iilm of ugliness, weakness, foMy, 
mcntinesi, vice, as of beauty, luength, wi»dom, mtignanimity, or 
virtue. Tlie antique heads of fauns and satyrs, of Pan or SiJcoua, 
are quite as ideal as those of the Apollo or Bacchus ; and Ho^rth 
adhered to an idea of humour in bis face*, as Raphael did to no 
idea of sentiment. But Raphael fotind the character of lemiment 
in nature as much as Hogarth did that of humour ; otherwise neither 
of them would have given one or the other with such perfect truth, 
purity, force, and keeping. Sir .loshua Reynolds's iJfitl, a* consiiiiog 

401 





ESSAYS OS THE FINE ARTS 



in ■ men negation of iixliTHltaJiiy, bean just tbe nme relMiaa lo m! 
bmujr or gmdear u caiicanvr doc* u> tmr comic dunctrr.' 

Pt.kii.sT State of BuntH Akt. — ]i U owing either to a aniois 
theory of elcnted an. or to ibe vast of modela to oanire, chit tk 
EaglNh are hiibeno withont any ptintef of serious historical RUecBi 
who can be placed in the fint rank of genius. Many of the ftoan 
of modrro aniii* ha*e tbowB a capacity for correct and happf dtEto- 
lioo of actual obJKt* and donwatic inddenia, only inferior to themawr 
neCM of the UiMch School. We might here meattoa the imond 
wilUe,CaUios,Heaptiy,aDdinui70cfaefa. WV have nonriit-iaiaui^ 
who hate attained to a very high degree of excelUncr tn til ^ 
branche* of their art. In laodicapr. Turner has ahowD a knoaUp 
of the eflecU of air, and of powerful relief in objects, which waianv 
turpisicd. Bui io ibc higfam walk of art — in givin;-, the raoremas 
of the finer or loftier pituiooi of the mind, this cauntry bu U 
piodnced a linglc painter, who hat made eren a fnioi approach Hi tk 
cxcelleoce of (he ^rtu Italian patntcra. W« hare, indeed, a gooi 
mmber of ^cimeu of the ctav-G]{ure, the anatomical nechiBM, 

the reitvbr proportiom meaaured ny a iwo-lbot rule ; larM cannflD^ 

corered with xtifT figure*, ams^ id deliberate order, wiih ik 
character* and mory correctly expreaaed by uplifted eye* or hlH 
according to old rcccipc-booka for the passion* ; — ^md with all ik 
bardnctf aod inflexibility of tigurea carved io wood, and paiii(cd««w 
in good aiToag body colonrt, that look *a* iT some of MMA 
jouroeynxn bad made tliem, and not made them well.' B«l «t 
«lll want a PromcthciM to pre life to the cambrous iiuss, to thn* 
an intellectual light OTer the opaque image, — to embody the inBM 
refinement* ol thoaght to the outward eye, — to lay hare the nn 
Boal of puiion. Thai picture ia of liitlc contjKiratirc value wttd 

can he coinpleiely ironilaltil into another language, of which ik 

deacriptiou in a common catslogix coa«rys all that is expraaeil W 
tlie picture itaelf ; ^ tl ti the excelletice of every nn to give vhc 
can be given by no other, in the tame degree. Much lea ii tta 
picture Io be esteemed, which only injure* ai>d deface* (he >te 
already exiiting in the mind'* eye, — which doc« noi cooK op W 
the concepiioe which ihc imagination forms of the tobject, ^ 
nibtiituies a dull reality for high neniintmi ; for the an is in M 



case an iDcumbrancc. not an atstbtancci and interferes with, ia 
of adding to, the nock of our pleaturablc scDiations. Bat w> dwril 

' Ttiia nitijMt or iht Um/ wEU be imacuA, xoi nore pmicslarlv miunJ nw, 
Mtder lh*t bead. 

♦06 



PINE ARTS 



I be at a tou to point out (we will not ay any Englimh pictuT«, but 
I ccruinly) any English painter, who, in heroic and clauicil compoiitioni 
has risen to the hrighi of his lubjcci, and answrrnl ihc expectation 
of the well-informed ipccuior, or excited the lame impicwion by 
risible meaoa, as had bMn exciied by words, or by reflcciioo.' Tbat 
this inferiority io EnKlioli urt i> not owiup, to s airlicicocy of };enias, 
imajji nation, uc pasiiun, t> proved tuHiacntly by the work* of our 
poci> and dramatic writi-ri, which, in Inftincm and force, arc not 
snrpaiitcd by those of any other nation. But whatcTci may be the 
depth of imcrnal thought and feeling in the English chamctrr, it 
St^cins to be m«rr intrmai; and (wlKlbcr this is owing to habit. Of 
physical constitution) CO have, com parati rely* a less immediate and 
powerful communication with the organic cxpieuion of paraion, — 
which exhibits the thoughts and feelings in the countenance, and 
furnisheii matter for the hiKoric muie of jiainting. The English 
artist is imtantly sensible that the flutter, grimace, and cxtntragance 
of the French physiognomy, ire incompatible with high hintory; and 
we arc at no loss to explain in this way, ch/it ia, from the defcci of 
living models, how it it that the productions of the [''tench school 
are marked with all the Jlfectation of national caricature) or sinit into 
lame and lilele»» in>itaiion> of the inti<|ue. May we not account 
(atisfactorily for the general defect* of our own historic productions, 
in a similar way, — from a certain inertncst ami constitutional phlegm, 
which doe* not habitually impress the working* of the mind in 
correspondent traces on the countenance, and which may also render 
us less scnsihic of these outward and visible lignx of passion, even 
when they arc so impressed there .' The irregularity of proportion, 
and want of symmetry, in the structnrc of the DalJonal fcaturct, 
though it ccTCainly enhances the difficulty of infvsing natural grace 
and grandeur into the wuiks of art, rather acoouoU for out not 
having been able to attain the exquisite reiinenicnts of Grecian 
sculpture, than for our not having rivalled the Italian painters in 
expression. 

Mr. West does not form an exception lo, but a confirmation of, 
these general obscrTations. His pictures have all that cfin be required 
io what relates to the composition of the subject ; to the regular 
arrangement of the groups ; the anntomicil proiioriionii of the human 
body ; and the technical knowledge of uxprestioo, — as fii ai expres- 
sion is reducible to abatract rules, and is merely a vehicle for the 
telling of a nory; to thai anger, wander, sorrow, pity, &c. hare 

' If wr vtrrt to maks any qnaljAcati™ of thii cnuarc, it vnjitld hr in fiivnr of 
some of Mr. Norlhcott't compoiitiQni (rom nrif Enflith hitlory, 

407 




If 

I 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

tadi that amrofristr and wcIIIumwd <l«igBauoDa. Thew, hawtftt, 
■re bat the inttniaieiiial uuts of the art, the "w»p«, qoi ibe cod t ba 
bejrood ihnc, Mr. West i ]iicturc* da not go. They ncrcr *n>xi 
a grace beyond tbe reach of an.' Tbcy exhibit the awi, not tk 
/W of cxprcwioa. Wc doubt, wh«thct, in the cotire nnge of Hi. 
West'* proditcdOM. meriionov* asd admirable u the dcnpi ad 
GoanNXkioD ofteo aie, there it to be found one truly fine he^ Thn 
diipfay a total waot «f gucio. In Raphael, the umc dinar ^int 
bteatbc* thiongb e*nj ftxt t it either agitate* the iooioM frw^ tc 
pUy« is gentle nndnlatiaiM on the trembliDg *urface> Whette «t 
•ee hU (igum bending with all the bUndithmeats of natenal lot^ 
or ftaading in the motioitleM Hbnoe of ihoo^t* or butricd tuo di 
uiniilt of actKMi, the wbt^e it andcr the iapaUc of deep jiiiJib 
B« Mr. We« trci hardly any thing in the htunan iace bis bovi 
■od cartilage*; or, tf he avail* hinuelf of the rnore taSk 
maduoery of aerie* aad muacles, it it only by rule and taeAoL 
The eSeci it not that which the toul of poMioD Jiihhimii im dt 
conotcBaDoe, and which the muI of geniua aloi>c cm teizc ; fav mA 
a* mighi, in a good meawre, be given to wooden puppet* oi pw 
board fignm. piUed by wirct, atxl mght to open the nxMh.> 
knit the rorcbnd, or raiK the cyet in a very tcientiEc inaaaa. b 
fact, there it so want of an or l«uniog in hi* picturcii, but of nan 
ittii feeling. 

MuHs or PaoMOTiHO thk Fihb Auts. — it ia not long iga ifcK 
urn opiotoo wa* rery geoaii, that all that wai wanting to the Mfr* 
^lendour and perfectioo of tbe aiu in thit country tnighi be tmb^ 
bf Aadcroiei aad public inaiiiationf. We bdicrc the moat ma^pm 
pronotcraofthii •cbeme have at pretnK relaxed in their zcaL That 
arc itnt way* in which Acadetniec and public inatitotiaR* mn te 
Nppotcd to protnotc the line aru; either by fumisbtnc the btf 
■Boodt 10 ifao ludcnt i ot by holdiag out iinnMKliate emoiuBwai W 
patron^ 1 or by improrinjt the public (Mie. Wc ihatl beam i 
short coDsideratiun on the indaeoce of each. 

Firtt, a coottaot reference to the betf modrU of an .wiilj 

tendt to coerrate the mind, to intercept our view of nature, and • 
dittraa the atieoiion by a variety oi unaitainaUo exccQeacv. M 
■Mimate aoqnaiauncc with the worki of the celeWurd muun aij 
indctd add to the indolent refiDoataia of taste, bat will ae*e 
praduee oac work of otifpaal genial^ one great ortni. In proof «J 
the seaerd truth of thii oUemiioa, we might cite the faatory of 
the pregren and dtxay of art in all covntnei where it bat flouriidied. 
It it a tittle extraordinary, that if the real tourcea of perfection are n 
be MKight in Scbooli, in Model*, and Public latticutions tfa** wtop 

40B 



i 



FINE ARTS 



erer ichooU, models, and public instiiutions ham extited, then thr 
aru thouli) icguktly OiMppeui, — tlut the elfect thould nctcr follow 
from the cauw. 

The Greek «uiuc» remain 10 (hU day unriialled, — the iiodiii)kalrd 
fundaid of the most perfect tyiumciry of fotm. In Italy the an of 
uaintiog has had the amt falc. After tit loDg and painliil Hiujsl** 
u tlitf time of the earlier artitt*, Qmabue, GhirLiodaio, Mamciot 
and others, it bunt out with a lijtht »lmoiit too duxxlinK to beboU, 
in the worki of Titian, Michael Anf^elo, Raphael, and Corrcfgia ; 
which wa* tcllcctetl, with diminithed tuitre, ia the production* ofthcir 
immediate dibciplea ; lingered for n while with the tchool of the 
Carrnccis, and expired with Guido Rcni. From thai period) paiiil- 
iog eunk to ao low a Kate in Italy as to excite only pity or coatempl. 
There it not a single nimt to rcd«em its faded glory from utter 
oblivion. Yet this ban not been owiag to any w'^nt of Uilcttantj and 
Dclb Cruicao nocictici, — of xcudcmiea of Florence, of Bologna, of 
Patina, and Piu, — of honotarv nicmbct* and Foreign CorrcRpoodcnU 
— of pupils and teacher', proicssors and patrons, and the whole basy 
mbc of critics ind connoisseurs. 

What is btconie of the successors of Kubros, Krnibraadc, and 
Vandyke? What hare the French Academicians done for the artst 
or what will they e*et do, but add intolerable alfectatioD and grimace 
to centos of he^s from the antique, and caricature Greek fornii by 
putting thcra into o)>era attitude* i Nicholai Pouuin is the only 
example on record in larour of the coniruy theory, and we have 
already lulhciently noticed his defect*. What extraordinary advances 
hiTr wc msdr in our Own country in consct^uencc of the establtsb-' 
ment of the Royal Academy ! What greater names has the Fnglish 
school to boast than those of Hogarth, Reynolds, and WiUun, who 
created it i liten tJie icoerable President of tlie Royal Academy 
was one of its Ixiundera. 

Again, we might cite, in tupport of our asaettton, the work* of 
Carlo M.^raiti, of Raphael Mengs, or of any of the rlfeminaic school 
of critics and copyists, wlio have artempled to blend the borrowed 
beauties of others In a Mrfccc whole. What do they contaiii, but 
a negation of every excellence which they pretend to combine t The 
assiduous imitator, in his attempts to grasp all, lose* his hold of that 
which was placed within hii teach, and, from aspiring at unirersal 
excellence, unks into uniform mediocrity. The student who ha* 
modclii of every kind of excellence connanily before him, is not 
only diverted from that particular walk of art, in which, by patient 
exertion, he mi^ht have obtained ultimate succe**, but, from having 
lii> imagination habitually raided to an overstrained stAodanl of refme- 

409 




1 




Tktjf Icanv tfa« Aaagk Fane 

(iiMd^ bn fa: m ifw dw cwll G«tBM 

^MW BHidrii cxiM dM; to Aov ikc 
iteMffaiS ida H left ts be OkdwiB 

gmoiisai nfOK a* «bM k» Inm done <■ 
ffi^iriiiii. ■ iartj-f -'-. -'— a ccnsB penvd, 
i^ kwM4id|r darf hivr alradf aoqned. 

With regad to ilw pccnMry adtil i y * arinag £raai Ac frffc 

4'0 




FINE ARTS 

ptftOBigr of th« aru; — the plin unfoitaoatdy defeat* haelf; for it 
mdti|ilK« its objecu hM<t (hnn ii can utttfy ibeir claim*; aitd riim 
up a *warin of competitor* for the prize of genhi* from the dreg* of 
idlencia md dulocu. 'i'he r«il patron b toxiou* to reward merii, 
not to encourage xratuitoui prftcnsions to it; to tee that the man of 
graiai lairi m dtlfimetit, that another WiUon ii not l^fi to periih for 
wuit ; — not to propagate the breed of embryo cindidatei for fame. 
Offers of public and promUcuous patronage can in general he littk 
better than a speciet of intellrccual tcduction, adminiiiteting proToc»- 
tim to ranitjr and anrice, and leading xMray the youth of ihic naiioB 
by fallaciona hopca, which can scarcely ever be realized. At the 
HiTie time, the good that mijtlit he done by private taate and 
benevolence, iii in a great mcature defeated. The moment that a 
few individua!!! of di«ecmnient and liberal spiiit become memberi of 
a public body, they arc no longer anything more than part* of a 
machine, vhich in usually wirldcd .it will by tome officious, over- 
weening pretender ; their good.jcnsc and good*n««tc arc loil is a 
mau of ignorance and presumption; their names only aervc to reflect 
credit on proceedings ia which they have no share, and which are 
determined on by a majority of persons who haxe no intereat ia the 
art! but what ariaw from the importance attached to them by regular 
orgaci/ation, and no opinion! but what arc dictated to them by tome 
aelf-constituicd judge. A> fat as wc have had an oppottunity of 
(^Hrrring ihc conduct of nich bodiea of men, instead of taking the 
lead of public opinion, of giving a firm, manly, and indcprl^denl lone 
to that opinion, they make it their busincsi to watch all ita caprices, 
and follow it in every casual turning. They dare not give their 
sanction to sterling merit, struggling with dillicuitiet, but take 
advantage of its success, tu reflect credit on their own reputation for 
sagacity. Their taste is a servile dependant on their vanity, and 
their patrcmage has an air of pauperism about it. Perhaps the only 
public patronage which was ever really useful to the art^ or worthy 
of them, wan that which they received first in Greece, and afterwards 
in Italy, from the religious institutions of the cou&lry ; when the 
artist ielt himself, as it were, a servant at the altar ; wbco his hand 
givt a vttible form to Gods or Heroes, Aogel* or Apostles i and when 
the enthuuasm of genius was exalted by mingling with the liame of 
national devotion. The artist was not here degraded, bv being made 
the dependant on the caprice of wealth or fashion, but felt hmiaelf at 
once the lervant and the benefactor of the public. He bad to embody, 
by the highest cfForu of his art, lubjccis which wrrp ucred to the 
imagination and feelings of the apeclators ; there was a common link, 
a laotua] tympathy between llieni in their common faith. livery 

4"! 




\ 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

ether mode oT pttnunri but that which ^»n, enVf fren tk 
piMjal ifuaitiitioBi and iDaaneri of a people, or &o*n tbe tat ■» 
■ficcied UMe of bdifiduab, nniit, we coocvirc, be JllegitiB>i, 
coTTupCcd ia it* wurcc, and either tnefTcctual ur injuiow la a 
profcMrd object. 

Laatl^r, Acadnnict aad Inatinuiaaa txiaiy be w pp o e ul to mhk ib 
proitrew of the fine art*, by promotuig a wider taare fer *Kfip. 

In gracraJ. it man happen in the firat auge» of the an>,iiM» 
oooc but thote who bad a naiMnl {enhw for tbetn woold imap ■ 
praciitc ibcm, — to none fant thoce who had a Tutinral taste iitr ^•^ 
would pf cteod to judge of or ctitidic tlietn. Thti anat be aa • 
calcalabtc adTaoiage to the m-wi of true xeoiua ; for it U ■> ohn 
than the prir'ikge of being tried by hU peers. In an iff «faa 
conaoioevnhip bad not bmime a faihioD ; when leligioo, war. «d 
intrine, occupied tbe tiine and thooghta of tlie great, only tte 
mbdi of tuperior re&iemeni would be led to notice the wcrk* of ad 
who had a teal «eti*e of their exoelleocc j and. in girtng way to * 
powerful bent of hii own fiesin*, the painter was moat likely wce^ 
the taatc of hi* judgea. He had not to deal with pretender* to t^ 
through ranhy, affccution, and idlcneta. He bad to appeal tt # 
bigber &cultie« of the »oul, — to that deep aad innate teiuabifilT » 
troth aixl beauty, which retjuifed only fit objccta to hare it* oKhMte 
exdled. — and to that iodepeDdent ttrepgth of mind, which, ia A 
mid«t of ignortncc and baibaricm, bailed and fQstcred gcoiut v^» 
erer it met with it. Titian wai patroniied by Chartea v. C<^ 
Ciftigliode wa« the friend of Raphael. 7'be»e were true pattowid 
irae critic* ; and, as there were do oihcis (for tlic world, tn gewiA 
merely looked on and woodeicd), there can be little doubt that mi 
a period of dearth of facthioua patronage would be roost &«ovdb 
to the full developement of the greateM taienis, and to the " "r™* 
of the highe«t excellence. 

By meaof of puMtc tiutitubocu, the number of candiduet ior hat, 
and pretendert to criiiciim, i« increased beyond all calcitlariao, wA 
the quantity of gentui and feeliog remain much the aame at befaei 
with these diudvaniagca, (hat the man of original gcntui ii oAan Im 
among the crowd of conipetitort who would never have becoi&endk 
but from encoungemetit and example, aixl that the voice itf the ^ 
whom nature intended far judget, i* apt to be drowned in the 
and forward nitTragei of alultow imatterei* in Taste. 



4IS 



JAMES BARHY 



JAMES BARRY 

Bamv (Jimei) an emineni painter, wm born ia Cork, m Irctaod, 
OctobtT ri, 1741. Hi» father had bwa a builder, and at one time 
of hi» life, a coasting trader briween the two couctriet of liagUad 
and Ireland. To this buiiiu(.-» of a inidcr wat Jatae* dntlneil, aati he 
actually made, when a l)oy, tcvcra! voyage* ; but tfaete Toyiges being 
forced upon him, he on one oceaiion ran away from the ship, and on 
othcti discoTcrcd such an avcrtioo lo the life and habiii of a latlar, 
a* in induce hit father to ciuit all hope« of him in ihia line, iind lo 
(ufTcr him to jnirKue hij iQclinatJant, which led him to drawing and 
study. When on board his father's vessel, instead of handling sails 
and ropes, and climbing the mast, he was generiliy uccupicd with a 
pccc of black chalk, sketching the coMit, or drawing iigures, us his 
fancy dicecud him. When his father found that the idea of making 
i sailor of him mutt Ik given up, he permitted him to acquire a* 
much instruction an the school* of Cork atfordcd ; bat long retained 
his aversion to the chalk drawings, with which the floors and wall* 
of the house were euvered : the boy Uiing always engaged in some 
aitenipi at large l>);ure>, and early catching at the mnms of represent- 
ing action, attitude, and passion. It wan ai a lery early period of 
his life that some bookseller in Ireland, undertaking to reprint a set 
of fables or emblemii, young Barry otfered to Rirnish the drawings, 
and, at it is believed, helped to etch the engravings, mch as they 
were. At the cchools in Cork, which he w^s sent to, he was dia- 
tinguitihcd by his patis and industry above his school-fellows ; bis 
habits ditfcrnl from those of ordinary bo^s, as h« seldom mixed b 
their games or amu»emcnts. but at those times stole olf to his own 
room, where he worked ai his pencil, or was studying some book 
that he had borrowed or bought. He would sjiend whole night* in 
tlus mannct at hi* studies, lo the alarm of hi* mother, who dreaded 
his injuring hi* health or setting lire to (he house, and who often 
kept lip hi* sister or the serrant to watch him. Hi* aJlowance of 
money he spent in buying books or candles to read by ; he sometimes 
locked himself up in liis room for days, and seldom slept upon hit 
bed, or else made it so hard as to take away the temptation or luxury 
of lying long in it. Perhaps the unsocial and ascetic turn of his 
temper, which thus early manifevicd itself, might be remarked as the 
aource both of the misfortunes of his life, and the defect* of his 
gcoiu*. Common humanity, a sense of pleasure, and a sympathy 

4'S 





ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

with the I'ecltngt oTibDoc aroufid lu, ia not mote occctwuy to i 
in lilr-, than ii probably h to nicccM in ibe £ik aita. Few tbiogt i 
be more fsul to the antit duo thb nrt of tadificrrncc to the cotnuKW 
plcamrc« and purtuiu of life. IF affected, it is ba4 ; if rol aMi 
cooatilatioiul, it it even worn:, h xuck to poor Dsrry to tbc l*fl. 
It i« not to be und«i*u>od that, at thi* period of his life, he led ibe 
life of un abMlute recluse, for he couM aad did uccxriooiilly jona ia 
say Icats goin^ on in the Dcrifibboutbuod, utid va* not behind other 
boyt in iDch putiroct and tni«chicf » boys are unially food of. As 
adraiurc which happened to htm about thit time, and which left a 
ttioag ImpreHion on his mind, it worth mentioning heic> In one of 
fail ramblca in tbc ndghbovrhood, he coiercd, one winter'* ereninE, 
an 0U4 audi a> he thoa^it, ao aiualubiifd boute, aituute in a nacrav 
bye-laae in the ciiy of Cork. The houw wu without door* t* 
window*; but cnrioaity impelled him to ei»er, and, alter moaatio^* 
Touen itaimte, wbtcb conducted to eiunty ruomi on different iloon, 
he airiinl u the gactet, where be could juu diicctn, by the glimBCT' 
iog light of a few ember*, two old aad emaciated figitrc*, brokca by 
age. diiea*c, and want, altting betide each other, in the act, a* &r ai 
ilieii palsied efforts would permii, of tearing each otlicr** f»ces ; tut 
I word being uttered by cither, but with the tnoai horrible grimKo 
tbii malice could inrent. 'I'hey took no notice of ht* cniraoce, fitf 
went on with their deed* of mutual bale, which made auch ta 
impTCiaion on the boy that be ran down stair*, making hit iiwa 
reifeciionB, which he aiieiwarda found veri&ed through life, that na* 
and all aninulu nrc raaliciou* and cruel in proportion 411 tbey air 
impoieot ; and that age and porrny, two of the vota evils in hxmai 
life, almost always add to the calamiiics iohcrcni in them by ana ef 
their own creating. In general, his great desire to impeove hi* mind 
led him to seek the society of educated men : wbo were not averte n 
receive him, seeinK his active and iaquititivc diapotitioo, and hi* 
•ertounne** of nunntr, couched under a ^b tbc plaioeHaad coanmi 
for be adopted thi* kind of attire from hit childhood, tvot &01D 
affcciatian, but from an inditfcrcnce to all drcst. Haring a rctentira 
memoT)-, he profited by hi* own rcadiog, oxtd by the cottrersation of 
Other*, who directed him aim in the choice of book*. A* hi* 
finances were too low to make many parchaae*. he bonrowed book* 
from lu* friends, and was in tlie practice of making large extract* 
from such a* he particularly^ likedi aad tometime* eteii of copying 
out the whole book, of which wveral specimen* were iound among 
bit papers, written in a aiff tchool-boy** band. A* bii indiiatry wa* 
exceasive, his advance* b the acqui*itian of knowledge were rapid, 
and be was regarded a* a prodigy by bia Khool-fcUows. His mother 
414 





JAMES BAKUY 



being a ualoiu Catholic, ih« ton could noc avoid fniuog at times in 
the conipany oi pri««tt fMidnii at Cotk, wlw pointed out to him 
bouk* of polemical divinity, of which hv became a j[[i-at reader, and 
fui whtcli he (vtainvd a iiionft biai dufiag hi* lifeiirae. He wa* mkI 
•M one time lu have been dcttined for the prieithood, but for this 
report jtbcrc t> no ^luchorily. Hr, howcTcr, always continacd a 
Caihnlic, and in the decline of Hfc manifc«ted rather a bigoted 
attachment to the religion oi' his eatly choice. Foi a alion intcm] 
he had .1 little wavering in hia belief of rcrcalcd tcligton in general ; 
but a conrcraatioa wiib Mr. bdniund Durke put an end to tliis 
levity. A hook wbtch Mr. Burke lent him, and which icttled hia 
mind on tbii aubjeci, wan Biihop Butler'* jiimlogj ; and, at a niitablc 
reward, he hiut placed thii Prelate in the group of ditinn, ia hii 
picture of Elyiium. 

About the age of teventccn he first attempted oil p»nting>i and 
beiwecD that and the age of twenty-two, when lie llctt went to Dublin> 
he produced aeveral tatge onci, which decorated his father's lioutie, 
and rrpreteDted nibjecit not often handled by young men ; nicb aa 
^neas escaping with hi* family from the flamc); of Troy ; Suntnna 
and the Li1der> ; Daniel in the l.ion') Den, .Sec. At this period, he 
also protluccd the picture which firtt drew him into public notice, 
launched him on an ampler theatre thau his native town of Cork 
ntfordcd, and, above all, gained him the accjuaintance and pauonage 
,«( Mr. Buike. This picture wai founded on an o!d tradition of the 
landing of Si. Patrick 00 the se;i coast of Caabd, and of the con- 
version and bapiUtn of the king of that district by tbc patron taint oi 
Ireland. The priest, in the act of baptizing hi* new convert, 
inadvertently strikes the tpear of the crosier in the foot of the 
moDarch. The hoty lather, ab«otbcd in the dutic* of his office, doe* 
not perceive what he has dome, and tbc king, without inicmipting 
xhe ceremony, bear* tbc pain with immoveable fortitude. rbu 
iDcidtat, together with the gestures and cxprctaiona of the aitcndaflta, 
ccnmly formed a good tubject for an historical picture ; and Mr. 
Barry's manner of treating it wa* >uch as to insure him the applauac 
and admiration of the coonoiiscur* of the nicttopoli* of the *i«ter 
kingdom, where it wa* exhibited in 17A] or I'fij. Mr. Barry took 
this picture with him to Dublin ; and aftcrwardt going to the exbitn- 
tion room, being delighted with the encomium* it received from the 
sprctators, he could not refrain from making him«clf known as the 
painter. His pretensions were treated with great contempt by th« 
company, and Barry bum into tear* of anger uod vexation. But the 
incredulity of his hearers wa* a compbment paid to the real or 
nippoctd excellence of hi* pdntiog. It appears that a Dr. Sleigh, a 






ESSAYS ON THE FINE ABTS 



HiywcuaofCoct,Md<HBriUr inrf iiniilA i 
ii inirodacugf(wigBan7tetbcMXnflf Mr. Bvrfce. Dvwih* 
taiij Mf^auaamee, hmos hUra iMo a dwpwte im tfae ndiject ef a*, 
BwrjrqaoiBd a nmce is tmon of hfa cnUan &ob dte£««t«ifc 
&Mw«tf Am»ijM «hUi kad ben >M ^» IHdrfkbMl MOi^MM^ 
umI wluch Bury, in hia jraadAl adinnticM) of i^ liadf S (MM 
moBcrifanl e«if<e. Burke aStatxi is treat ifaia worfc n a dManaal 
ro MMB o e , of BO aMhority wbtnwEf, wfaicb thrrw Barry iMo wmk i 

r^c 10 it* dtfmet, ihu Mr. Borke tbooght it wj n m^ 

htm by owniBg iiimdf to be tbr anchor. T^ acsoc OOM ■ 
ikrry'i runinag to tmbnct Urn, aad (bowing bim tht eofj rfd( 
«ark which he had been at the aaiat n> trwMcribc^ He taaied !■ 
tone tn Doblm in taiSa^ drmm(, and Mxdety. Wh3e henattd 
here, on anccJote n prcaerwd of htin, wfaicb marka the charaOB it 
the man. He h>d Men rnoiccd by hia compaaaoiM •ereral tjon v 
carowiogf at a tairm. and one night, aa he wvKicrcd faena tf 
tumaelf, a ihcwgin nnick him of the Ai*otiiy and riciDWRMaa of ita* 
nua-apeadiajt hia time : tjie fault, br itiiagine«i, lay in fata lanaey, mi, 
thetvferret wiUrant more ado, in urder to avoid the aao r t u w** WMt 
tioa, be threw the whole of bii wraith, which prrhapa amTwrnfrif ta 
DO great nun, into the LiSej, and locked htmaclf ap at hta fi w oaitt 
pnrauita. AAtf a rewdence of ae««n or a^ nwtttbi in fTiilih ■ 
oppoftBaity offered oTacoomfMayn^aome tort of Btr. Buike'i&aif 
to LondoD, which he eagerly embnccd. Thia took place aone tiv 
in the year 1764, when be was twenty-three yeara of age, aad Mk 
one ofthoae advantagea which do not alwatr* fall to the lot of johj 
artiR* on their aitival in the B«ti*h cap*!^ that of bci^ leoo- 
mcoded to the acqnainanoe of the ■loatennmm men in the laiiriHiiii 
by th« pemasiK chRjuence of a nan wbo, to gcouia in hinaeU^ ttU 
the rare and aoble ({uaiity of encouraging it in otbera ; thia wm Mr. 
Burke, who lofl tw time, not ncrely in tnaking Barry ktMnra, boti* 
procBfin^ for him the firat of all object* to an inexperienced ad 
de«tit«le young aniu, eanktymcBi. Thu empjoytoent waa diic^ 
that of copyiDg in oil drawiaga by Mr. Stewart, better known b; the 
name of Athenian Stewart ; and whether it auiicd the inibiticNi if 
Barry or not, to be at thia kind of tabonr, yet thnc can be 00 do^ 
that he nrofited by hit coooectioi) with anch a man aa Stewan, <^ 
had full tciaure to cau hit ryr about, and to itnprore by the gaviai 
aapect of art and artitta that occuped the period. 

Mr. Burke and bia other frtendt thinking it important that be 
•hould be introduced to a wider aod nobler school of art than thai 
country a^ordcd, now came forwud with the mean* ni 1 1 wnj W 
Bccompliah thit object ; and in the htterend of i76{ Mr. Barryftf*- 

416 



JAMES BARRY 



receded to the Contiaent, wticte he remained till the begimiiiig of 
177 1 1 siudyiog his art with an enthuBiasm which teemed to aiuur the 
highest BucccM, snd makinfi ob«er«ation8 on the difTerent eitfj'auvrit 
of Itily with I'tjual tndi'pcuJrnce of juiIk""^"' "od cicely of dii- 
criminatioa. He won supported durin); thia ticriod by the friendly 
liberality of the Burke himily (Edinimil, William, and Richard), 
who allowed him forty poundB a-yc.ir for his occcuaty expendhartt 
buidei occasional remiitances for [larticular purposes. He proceeded 
firW to Paris, then to Rome, where he remained upwards of tlitee 
vearv, from thence to h'lorcRce and Bulogna, and home through 
Venice. Hie letters to the Burki-a, givinji an account of Michael 
Angelo, Raphael, Titian, aiid Leonardo da Vinct, *bow a cotcpleie 
insight into the charaoieiistic meriti of tbcir worka, and would roakc 
lu wonder (if the ca*c were at all lingular) how he could enter with 
•uch force, delicacy, and feeling, into cxcellencico of which he never 
traoflplanted an atom into hia own work*. He *aw, felt, and ^vrvit ; 
his impressions were profound and refined, but the exprcsftioo of them 
must be instanuneou^, tuch aa gave the ictult« of them with a stroke 
of the pen, a» they were received by a glance of the eye, und he 
could nut wait for the ilow proceax of the pencil for embodying hi« 
coDceptions in the nccewarv detail* of hit own ait. It waa his dciire 
to make the ideas and language of painting coinsiantancous, — to 
express abstract rctulta by abstract mechanical means (a thing tm- 
possible), — to aump the idea in his mind at once ujion the canvass, 
without knowledge of its pans, without labour, without patiecce, 
mthout a momeai's lime or thought iuier»toing between what he 
wi«hed to do and ttt being done, that was perhaps the principal 
obitacle to his ever attaining a dtgree of excellence in hi* profea«oo 
at ail proportioned either to his anibilioii or his genius. It is probable, 
that, a* hit band had not the patience to give the detaiU of objrctt, 
his eye, from the same habit of mind, had not the power to analyze 
them. It is possible, however, to tee the results without the same 
laborious process tliat is necessary to convey them ; for the eye tett 
faster than the hand can move. 

We suspect Mr, Barry did not succeed very well in copying the 
pictures he so well deacHbc* ; because he appears Co have copied but 
few, only one of Raphael, as far as we can lind, and three from 
Titian, whom he justly considered aa the model of colouring, and as 
more perfect in that department of the an than either Raphael or 
Michael Angelo were in theirs, expression and form, tlic highest 
excellence in which he conceives to have been [fosnessed only by the 
ancients. In copying from the antique, however, he manifetted the 
same aversion to labour, or to thai kind of labour which, by showing 

VOL. II.: lo 417 




1 

8 



I, 



If 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

u our defect*, oompeU m to mike exertiooa lo remedy thra. Re 
tiudr nil hin drawing (torn the antique, by means of i JeSaaOtr, t^ 
ii, a lucchanicil iaurumcBt, to Mve the trouble of acquiiiag t kne*- 
leiljte bothof fufm and ptopomon. In thu manner, equally ^rai^ 
In hit trxioleDce and hit wlf-Ime, he t* tuici] ui have nuiie m^a' 
IcM tkncbrt of (be antiquu cutao, of ajl MZe*, and tn tU Jini.iitii, 
carefully noting donnt on hi* •kctcb-pspcr ibeir •evcral n^MV^^ 
uidproportioni. 

The coatcquences *ie before w in hi* ptciurrsi nametr, tfat ll 

tbo*e of hi* fiKurct which lie took from thear ii nli^ m 

defideut in every thiajj but form, aod tliat aII the other* an eqsA 
deficient io form and every thing el*e. If he did not cnpin b 
pcDcU properly, of eooogh, in copying from the model* he tn,k 
timloyed hi* thoueht* and hi* pen about them with iodefit^^ l^ 
and spirit. He talked well nboct ibem; he wrote well about thca; 
he made rocarchci: into all the colUteral beanchca of art aad law^ 
)ed|tc, tculptuie, archiieciutc, cameo*, »ea]*, and intaglio*. Thee a 
a lonfi letter of hit, addmted to Mr. Burke, on the origin d & 
Guiliic style of archiieciiue, written, a* it ahould «e«ni, to comci 
hi* friend and patron of hi* itiduiKy io negtectiug hie proper bwDW- 
Sooa after bii arrival at Rome, he became embroiled with the «U 
trU)c of connointeur*, pai&tctt, and patron* there, whether utiK a 
foreign, on tub jccu of ivrrif ; and hecooiinued in this «tate of IwiSiF 
with thoie around him while he Raid thi-re, and, indeed, tOllxB 
of his life. One might be tempted to Kupjxwe th.-tt Bvry dalf 
studied his art as i lubject to employ hi* dialectic* upon. On ^ 
nafoitunatc disposition of hit to wranglin|; nod controrersy, a* it «ii 
likely to aAect hu piogreM in hi* art and hi* proj^re** in Gfe^ kr 
received name mou judidont adricc from Sir io»liua ReynDUn^ 
Mr. Buike, hii ansn-er* to which «bow an admirable tdf-icBoriKt- 
On hi* irritable dmuncialion* of the practices and trick* of ife 
lulian picture^dealrts Mr. Burke makes a reflection well daenE^ 
ofaitcolion. 'In panicuki, yov mar he 4**uied tjtat the trafic a 
antiquity, .ind all tJie en thuu aim, folly, and fr;tud, which mar h » 
it, nevrr tHJ, «or nevtr ean, iitrl lie mrrk of Gvittg arthti. Qmic ike 
contrary, in my opinioa ; for 1 haw ever observed, that, whatnci « 
be that turn* the mind* of men to anything relative to the art*, eva 
the most remotely to, briog* utitt* more and more into credit aa) 
repvtc; and though, now and then, the mere broker and dedn n 
Mdi thills runs away wiili ■ grot deal of profit, j-et, in the tA 
injienioiui men will fiad tliemteire* |;dners by the diauwitioR* wUdi 
arc nuufithcd and dilfuicd in the world by sach pursuit*.' Mr. Omtt 
pninted two pictures while abroad, hi* Adam and Eve and bi 

4iS 



JAMES BARRY 

PhiloctrCd. The Snt of thetc he cent home u a ipecunra of hit 
progmt in the art. It does not appear to have giicn much atttitc- 
tioD. Hia Philocteiea he brought home with hiro. It b s moK 
wcctchedi coine, uoclaMical [irtformance, the direct opposite of all 
that he tbouKht tt to be. Durtojt hn ttajr M Rome, he made an 
excunion tu Nuplc^s, nnd was hij^hly ddichicd with the collectioni of 
art there. AM the time he wu abtoxl, Mr. Burke and hit brothen 
not only were punctual in ihcir remittance* to him, but kept up a 
mo«t friendly and cordial correspondence. On one occsiion, owia^ 
to the delay of a letter, a btll which Barry had pre«en(ed (o a banker 
WIS diabonoured. This detained Barry for »ome time at the place 
where he wu in very awkw^ird circumst^mces, and he had thought* 
of getting rid of his chagrin and of his prospects in life at once, by 
running away and turning friar. For >ome time previous lo hi* 
return to England, Mr. Hamilton (aftcrwardn Sir Willi.im) appear* 
to have been almost the only pcrton with whom he kept up any 
intimacy. It was on his return home through Milan that he witne»setl, 
and has recorded with due reprobation, the detttuctioo of Leonardo's 
Last Supper, which two bunglinj; artiatt were employed to paint over 
by order of one Count de Ftrmian, the secretary of state. 

In the spring of 1 771, Mr. Barry arrived in England, after an 
abteocc of ^vc ye^r*. He soon after produced his picture of \'enus, 
which haa been compared to the Caktca of Raph^-l, the Veniu of 
Titian, and the Venus of Medici*, without reuon. Mr. Barry 
flattered himwif that he had suipsssed the famous statue of that 
oanse, by avoiding the appearance of mairrmij in it. There is an 
engraving of it by Mr. Valentine Gteco. lo 1 77 J, he exhibited his 
Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida, wliich was much pcaiM-d by some 
critics of that day. His Death of Geoeral Wolfe was considered as 
a falling o^ from his great ttyic of art, which consisted in painting 
Greek subjects, and it accordingly is taid to 'ha\'c obtained no 
praise.' His fondncM for Greek costume was lesigned by bis 
adniiren a* the cause of lus reluctance to paint portraitat a* >f the 
con was of more imporunce than the face, nn fastidiousnes*, in 
ibi* respect, and his fte<)ucnt excuses, or blunt refusals, to ^ on with 
a portrait of Mr. Burke, which he had begun, caused a misundcr- 
nanding with that gentleman, which does not appear to have been 
ever entirely made up. The diffctcnce between them it said to liave 
been widened l>y Burke's growing intimacy with Sir Jo«hua, and by 
Barry's feeling some little jealousy of ihe fiime and fortune of hi* 
tii-al in an bumblrr vioU of Iht art. He, about the wnie time, painted 
a pair of classical subjects, Mercury inventing the Lyre, and Narciisos 
looking at btmKlf in the water, the last wggested to him by Mr. 

419 




*f 



li 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

Bcrke. He also punted aa hiatorkal picture of Cbiruo and AchUlci, 
nod iuiotlicr of tht uory of Sttaioak«, for which I;ut the Uukc «f 
Richmond gx\c him a hundred guincat. In 1773, there was a pba 
io contcrnpLilion for i>ur ;inisi4 to decorate the inside of St. Pan!'* 
with bi«toiic«l and ucred nubjccu; but ihia pUn fell to the grooM^ 
from it! not meeting witli the coocurieacc of the I3ibhop of Louka 
and the ArdAubop of Cuti^tbury, tn the no *(naU monilicatiaa ol 
Batry, who had lixed npun the mbjnrt he was to puint, — the n^ctka 
of Chriit by the Jewi when PUatc (ffi>poK» hi* r«IcaM:. In 1775, l» 
published An Inqmymta iht rta! tuulimt^pmtryOl'ilrutiioiu talhijltat^ 
M/Mit afihi Am in Ei^lamJ, vindicating the capacity of the EngBih Ibr 
the line ant, and tracing their slow progrcM hitherto 10 the Refcran- 
taoo ; to political and civil diaMnnon* 1 and, Ufdy, 10 the gencnl txi 
of the public mind to mechumca, roantifacturcs, and commerer. Ifl 
the vear 1774, thortly after the ^hirc of the scheme of AittotW^ 
St. Paul'tf a propoaal wu made, through Mr. V&Jcotine Greco, to tk 
tame atUMs RcTnolda, Wctt, Cipriani, Barry, &c. fot omamentBf ihr 
grtat room of the Society for xhcEiKMm^tanHofjfru, MatmJ^tmu, 
and C«mmtrn, in the Adclpht, wiih liiworical and aUegorica) fW- 
ingi. Thit propotal waa at tbc time rejected by the artittt thc» 
tetvesi but, to 1777, Mr. Batry made an oilFer to point the whok 
himaelf, on condition of being allowed the choice of his aubjecu^ ml 
being paid the expense of canvasa, point*, and model*, by the Sodety- 
Thu olfcr was accepted, and he fioithcd the teriva of pictures ai the 
end of scvcD years, ioncad of two, which he had proposed to hiandt 
but with entire satisfaction 10 the nwmhera of tlic Society, fbf wfan 
it was intended, and who conducted themMl*cs to him with liberafiy 
tbroushout. They granted htm two exhibittoos, and at diffctos 
periods Totcd him 50 gtiineus, their gold tncdaJ, ukI again too 
guineas, and a seat among them. Dr. JohnsoD remarked, ^Axa k 
saw the |»cture*, that, ' whatever the band had done, the bead kaJ 
done its part.' There waa an excellent aDOOymotu criticiam.stifqioMi 
to be by Mr. Burke, publithcd on thetn, ia snswer to s»me remiifct 
put forth by Barry, in his desctiptive catatoj^e, on the i<{tal style ^ 
art, and the nccciaity of size to grandeur. Hit notions on both these 
subjects are very ably controTerted, and, indeed, they arc the rock oc 
which Barry's genius split. It would be curious if Mr. Durke were 
the author of these siriciurc* ; for it is not improbable that Barry cat 
led into the la»t error, here deprecated, by that aathor's £/mt «• (^ 
SiARnt and Brauri/ul. I'hc tcfiet cooslats of six picture*, shttwiag 
the progrest of human cuhtire. The first represents Orpheus f^iMig 
the savages by his lyre. The figure of Orpheus himaelf is bhm« 
like a drunken bacchanal than an inspired poet or Uwgtrer. IV 
4» 



^ 



JAMES BARRY 



I only pan of ih!i ptciure which u valuable t« the background, ip one 
I put of which » lion i* iccd ready to dan upon a family groop nulkiog 
nnr a ca*c, and, io sDOther, a tygcf is punuiii| a hone. There !• 
ccruifily a Kope of though! and inciuinquc isTcntioOr in thus ibow- 
iag tndirectly the protccuoo which cifiliution extend*, as it were, 
over both nun and animab. The KConJ picture i* a Gfccian burcH, 
which hat n»thtn{> Grecian in it. Bvl we cansot a|ipljr thb teamft 
to the third picture of the Olympic Game*, (omc of the ligurea id 
which, .-uid the principal group, are cxcee<UiigIy graceful, clacsical, 
and finely conceived. This picture it the only proof Mi. Bury ha« 
left upon C3a?ats that he vra not utterly itueosible to the beautiri of 
tlic an. The figure of the yuuit^ man on horK'buck really tcmiod* 
tlie spectator of some of the Klgin mirblen ; and tlie outlioci of the 
Iwo youthful victor* at the games, nipporting their father uo tfacir 
■houlderi, arc excellent. The colouring i*, however, at bald and 
wretched io (hit picture a« the re«t, and there ii a great want of 
expression. The foanh picture ii the triumph of commerce, with 
Dr. Burncy swimnuog in the Tliames, with hi* hair powdered, 
among naked tea-aymiiiht. The fifth, the Society of Arts, distributiag 
their annual priiea. And the lixth reprexenti Elyiium. Thie laM 
picture ii a collection of caricatured portrait* of celebrated individual* 
of all ago and nationn, Rtrangcly jumbled together, with a huge 
allegorical figure of Retribution driving Hereby, Vice, and Atheinn, 
into the infernal regions. The moral design of all the»c jnctute* i» 
much beOcT explained in the caialogoe than on the canva** s and the 
artjai has added none of tbe graces of the pencil to it in any of thcnt, 
with the exception dbove made. Mr. Barry appear*, however, to 
have leKted his preiensiona to finie as ae artiw oo this week, for he 
did little afierwarda but paltry engraTion firom hiinadr, and the 
enornioua and tutilhr wocthle** picture of Pandora in tbe aaKrobly of 
the god>. His self'dcnial, frugality, and foTtitiide, io the procccution 
of hj> work at tbe Adclphi, cannot be too much appboded. He has 
been heird to tay, that at the ttme of bt* undercaking tt, he bad oidy 
i6«. in hi* pocket i and that he had often been oUiged, alter punting 
all day, to tit up at Bi)ibt to sketch or engrave mme detiga for tbe 
priotsellers. which w to tupply him with hii next day'> tubtittence. 
Io thia manner be did hii prints of Job, dcdicatrtl to Mr. Buike, of 
the birth of Venus, Polcmon, Head of Chatham, Kine I. ear, from 
the picture puinicd for ihc Shaketpeai gallery, tec Hit prints ore 
caricature* even of hn picture* : they seem engraved on roties 
wood. 

Soon after Mr. Barry's teturn from the Continent, he was chosen 
a member of the Royal Academy; and in tjtit, was apposnied 



.1 

It 



ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 

prolcMot of ^aiming, in iIk room of Mr. Penny, whb a nlar; ef 
/■jo •■ycir. The Iccniici whicK be dclitcred from the chaa ww 
lull of wrong kqw, aod ittoog adTkcr boUi to the itadciKt ui 
acudetuicinn. Amoi^ otlin tlufig«i he tniitted much oo die Dceovf 
of purdiuing a callection of ^ictnrct by the bc« moatcn m moddi 
for the itiidcDi*, and ftopoted levcntl of thoic in the OrleaiH coDcc- 
tion. Thi* reooniiiwndatioD wm diK rdbhcd by the ii Mhiiiiii—. 
who, pcrbap*. thought ibcir own pcmm the best hkkIHb be that 
(enrral pnpl*. SkkcriDflSt jcakiuuM, aod quarrels aro«e, aad B 
Icngih rvMbcd mich > be^U, that, in 1799, Mr. Barry wu expdU 
froRi the Madenajr Mon ahtr the appeamtce of hia L^irr o d> 
DUttlanii Soatty^ a veir ammia^ but ecc«t»ric pubiicnkra, fitU ^ 
the highest enthuiiaHn (or hit art, aod the lowest coaternpi for U> 
living [irofcMort of it. In iHoo,he nndertook 3 desijpi or dravingw 
celebrate the anion of the two kin£doim of Grcjt Britain aad I rtio^ 
The prorus of the two cxhibiiioa* of the Adelplii picture* are wd ■ 
hare amouatHl 10 abofir j^JOO. Lord Komney presented ban «iib 
100 guinnt for hii portrait, which had hem copied into one cf ^ 
pictiirea, ui! Ik had twenty gtiincat for a bcitd of Mr. Hooper. Ht 
probably received other ntm* fat portraita introduced into the mk. 
By extreme frag^ity he coniriTcd, not only to live, but to am 
money. Hit hoiuc wat twice robbed of fiuns which be kept by Umi 
one of the times (in >794) of upward* of /^loo ; a lota whidi «■ 
made up by the munificcocc of Lord R^aor, attd by that of la 
frieDd*, the Holtit'i. After the Iom of hit salary, a subdcriptJaB «■ 
•et on foot by the Harl of Bachaa to relieve bim frotn hi« diAcohie^ 
and to *ettle him in a Larger huuM to fiaiih hii picture of Paodcn 
The cabtcription amonnted to jQiCoi, with which ^n aaooii* m> 
bought ; but of thia he was prevented Irom eti}oying the benefit t bi 
on the (tiii of February iKof), he was leiicd with r pkurtdc Une. 
ud M be neglected medical aisiMJuice at fir«, ii was afterwarda of W 
■w. After lingering on for a fortnight in coDEtderable pMi, \t* 
witlwut losing hit fortitude of mind, be died on the izd of tbrHnt 
nioath. On the ijih of March, the body was lukcn to the gm 
room of the Society oF An*, aod was thence anendrd, the totlowna 
day, by a nttmeroua and rrtpectabfe train of his friends to the Tit h w™ 
of St. Paul't, where it wai depotited. 

Mr. Ebrry, as an artin, a writer, and a man, was diatxagiailMd by 
great inc(]uaJity of powers and eittretnc coDtradicUona in clianaa. 
He was grois and refioed at the tame time; violent ami nrfmri 
lociabic and fallen t infiaminable and inert; ardent aiul phlenBtici 
relapsing from enthuinasnt into inkilence i irritable, beaclatroBE, ■»- 
patient of rcttraini; captious in bis inteicourae with fail frifftj*, 

4» 




ORIGINALITY 

wnvcring nnil desultory in hit prointion. In his pcnKtrutl habitu he 
was careless of appr.ifanceB or (icecncji penurious, tlorenly, -irul 
tqiulid. H« regained nothing but hia imiuciJijtic impulses, coniirmrd 
into incorrigible habits. I lis pencil waa under do control. His eye 
and his hand seemed to reccii-c a (ita rude impulse, to which it g*»e 
itwlf up, and paid no regard to any thing elie. The itrength of the 
original impetus only drove him farther from hii object. Hi* genitw 
constantly llcw otF in tnngcnti, and came in contact with nature only 
at salient points. There arc two tJmwings of his from statue* of a 
lion and a lioness at Rome ; the nose of the lioness is two straight 
lines ( the ears of the iion two curvet, which might be niistakeo for 
horns i as if, after it had taken in first direction, lie lost the use of 
his hand, and hi» tools worked raechantcaliy and nioDoionously with- 
out bii> will. Hii enthuiiasm and vijjour were exhauited in the 
conception ; the execution wai crude and abortive. Hii writing! are 
a greater acquisition to the art than hi> painiingt. The powers of 
confcrsation were what he most excelled in ; and the injiuencc which 
he exercised ia this way otet all companies where he came, in spite 
of the coarseneta of his dress, and the frequent rudciieH& of hit 
manner, was great. Take him for all in all, lie was a man of whoK 
memory it i* tmpociiblc to tliink without admiration as well at 
regret. 

I OKi tfiwauTv i jaoy conce ption of things, takenjjiuncdiatiJy from naWKt, 
I a pd n either borrowed fronij nor commcin to, other». To dciierve thi» 
f appellation, 'he copy must be both true and new. But herein lies the 
difficulty ot reconciling a seeming contradiction in ibe terms of the 
cxpLtnaiion. For as any thing to be naistnil must be referable to a 
cousistent principle, and a* tbc face of thinifs is open and tiimiliar to 
all, how can any imitation be new and striking, withimt being liable 
to the charge or extravagance, distortion, and singularity ? And, on 
the other hand, if it has no such peculiar and distinguishing character* 
istic to set it off, it cannot possibly rUc above the le\'cl of the trite and 
common- place. This objection would indeed hold good and be un- 
answcrablei if nature were one thing, or if the eye or mind compre^ 
hcnded the whole of it at a single glance i in which case, if an object 
had been once seen and copied in the most ctirsory and mechanical 
way, there could be no farther addition to, or variation from, this idea, 
without obliquity and affectation; but nat ure prcscnu an endlcsi 



ORIGINAHTV 




ESSAYS ON THE FINE ARTS 



TWiety of Mp ecti, of wtucti the mind Beldotn lakes in mow tliu i 
put or QunoDe'view at a ttine; and it i*_>o_i¥i2io£oc|tUs nan- 
plored nxiety, and gmog come ooc of tltete nrw but «m^~t«coginMd 
ItaiurM, in its ckaractnimic cttcDce, and stccordine to the pecidiir 
bnt nd forc« of tlir aniit'l g«iiu«, thai iiur onginalitt couiBi. 
RoMMBT, whca lir wai fim ntroduccd into Sir Ju!ihua's gufefy, «id, 
* th«Te wai KOninhinf; in hi* portraiu which had been oever sets ii 
the an bdbte, but which every one muM be *uuclt with a* ttvc ad 
luinrAl the moment he taw it.' Thit could Dot happen if the fanmD 
face did not ndmii of being coMctnpIaied in •enrral points oif new. 
or if tbc hand weic oeccMariJy faithful to the sufrf^esticoM of koik 
Two things MFic to perplex this ijnndiMi ; lint, the cooMniccioa of 
IkogiugCt from which, m one object ii rcpreaeoced by one wortl, «t 
inu^ne that it is odc ihin^, and that we caa no more cotxmt 
d iffer cn d y of tlie nrae object than wv can pronouoce the ante «ari 
in difierenl ways, without being wroag in all but one of thdo; 
aecondly, tbc very oature of our individual imprcKaioiu puta a decep- 
tioo upon at ; for, as we know no more of any giren object than wr «c, 
wr Tery pardonably conclude (hat we sec the whole of tc, and hix 
cxfasMUd inquiry at the liiu riew, fince we can never luiipect ik 
cxilttMe of that which, from our t^ooraoce and incapacity, gm* « 
no iniimation of ittetf. Tbua, if wl- ;ire thown an exact likroewofs 
&cc, we give the artiat credit cbieHy fot dexterity of hand ; we t^i fft 
that any one who hat eyrt can tee afaie ; that one person tee* it j«l 
lilte another, that there can be no mlsiake about it (as the object and 
the image arc in out Doiioo the same) — and that if there i* lOt 
departure from our version of it, it must be purely (aotastical at 
ar^nry. Jifii/iiim ai/iuSi im<^. We do not look beyond tj« 
surface i oi rather we do not tee bto the lurface, which coataint * 
labyrinth of difficulties and di«t!oc(iciD4, tbatbot oil tlic efTccuu£^an> 
of time, jiaticDCCi and. >tnHy,-caa. nustei and uafQl^. But let » 
uke thii lelfevidau frofai^ofi, the human face, and examine k a 
little I and we shall soon be coDvincol what a Preteut, what on inat- 
plicable riddle it is I Ask any one who thinks lie has a perfect kk* 
of the face of his friend, what die shape of his nose or atiT OiIkt 
feature is, and he will prnently fed bt« mistake; — mk a lom le 
draw hit 'miitren' eyebrow,' it is not merely that hti hand will nil 
him, but hi* memory in at fault both for the form sad cokntr • he mart 
indeed, dream, and tell you with the poet, that 



* Grace U in all her it(ps hraren in her cjre. 
In erery gesture, disnity and kwe ' i — 



bnt if he wishes to embody his favourite conceit, and to coanncr aoy 






4>+ 



ORIGINALITY 



one clac oF all tht* by proof ponitivc, he muat borrow the painter'* akL 
When i youDg anitl lir« begins to nuke a ttudy from a hexlt it u 
well known (hut he ba» toon done, bccaniic lEicr he hot got io t 
cenain general outliae and rude maMes, as the foreheadi the dok, the 
moutli, Uic eyes in a gener^ w:ty, be sees no fanher, acd is obliged 
to slop ; he feels in truth that he has made a Tvry indttferent copVi but 
ii quite at a loss how tii supply the delect — after a few months or a 
year or two's practice, if he has a real eye fni riature anil a turn for 
hit) an, he can spend whole day* in working up the sraallcn detaib, 
in correcting the proportions, in softening the gradations; and does 
not know when to leatc off, till night closer in upon him, and then he 
tits musing and gazing in the twilight at what remains for his next 
day's work. Sir JoiHua Rkvmolds used to say, that if he did not 
linish any one of his pictures till he saw nothing more to be done to 
it, be should never leave off. Titiah wrote on his picture), /o»«^ 
— as much as to say that